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Professor Latimxb, Boston University, Boston, Him. 


Re?. Biohaxd Whratlxt, Katonah, N. Y. 


Be?. Hbmby J. Fox, DJX, WUbraham, Mass. 


Be?. B. H. Badley, A.1L, Lacknow, India. 


Be?. B. Baisas*, Omemee, Ontario, Canada. 


Be?. J. N. Fsadkvbubqb, PhJX, Greenville, Pa. 


Be?. H. Lubhabt, DJX, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


FoBinojr Bxuoious Intelligence 150 

Foreign LrrxRABY Intelligence , 154 

Quabtxbly Book-Taslk 157 


HENRY B. BA8COM, D.D., LL.D 205 

Be?. W. H. Milbuxw, New York. 


The late Professor Tatlb* Lewis, Schenectady, N. Y. 


Be?. Bicoabd Whxatlkt, Katonah, N. Y. 


Professor 8. D. Hn.nfiw, PhJ>., Bahway, N. J. 

Be?. J. N. FnaoxirBirao, Ph.D., OreenTille, Pa. 


Be?. Daniel Cuebt, D.D m New York. 

Be?. J. W. Yoinfo, Sprinf Valley, N. T. 


Foexioh Rxuaious Intxllioknox 864 

Foexioh Lftxkaxy bmLuanrox 868 

QftASTttLY Boox-Tablx. 871 





Buy. William V. Kbllby, Brooklyn, N. T. 


Rev. Abel Stbybns, LL.D., Parte, Franoe. 

Key. J. O. A. Clabee, D.D., Macon, Ga. 


Key. Daniel Wise, D.D , Knglewood, N. J. 


Bey. J. H. Potts, M.A., Detroit, Mich. 


Rey. Danibl Cubby, D.D., New York. 


Rey. Ovid Mink*, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Synopsis of the Quarterlies 541 

; Foreign Religious Intelligence 564 

Foreign Literary Intelligence 567 

Quarterly Booe-Table 669 



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8. G. Arnold, Esq., Washington, D. C 


Rey. A. C. Gbobgs, D.D., Chicago, 111. 


Rey. W. W. Bennbtt, D.D., President of Randolph Macon College, Ashland, Va. 


Rey. John Porous*, Indianapolis, Ind. 

THE OPIUM TRAFFIC IN CHINA. [First Abticle] 698 

Rey. 8. L. Baldwin, D.D., Nyaok,N. Y. 


Key Edward Thomson, A.M., President of Nebraska Conference Seminary, York, Neb. 

Synopsis or the Quarterlies 728 

Foreign Religious Intelligence 746 

Foreign Literary Intelligence 750 

Quarterly Book-Table 753 


v . M. B. 



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Quarterly Keview 

JANUARY, 1883. 

Aet. I.— duns scotus. 

Duns Scotts, the Doctor Subtilis of Scholasticism, is the least 
known of the great lights of the Middle Ages. Keally it may 
be said of him, Stat nominis umhra. While Thomas Aqui- 
nas, the darling of the Romish Church, is every-where ex- 
tolled, and his writings have been commented on in every age, 
till they seem submerged beneath the weight of his expositors, 
Scotus has had but little sympathy outside his school, and but 
few competent historians of his doctrine. Erdmann's account 
of him, though brief, is comprehensive, and Hitter's exposition 
is one of his best pieces of work. Haureau, with his brilliant 
dash, gives but a travesty of Ids doctrine. Stockl, with his 
sturdy German honesty, does him fair justice, though devoting 
only ninety pages to Duns, and over three hundred to Thomas. 
The French writers, Cousin, Rousselot, and others, fail to ap- 
preciate him fitly, with the single exception of Morin in his 
Dictionary of Scholastic Theology and Philosophy. None of 
the Church historians do him justice, with the exception of 
Baur, both in his Church History and History of Doctrines. 
Last year (1881) Dr. Karl Werner wrote a book of 512 pages, 
8vo, devoted to his system, but in language so scholastic and 
so completely a transfer of Duns' own modes of expression, 
that it is about as easy to read the barbarous original as Wer- 
ner's Exposition. Certainly it is not likely to make Scotus 
Foubth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 1 

6 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

any better known than before. His name, which signifies 
darkness in Greek, has been the occasion of many a pun, while 
his cognomen has given us the word dunce, as if his very sub- 
tilty were an indication of the want of intellectual vigor — 
" dark by excess of light." 

John Duns Scotus was probably born in the year 1274, in 
the village of Dun or Dunum, whence his name. Scotus points 
to the country of his birth ; but as Ireland as well as Scotland 
is indicated by the term, it is not absolutely certain which was 
his native land. Still Scotland seems to have the preference, 
in accord with the inscription on his tomb : 

" Scotia me genu it, 
Anglia me suscepit, 
Gallia me doc nit, 
Colooia me tenet." 

It is narrated that he was dull in his boyhood, and had no 
aptitude for learning. Tradition tells us that the future cham- 
pion of the Immaculate Conception of Mary called upon the 
mother of God to illuminate his mind, and that amid his tear- 
ful struggles he fell asleep. The virgin mother appeared to 
him and promised the gift of learning on condition of his 
faithful service in her cause. This was the beginning of a 
new intellectual life. 

"We know not when he became a brother of the Minorite 
Order, nor yet the course of his early studies. At all events 
we find him in Oxford, England, before 1300, and in Merton 
College. Amid the dearth of information regarding his fa- 
vorite studies, we learn that he was especially devoted to 
mathematics, and that about 1300 he was called to the Chair 
of Theology vacated by his master. It was at Oxford that he 
wrote his Commentary on the Sentences of Lombard, making 
six volumes of his collected works. In 1304 we find him in 
Paris, whither he was called to hold a public disputation on 
the subject of the claims of Mary, and as a champion of the 
Franciscan Order. It was in this contest too that he won his 
title of " Subtle Doctor," at the suggestion of Pope Clement V. 
or of the Bishop of Paris. The chivalric knight of the honors 
of Mary was often called Doctor Marianus. It was at Paris 
that he wrote the Heportata, a new Commentary on the Mas- 
ter of Sentences, less full and valuable than the Oxford work. 

1883.] Duns Scotus. 1 

This is known as the Paris work, and occupies one of his folio 

Tie left Paris in 1308 for Cologne. It is uncertain on what 
mission he went thither, in obedience to the rescript of Gon- 
salvi, the general of the order. It was certainly in the interest 
of the Franciscans, and probably to meet the growing fanati- 
cism cf the Beguines and the Apostolic Brothers, who then 
b wanned at Cologne. We encounter a Significant feature of 
the discipline of the Minorite Order when we read of the 
unhesitating obedience with which Scotus obeyed the com- 
mands of his chief. The letter was handed him as he was 
taking recreation in the vicinity of Paris, with his pupils 
around him ; but he girded himself for his journey without 
returning to his convent. In answer to the suggestion that 
he should return to Paris and bid adieu to his friends, he an- 
swered, " The general father orders me to go to Cologne, not 
to the convent in order to salute the brethren." 

At Cologne he expounded the Sentences of Lombard, de- 
fended the Thesis of the Immaculate Conception, and fought 
the heretical sects with all his powers. 

But the end was near. Before the year 1308 had passed 
away he died suddenly, at the age of thirty-four. He was 
buried in the Franciscan Convent, at the entrance of the sa- 
cristy, near the altar of the Three Kings. 

The report has gone forth, and it has really great proba- 
bility, that he was committed to the tomb in an epileptic fit. 
"When consciousness returned, finding himself in darkness, and 
abandoned to his terrible fate, he tore the flesh from his hands 
and dashed his head against the walls of his tomb. According 
to the declaration of more than one writer, he was foun>d as 
thus described, stretched out on the pavement of his tomb. 
His foes declared that he must thus have expiated some terri- 
ble crime unknown to the world. His friends put quite an- 
other face upon the matter. He had long been subject to the 
falling sickness, at which times he was unconscious for many 
hours. Having been so short a time in Cologne among stran- 
gers, and his disciples having found him one day stiff and cold, 
as in death, they mourned over him as really dead, and accord- 
ingly placed him in the tomb. His friends say still further 
that these trances, to which he was subject, were the issue of 

8 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

his holy life, for in these ecstasies his soul took flight to the 
skies and basked in the mysteries of God. 

The curse of Shakspeare upon the man who should move his 
bones might well have been adopted by Scotus, for his remains 
were disinterred five times in 400 years. 

These traditions of his sanctity are not necessarily inconsist- 
ent with the impetuosity of the man, which is betrayed every- 
where in his writings. It seems difficult, however, to conceive 
of him as playing the quietistic rdle or wrapt in ecstatic visions. 
Yet experiences of his are related similar to that of Catharine 
of Sienna, who wore on her finger the espousal ring given her 
by the Holy Child. 

Certainly he clung to his vow of poverty and exemplified 
humility even in dress and bearings. A Latin verse speaks of 
him as 

" Quern vestia vilis, pes nudua, 
Et chorda corounnt." 

When on his way to Cologne a crowd went forth to greet 
him, the magistrates of the city among them. They met a 
man, clad in the gray robe of the Franciscans, old and tat- 
tered. His naked feet and his low estate moved their pity 
and called forth alms. What was their surprise to discover 
that they had fallen in with the world-renowned Duns 1 It 
casts a light upon the university life of those days to read of 
his encounter with one of his great contemporaries. One day 
at Paris, amid the crowd of his auditors, he remarked a man of 
unprepossessing appearance, and covered with rags. He did 
not seem to be en rapport with the discourse of the master. 
He muttered his disapproval of the argument, and at a crucial 
poinjt of the discussion shook his head in absolute denial. 
Scotus noticed this, and 6ought to humiliate him by a simple 
question in grammar. So singling him out, he proposed this : 
Dominus, qumpars f that is, What part of speech is Dominus? 
Instantly came back the retort, Dominus non est pars, sed to- 
turn. The master saw by this that here was a diamond in the 
rough, and after his lecture he invited the stranger to con- 
verse with him on the divine mysteries. The results of this 
conversation were afterward embodied in the treatise, Domi- 
nus, qucs pars t for the stranger was no less a man than Ray- 
mond LulL 

18S3.] Duns Scotus. 9 

Dans is said often to have tried his hand at argument with 
the common people, of which we have one instance at least. 
One day in England he encountered in a field a peasant sowing 
barley. Angry at being obliged to labor he vomited forth 
frightful oaths, while the great scholar called his attention to 
the ten commandments. In vain, for the rustic replied, " You 
lose your time in talking to me. The will of God will come 
to pass, since he knows from eternity what will become of me. 
Well, then, if he has resolved to save me or to damn me, it 
matters not what I do, for I shall go to the place appointed, be 
it heaven or be it hell." Scotus now turned the tables upon 
liim by this retort : " If God has, as you believe, imposed from 
all eternity such a necessity upon things, why do you trouble 
yourself to sow grain in your field I If God has determined 
that this barley shall grow here, whether you sow it or not, it 
will nevertheless grow. If, on the contrary, he has deter- 
mined that it shall not grow, whatever you may do, it will 
never sprout from the earth." Whether this story be true or 
not, it is certainly in the spirit of Duns Scotus. As the Ital- 
ian proverb has it, " If it is not true, it is well invented." 

The Subtle Doctor left behind him twelve folio volumes, 
edited in 1639, mainly by Luke Wadding. His works are rare, 
there being no copy of them in Boston, to my knowledge, and 
one must needs make a pilgrimage to Cambridge to find them 
in the library of Harvard University. Besides these published 
works he left numerous commentaries on the Scriptures. He 
wrote on most of the books of the New Testament and on 
some of the Old. Besides, he left an ecclesiastical work on the 
Perfection of States, and some books on alchemy. Were 
all his works published, they would, it is likely, reach the 
number which Thomas wrote — seventeen volumes folio— and 
he lived fifteen years longer than his great antagonist, dying 
in the year in which Scotus was born. What amazing fertility 
of thought and what boundless capacity for work is shown in 
such a library left by a young man of thirty-four years of age ! 

If we seek now to give a general view of the work of Duns, 
we shall see that his industry was guided by a philosophic 
interest rather than a theologic. Of course the latter is not 
ignored, and he seeks to keep within Church lines. Had he 
not made theology his main business he would not have been 

10 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

a Scholastic. The industry of Scholasticism is directed to a 
vindication of the doctrine of the Church, and philosophy is 
used for this purpose. But philosophy is the maid of theolo- 
gy, the Hagar who may be banished into the wilderness if 
need be, whose work is ancillary ever. Show, if possible, the 
harmony of faith and reason, but if there be any parallax, 
philosophy musf step aside. 

Now the work of Duns Scotus was mainly philosophic. 
He fixed his attention upon the system of vindication rather 
than the doctrine itself. The philosophic forms which had 
gathered around theology, properly so called, gave scope for 
his criticism and a wide field for his subtilty, making him ap- 
pear, as Wadding says, like a new (Edipus. lie philosophized 
upon the scholastic philosophy rather than upon the scholastic 
theology. Erdmann and others have called attention to this. 
Albert and Thomas reflected on doctrine ; Duns reflects upon 
this reflection, sifts the reasoning of his predecessors, and drives 
a coach and four through their lacunae. In Thomas, scholasti- 
cism reached its consummate flower, the ideal which Albert 
never attained. Scotus summons scholasticism to see what she 
has done, and picks out the artificial petals of the lily of the An- 
gelic Doctor. The chasm then between theology and philoso- 
phy still yawned before Scotus, for the substructions of the 
bridge which St. Thomas had constructed were not laid in the 
nature of things. Scotus, then, forms the transition between 
the old and the new, between medievalism and modern thought, 
lie builded wiser than he knew, for from him has started the 
better philosophy, whose hour struck with Descartes. Walter 
Burleigh and William of Occam were without doubt among 
his hearers. Occam is the watershed from which begins the 
flow of modern philosophy. He is the outcome of Scotus, of 
the same Franciscan Order. Besides, the Formalists, as they 
were called who were of the school of Scotus, by natural and 
easy transition passed into the Nominalists, of whom Occam 
was chief. William was no such extravagant Nominalist as 
Boscellin, to whom Universals were words, and nothing more, 
but stands quite on the platform of that sober nominalism 
which marks modern philosophy. Roscellin was a Nominalist 
of the school of Hobbes and Bain, while Occam has great af- 
finities with Leibnitz and Lotze. To see the full outcome of 

1S82J Duns Scotua. 11 

Scotus we need often to pass down to Occam, and even to 
Nicholas of Cusa and Bruno. 

The actual result of Scotus' work is in most respects nearer 
the truth than that of Aquinas. He really breaks with scho- 
lasticism, and yet hesitates to draw the ultimate consequences. 
He stands on the brink of a great discovery, and yet shrinks 
back from the promulgation. Hence the contradictions to be 
found in his system. No exposition of scholastic doctrine is 
complete which stops with St. Thomas. It must also present 
the view of Scotus. Generally, when the latter takes issue with 
the former he is right, enlarging the scope of mediaeval doc- 
trine and emancipating thought. Scotus* errors lie close to 
his grandest thoughts. He is the knight-errant of freedom in 
both God and man. There lias never been a more uncom- 
promising statement of freedom than Scotus makes, and yet 
the modern advocates of the doctrine seem strangely ignorant 
of his work. But in this field lie also his errors. In almost 
every case his deficiencies grow out of a one-sided apprehen- 
sion of divine and human freedom. 

Let us now pass on to special applications of Scotus* doc- 
trine, whereby may be seen the truth of these general asser- 
tions : 

1. Consider the transformations undergone by the scholastic 
doctrine of matter and form under the hand of Scotus. The 
scholastics inherited the traditions of Aristotle. All their 
thinking was concerned with the charmed rubrics of form and 
matter, of actuality and potentiality. The lowest stage of be- 
ing, or first matter, was considered as wholly destitute of form, 
and the highest, or God, was destitute of matter, for he was 
punts actus. All between these extremes was compounded 
of matter and form. But really matter without form cannot 
exist, for Thomas says : " First matter does not exist in the 
nature of things by itself, since it is not being actually but 
potentially." So also, true to the peripatetic thought, he says, 
44 Form is that by which the agent acts." 

Not so Scotus. He denies that matter is a mere potence, 
which, apart from form, has no actual being. Rather must we 
ascribe to it a being apart from form. Though always in jux- 
taposition with form, it has its being as matter not from form, 
but from the divine creation. Matter, even as the principle of 

12 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

passivity in an essence, must be something actual, else it could 
not be distinguished from form, and no composite could arise. 
It may be indefinite, but it is a divine creation without form 
and before form. In fine, he declares that matter has the en- 
titative act in itself, and not in form. We may scout this 
whole mode of argumentation, but on the plane of scholasti- 
cism it was an advance to something better. At all events it 
was a break with the system thus shaken to its base. 

Again, Thomas had declared that matter in the heavens and 
on the earth is not the same. In the sublunary region, change 
rules, or generation and corruption ; but these are excluded 
from the realm of the heavenly bodies. 

This again Scotus denied. Matter is the 6ame every-where, 
and it may be studied in the light of the same laws throughout 
the universe. Matter, said he, may be predicated of all cre- 
ated things univoce. According to his graphic picture, " the 
world is a beautiful tree, whose root and germ is first matter, 
whose leaves are accidents, whose boughs and branches are 
corruptible creatures, whose flower is the rational soul, and 
whose fruits are the angels." In another form Sc tus repre- 
sents matter as the common root from which go forth two 
boughs, the spiritual and the corporeal creature, each again 
splitting into various twigs, the spiritual into angels and hu- 
man souls, the corporeal into corruptible and incorruptible 
bodies. To assert, with Thomas, that the matter of the heaven- 
ly bodies is diverse from that on earth, was in the spirit of the 
Ptolemaic system of astronomy : to assert the identity of mat- 
ter every-where is to bring it under the sway of universal laws, 
is to anticipate Nicholas of Cusa, who asserted the motion of 
the earth before Copernicus. 

Once more, Thomas declares that the soul is the form of the 
body. It stands related to it as form to matter, as actuality to 
potentiality. Independent validity is denied to the body, 
whose activity seems to come wholly from the soul. Such, at 
least, is the trend of the Thomist doctrine. Now Scotus brings 
in something entirely new. There is a substantial form of the 
body as such, a form by which the body exists as organic body. 
This Scotus calls the form of corporeity or the form of the 
mixed. Thus the organic body is conditioned by another form 
than the soul. Thus body and soul are extricated from that 

1883.] Duns Scotus. 13 

thorough interpenetration which they had in the scholastic 
thought, and assume a sort of independence of each other. 
It did not take long for this separation in thought to make 
"way for a new science and to disentangle physiology from 
psychology, which absorbed all before. In fact, all these dis- 
tinctions regarding matter, giving it a validity apart from 
form, indicate the passage of metaphysics from the idea of 
substantial forms to that of force, which is the modern notion. 
The Possest of Nicholas of Cusa and the Monad of Bruno are 
but stages in the progress from Scotus to Leibnitz. 

Turn now to the position of Duns Scotus upon the question 
of Universals. It has been said by Haureau, in his " History 
of Scholastic Philosophy,'' that Scotus was more of a realist 
than Thomas. Haureau represents him, in fine, as adding to 
the scholastic refinements and realizing vastly more abstrac- 
tions than had ever been done before. Erdmann tells us that 
there was no difference, on the question of universals or gen- 
eral ideas, between Thomas and Scotus, save that the latter 
declared them to exist formally in things. Still he does not 
seem to weigh this distinction properly, for the formalities of 
Scotus play a significant role in his system. To the question, 
Are Universals real or only abstractions from things ? is, for 
instance, humanity a reality or only an abstraction from exist- 
ent men? Albert and Thomas and Scotus all were agreed. 
Their answer was, Humanity exists as an archetype in the 
divine mind, as they said, before things — as the quiddity or 
essence in things — as an abstraction from them in our thought, 
after things. Thus, as Erdmann says, Scotus has left the con- 
tention between Realist and Nominalist behind him. The exact 
distinction between Thomas and Scotus, or the Realists and 
Formalists, was this. The Realists held to a twofold distinction, 
the real distinction and the mental. In this latter there was a 
further distinction, namely, purely mental and virtual ; that is, 
without foundation in the thing, and with foundation in the 
thing. Universals, then, they held, were based upon a mental 
distinction, but with a foundation in the thing. 

Now, the Formalists made a third distinction, lying between 
the real and the mental, namely, the formal. They called it 
** a distinction from the nature of the thing." It is less than the 
real, but more than the mental distinction. Thus, they said, in 

14 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

actuality there are not only things but formalities. According 
to Scotus, "nature itself is of itself indifferent to universal 
and individual being." The individual is a unity which is 
incommunicable, but the universal is a unity which may be 
participated in by many individuals. 

The comparative insignificance of the question of Universals 
to Scotus is seen in the fact that he devotes to it only seven 
or eight pages of his twelve folio volumes. That he is not an 
extreme Realist, as Ilauneau asserts, is evident from his own 
words. Thus he says, " The universal, in so far as universal, is 
nothing in existence ; " and again, u Universality or the not 
this, attaches to nothing except in the intellect." All his com- 
mentators, from Lvchetus to Wadding, assert as his view that 
u the universal does not exist on the part of the thing." Be- 
sides, the Scotists generally had a warm side toward the Nom- 
inalists. It is true Mayronis pushed the realist doctrine to an 
extreme, but Peter Aureolus, of his school, immediately after 
found the way to nominalism. 

The doctrine of formalities, then, played an important part 
in the system of Scotus. The exigency of the Trinitarian 
doctrine first called it forth. The persons of the Trinity, he 
said, were formalities, thinking thus to save the dogma of the 
Church. But it is evident that this whole doctrine of formal- 
ities is an utter break with scholasticism, which ever clung to 
matter and form as exhaustive of reality. Here was a new 
entity placed in the bosom of things. It needed only Occam 
to come into the tangled scholastic forest, and, with his hatchet 
of parsimony, to cut away all unnecessary entities. 

Scotus may not be consistent with himself, but his utterances 
may be made harmonious with the essential truth of realism, 
which is this. Universals give us in outline the norm of the 
Divine procedure in creation. As Agassiz states it in refer- 
ence to the animal kingdom,* " in tracing (the natural system) 
the human mind is only translating into human language the 
Divine thoughts expressed in nature in living realities." 

3. Let us pass now to the central question of Scotus, the 
principle of Individuation. "Which is the truly real, the uni- 
versal or the singular, the genus or the individual? The 
main question of realism lay behind Scotus, as we have seen ; 
but how does he explain the individual ? The question of In- 

1883.] Duns Scotus. 15 

dividuation was one which occupied all the scholastics, and 
whose answer in Scotus opened the way through the forest of 
abstractions, and disclosed the path of modern science. 

Abelard had said, each individual is composed of matter 
and form. The matter of Socrates is humanity, the form is 
Socratitas. Form in general, then, is the individuating princi- 
ple with Abelard. Thomas made matter to be this prin- 
ciple, matter designated by certain dimensions, by the here 
and the now. For Socrates we must say this flesh and these 
bones, not flesh and bones absolutely. The current expression 
in the school was " matter quantitatively determined/' 

Now comes Scotus, and changes all this, introducing a de- 
structive factor into the system. The principle of individua- 
tion cannot be matter, for this is generic, and individuality 
must come from elsewhere. It cannot be a negation or a de- 
ficiency, as matter is according to the Thomist view, but must 
rather be something positive and a perfection. The individual 
unity must be grounded in a positive entity, which is added to 
the generic nature. Now, this positive entity cannot be a 
mere accident like quantity, according to Thomas, but, as form 
to matter, it contracts the species to individual being. Thus, 
in general, form plays the role of individuation in the Scotist 
system ; and its principle is " the last reality of form." Never- 
theless, this last element is not to be considered a thing added 
to the species as another thing, but it is " the last reality of 
being." To this ultimate element Scotus himself, in one place 
at least, gives the name Hoecceitas^ and his scholars commonly 
use this term. Hsecceity, then, or thisness, is to Scotus the 
principle of individuation. But the individual form is not 
distinguished from the specific, as thing from thing; rather 
the distinction is between two realities of the same thing. 
Here, again, comes in his doctrine of formalities, for it is a 
formal distinction. Scotus thus shows again that the rubrics 
of matter and form are not sufficient to account for individual 
being. He virtually introduces a new substantial principle in 
the line of form, which yet is the last reality of being. Thus 
the question of Universals is of but little consequence to Sco- 
tus, compared to that of the individual. It is true he does 
not draw out the full result of this great innovation. Of 
the essential and the individual, Thomas emphasizes only the 

16 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [January, 

essential. Occam holds only to the individual. Scotus, in 
holding to both, and with persistency to the latter, breaks up 
scholasticism, and gives us to see in the distant perspective of 
the future the modern idea of force as substantial. The hsec- 
ceity of Scotus is the precursor of this notion through Nicholas 
and Bruno and Leibnitz. 

Through this apergu of Scotus the light broke in upon Peter 
Aureolus, who said, Every thing actual is, as such, individual ; 
also upon Durandus, who said, The primal cause whioh gives 
being to the thing, gives it, eo ipso, individual being. Occam 
but repeated this in saying, that being and individual being are 

The significance of the question of Individuation to Leibnitz 
may be seen in the fact that he wrote a dissertation on the 
subject quite early in his career, and thereby gained his Bac- 
calaureate. He criticises Scotus, it is true, who was bound in 
the hamper of scholasticism, and held on to matter and form. 
Leibnitz broke with them utterly, and hence his dictum on this 
question is essentially the same with Aureolus and Occam : 
" Every individual is individuated by his whole entity." The 
entelechy of Aristotle becomes the monad, and the substantial 
forms of the scholastics become forces. 

4. A great advance of thought is seen in Scotus' doctrine of 
God. Thomas had never succeeded in freeing himself from 
the apprehension of the Divine as substance. To him God is 
absolute being. Thought and will are only subordinate factors 
in the divine essence. Being thus, not necessarily conceived 
as spirituality, is the very heart of the Divine Essence. He 
has not disentangled himself from the notion of the Pseudo- 
Dionysius of the essential incognizability of God, for no predi- 
cates are applicable to him. God can be known only by dim 
and distant reflection of the external world. Thus the emphasis 
of the transcendence of God leads to a representation of him, 
after the spirit of Spinoza, as the absolute substance, in relation 
to which all other things and beings are but accidents. The 
immanence of God in the human soul, by which knowledge of 
God and communion with him are mediated, is ignored. As 
he then is the only true being, all definite existence is a mode 
of the Divine Substance. The solvent word with Aquinas is 
participation. The creature participates in being. Even the 

1883.] Bum Scotus. 17 

bad, so far as it is anything real, comes from God. Bnt since 
it is a defect, a limit, it does not come from the Divine Cau- 
sality. The line which divides such a course of thought from 
Pantheism, it is evident, is hard to be drawn. 

Now, in marked contrast with all this, Scotus emancipates 
himself from the notion of substance as applied to God, and 
represents him mainly as cause. His three primalities in God 
are first cause, final cause, and perfect being, which imply 
each other. The highest efficient cause must work for itself 
as end, and thus will be the perfect being. This absolutely 
perfect being must be one. From this he proceeds to show 
that it is infinite, then absolutely simple, no combination of 
potentiality and actuality. So Scotus eliminates the category 
of substance as relates to God, and is thoroughly in earnest 
with the notion of cause. Substance is an inadequate thought. 
God must be considered as subject. Hegel claimed to do this, 
but many fail to see that he has raised this category to its 
highest potency, making him really a person; certainly Scotus 
does this, which Aquinas failed to do, because it was utterly 
inconsistent with his notion of substance. Over against the 
shibboleth of Aquinas, which was participation, the solvent 
word with Scotus was creation. The creature is a product 
of the divine act. Participation or any category of quantity is 
wholly irrelevant here. 

Now there is much of the thinking of to-day which has not 
disentangled itself from the notion of substance as the high- 
est. Hamilton gives us some of this folly, even when he is 
discussing causality. "When God is said to create out of 
nothing," he writes, " we construe this to thought by supposing 
that he evolves existence out of himself. We are utterly un- 
able to realize in thought the possibility of the complement of 
existence being either increased or diminished." Neverthe- 
less, we submit, this is just what we mean by creation, if we 
leave the notion of substance behind ue. God, in creation, 
posits the world and is no less in himself after creation than 
before. Creation has added to the sum of being. There is 
no other way to escape Pantheism. 

An important question raised by Scotus is that regarding 
the Divine perfections or attributes. Are they grounded in 
the Divine nature, or are they merely our subjective modes of 

13 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [January, 

viewing him? He answers that they are distinct, grounded 
in the Divine nature and not merely relative to our thought. 
Hero again his doctrine of formalities plays its usual part. 
The distinction of the attributes is not an absolutely real one, 
but formal. There is not a diversity as between thing and 
thing, although this formal diversity he declares to be be- 
tween realities. The statement of the younger Dr. Hodge 
regarding the Divine attributes shows that he has conned the 
pages of Duns. a The attributes differ among themselves," 
says the Princeton theologian, " not as distinct things, but as 
different tendencies and modes of existence and action of the 
same thing," that is, the Divine Substance. Schleierrnacher is 
a distinguished example in modern times of the counter view 
regarding the attributes. This diversity, however, according 
to Duns, does not destroy the simplicity of the Divine Being, 
for all these perfections are infinite, and being expressive of 
the whole Divine Essence, are in this reference one. 

Let us pass now to Scotus' notion of the freedom of God. 
Intellect and will are both to be asserted of him. They are 
not diverse from his essence, but rather identical with it. He 
relates them also to his trinitarian thought. The ultimate 
principle of the Divine Son is knowledge : the principle of the 
Divine Spirit is will or love. But will is deeper than intellect 
in God. Duns says expressly, " The will in God is his very 
essence." Still more the will does not depend ultimately upon 
intellect, but, he asserts, " from the nature of the thing, will is 
in God." So also from the the contingency which we observe 
in the world, we infer contingent causality or freedom in God. 
For singular contingent things there is no other ground to be 
asserted than the will of God. To take any further cause or 
reason is to fall into absurdity. Scotus asserts of God that he 
is causa sui. On the verge of a great thought, he yet draws 
back from the logical result of his system. In some places he 
asserts that God is a se with no limitation, but in the Repor- 
tata he declares he is causa sui in the negative sense, that his 
principium is from no other. He denies it there in the posi- 
tive sense, declaring that no being has its prmcipium from it- 
self. Here is one of the places, we believe, when he holds back 
from the ultimate truth. That is just what distinguishes God 
from all other beings, that he is causa sui in the fullest sense. 

1883.] Buns Scotus. 19 

Tlii8 distinction has been looked at askance by theologians, 
but it is not a fearful specter if we boldly confront it. Let us 
pause to peer down into this abyss. Mayhap we shall in our 
dredging bring up mud, and haply we may find goodly pearls. 
What do the theologians mean by ascribing to God underived 
existence % What else do they mean by asserting him to be 
absolutely unconditioned, independent, and therefore self-ex- 
istent ? Self -existence is simply a less frightful way of saying 
causa sui. The tremor that comes over us when we make 
the assertion arises from the suspicion that we mean by it that 
God came forth from non-being into being. Thus, John Howe 
argues in this way : " It is also evident that some being was 
uncaused, or was ever of itself without any cause. For what 
never was from another had never any cause, since nothing 
could be its own cause, nor did it ever of itself step out of 
non-being into being." So conservative a theologian as Van 
Oosterzee asserts, " In himself he has the cause, the source, the 
power of his life ; he is causa sui, precisely because he is the ab- 
solute infinite being." Does any say this is absurd ? What may 
be absurd on the creature plain is not such as to the divine. 
Tutor Wordsworth in his Bampton Lecture of last year on 
" The One Religion," speaks of the apparent incompatibility 
of the two attributes, infinite and personal, as applied to God. 
lie says, " This mystery, then, is a perfectly credible one, though 
completely inexplicable ; and it is credible also because it is to 
ns inexplicable." He further says, the Credo quia absurdum of 
Tertullian has much of the soberest common sense at the bot- 
tom. Julius Miiller goes further in the same direction, telling 
ns directly we must change the negative view of mere inde- 
pendence held by the older theologians into the positive one of 
causa sui. " His essence," he tells us, " is wholly his own 
deed ; " and again, " the original being in his innermost ground 
is to be considered as intelligence determining itself, that is, 
as absolute personality ; and once again he says, " God, in the 
original ground of his essence, is nothing else than will and 
freedom." So also Thomasius tells us we must place this dis- 
tinction at the summit of our doctrine of God, since he is 
causa svi in the exact sense. 

There are three philosophic stages of the doctrine of God, 
which should be carefully discriminated, namely, those of sub- 


20 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

stance, of subject, and of person. As we have already said, 
our theological thinking has not fully lifted us out of the first 
stage, still less transformed the second into the full notion of 
personality. Our Christian consciousness obliges us to esteem 
God a person, and in our practical bearing we are right. But 
in our philosophic thinking we are sadly hampered by a fall 
back into the stage of substantiality. 

There is a sense in which the achievement of personality in 
ourselves is our own deed. The natural foundation for it is 
given us by the divine. In infancy we are animals, but with 
this marked difference, that we have the germ of personality. 
If we ever become proper persons it will be by a true self- 
assertion, by a distinction which is also a comprehension. 
This is what Fichte calls the Promethean deed. Is it, then, 
irrational to suppose that God makes himself a person, eter- 
nally grasping, in the focus of personality, his being, which is, 
in the last analysis, will? 

Certainly we must admit that man is a creator in the moral 
world. His character is his own product, for he makes him- 
self what he is, and freedom has its fullest play here. Ought 
we then to hesitate to say that the Divine Nature is self-con- 
stituted, is God's own deed, from all eternity ? Do we not 
6trike at the pure idea of the ethical in the Divine if we cling 
to the notion that any thing in the Divine Nature is to be con- 
sidered as given him, as already found? Do we not thus 
strike at the very root of the absolute ? 

The fact is, our finite thinking hesitates to repose except in 
that which is given. We cannot reach the full thought of 
self-origination. In some way, deny it as we will, we ever fly 
back to the thought that God's nature is not self-originated, 
but comes to him ready made. Naturam expettas /urea, 
tamen usque recurret. 

We come to the abyss of the causa sui, and start back af- 
frighted. Our metaphysical notion of being, in general, keeps 
us back from thorough thinking here. Our philosophy is in- 
fected with the notion of a dead core of being, of substance and 
attributes, of thing and activities. The truth is, being is activ- 
ity. We are what we do. The soul is activity, and this is its 
very substance. It is maintained by the divine, incessantly 
reproduced by him. He, the final source of all being, and all 

1883.} Duns Scotus. 21 

life is the self -centered activity. We see for a moment the 
folly of asserting any dead core of being in him, and yet are 
ever smuggling in this supreme folly in asserting a nature, as 
it were, back of his activities. God is eternal activity, self- 
originated activity, activity ever reproducing itself ; and what, 
pray, is this but causa sui f The philosophers have done good 
service here in showing that cause and effect need not be sep- 
arated in time ; that in God they are cotemporaneous and co- 
incident. "With the well-considered words of Ulrici, on this 
subject, we will close this discussion. " For God," says he, in 
his "God and Nature," ^ being is not given, determined in 
itself. The Divine Being is creative thought, power, and self- 
activity, productive and distinguishing. This being is not at 
first mere being (Stoff) and. afterward distinguishing self-activ- 
ity ; but this self-activity is itself being or matter, (Stoff,) for in 
it consists the very being of God. Thus through his produc- 
tive and distinguishing self-activity God makes himself the 
material (Stoff) of his self-apprehension, for only in and with 
this original self-activity does being (Stoff) have and keep its 
definiteness." — P. 705. 

5. Let us now consider Scotus' doctrine of man. He breaks 
essentially with the scholastic theory of perception. Accord- 
ing to the scholastic theory, perception is effected by species or 
forms, derived from the external object, which take on more 
and more of a spiritual character, until in the nidus of the soul 
the idea is born. There is first the sensible species, then ab- 
straction is made by the active intellect, then results the intel- 
ligible species, and finally, in the passive intellect arises the 
idea of the object. That is, the sensible species modified by 
abstraction becomes idea. Thus perception is effected by 
means of the fiction of the species. Again, the distinction 
had come from Aristotle of the active and the passive intellect. 

Now, Scotus had caught a glimpse of the truth on this sub- 
ject, by realizing in some measure the function of intuition, 
which would have led him to see that the object and the know- 
ing soul give all the elements of the process. He had 
already made the distinction between intuitive and abstractive 
knowledge, in saying that our knowledge of God is of the 
latter kind, and not the former. He thus has a divination 
that species and phantasmata are unnecessary entities which 

Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 2 


22 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

Occam's razor soon cut off relentlessly. But here Scotus does 
not draw the immediate consequence. Again, Scotus, with a 
little irresolution, it is true, abolishes the distinction between 
the active and the passive intellect. Here was a fertile 
thought destructive to the scholastic system, but pushed to its 
consequences only by his successors. In this connection, again, 
the doctrine of the Formalities, so significant in Scotus, makes 
its appearance. The faculties of the soul, not to be distin- 
guished in reality from the mind itself, are to be distinguished 
" formally and from the nature of the thing." Again, and here 
was a most important distinction, Scotus insisted upon the ac- 
tivity of the mind in perception. The passivity of the intel- 
lect in perception was the current thought before him, and he 
broke really with this view. In so. far as he admitted a species 
at all, he held that this was not a purely passive product of the 
intellect. Knowledge, he expressly declared, is brought about 
by a concurrent activity of the understanding. As the father 
without the mother, he says, cannot generate, so cannot the 
understanding generate knowledge without the object. By 
far the greater significance, according to him, attaches to the 
intellectual activity. He almost makes the external object a 
mere occasion of spiritual activity. 

The immediate successors of Duns drew the consequences 
which flow from his positions, and banished species and phan- 
tasms from the field of philosophy. Peter Aureolus, the 
Scotist, who died only thirteen years after his master, declares 
the species unnecessary for the explanation of knowledge. 
His neat statement is as follows: "That which we behold 
{intwmur) is not any form seen as it were in a mirror, (specur 
laris,) but the thing itself, having phenomenal being, and this 
is the concept of the mind, or objective knowledge." 

Durandns, who lived at the same time, and even belonged 
to the school of Thomas, reduced species to the physical 
impression of the external object Besides, he makes a defi- 
nite distinction between intuitive and abstractive knowledge, 
and abolishes that between the active and the passive intellect, 
though cutting off the active. Occam, who, doubtless, attended 
upon Scotus' lectures, most decidedly throws overboard all 
species whatever, and abolishes the distinction between the 
active and the passive intellect. A most important addition 

1883.] Duns Scotus. 23 

to the doctrine of perception made by Occam, and emerging 
by a scratch of the nail from Scotus, is this. He asks the ques- 
tion, In what consists the likeness between thought and thing 
in knowledge ? The answer is, Our conceptions stand related 
to things as mere signs. As smoke indicates lire and groaning 
pain, so without any absolute likeness our perceptions guarantee 
the external world. He goes deeper yet, and asks after the 
nature of thought, as subjective fact in the knowing subject. 
There are three positions, he says, which may be taken here. 
It may be an image of the external object, or a certain quality 
of the soul, or, lastly, the act of thought itself. He decides 
for the last on the principle of parsimony. Still, further, his 
doctrine of signs is a most valuable one, and leads to a true 
theory of perception. There are three kinds of terminf, as he 
expresses it, the written sign, the verbal sign, and the con- 
ceptual sign. This last is the natural sign of the object, and 
cannot be changed. Thus thought, the intention, is the sign 
of the thing thought, not an arbitrary but a natural sign. The 
mind, then, is constructive in perception, and 60 Scotus' 
thought has led Occam almost to the phenomenalism of Lotze. 
Pierre D'Ailly declares God could annihilate all objects out- 
side our minds, and still produce the representations of the 
same within us, and we should not note the loss of the ob- 
jective world ; a statement which anticipates Berkeley by more 
than three centuries. All that it is needful to suppose is the 
constant divine activity and the uniform course of nature. 

We pass now to his notion of human freedom. In Scotus 9 
system, freedom, as we have seen, plays the largest role. 
Spontaneity is his shibboleth every-where. Here he stands in 
diametrical opposition to St. Thomas. The latter is a Necessi- 
tarian, the former the most decided and uncompromising ad- 
vocate of freedom. He asserts the power of alternativity, or 
contrary choice, saying explicitly, " The will, in so far as it is 
first actuality, is free to opposite acts. The will is the total 
cause of its activity." Again he says : " Nothing other than the 
will is total cause of volition in the wilL" The object may be the 
condition sine qua non, our knowledge of it may be indispensa- 
ble, but the necessitation of the understanding, such as it is, can 
never be carried over to the will. It is only in the sense that 
we must know the object of desire that it can be called the 

24 Methodist QuaHerly Review. [January, 

partial cause of the will. He stands squarely against the mod- 
ern statement of the strongest motive as determining the will, 
or of the higher good as that which must be a compellant motive. 
It is here that Scotus takes his ground against all Determinists. 
Edwards tells us, following Locke, that " Freedom is the power 
that any one has to do as he pleases." True, but what if the 
choice is a necessitated one and wholly beyond the spontaneity 
of the individual f It has been often said that the position of 
Edwards involves the clock-hammer freedom to strike and no 
more. The arrow flying through the air, says Spinoza, if con- 
scious, would say, " Behold how freely I 'move." Professor 
Fisher, in his article on " The Philosophy of Edwards," rehearses 
the same irrelevant matter as his master Edwards. Liberty, 
he telh us, relates to matters subsequent to volition, and this 
is the only proper use of the term freedom as applied to per- 
sonal agents. The relevancy of dragging in Professor Fisher 
here is seen in the fact that he quotes St. Thomas to fortify 
Edwards. Aquinas says, " God, in moving the will, does not 
compel it, because he gives it its own inclination." Again he 
says, " to be moved from itself is not repugnant to this that 
it is moved by another." But this being moved by God, and 
this acting from a derived inclination, is the very thing which 
the advocates of freedom deny. Thus Scotus denies any such 
secret spring in the will, back of consciousness, whereby fata 
ducunt volentem. The statement of Scotus is : " Kothing else 
than the will is total cause of volition in the will." Spon- 
taneity in the fullest sense, over against the divine action, is 
the solvent word. The Necessitarian assertion of freedom in 
the will, certainly as asserted by Edwards, is the boldest ex- 
ample of promise to the ear which is broken to the heart 
Dr. A. A. Hodge, in a recent statement on the subject of 
the will, asserts that " Edwards' infinite series remains a tri- 
umphant refutation of the old doctrine of the liberty of indif- 
ference." The sole answer to this, forever exploding the in- 
finite regress, may be given in the words of Scotus himself : 
"If we should ask,, why the will .wills this, there is no cause 
to be given, except that the will is will." The will itself can 
throw the sword of Brennus into the scale and decide from its 
own autonomic center. This decides the question, then, as to 
the comparative rank of the intellect and the will. Thomas 

1883.] Dims Scotus. 25 

declared that intellect has the primacy ; Scotus ever assigns it 
to the will Thus, while to the first, Theology is a theoretical 
science, to Scotus it is ever a practical one. The object of 
theology is not so much to enlarge our knowledge as to accom- 
plish our salvation. ' We are not united to God perfectly in 
knowledge, but only through the activity of will in love. It 
is true the will alone cannot bring salvation, for the divine 
ckaritas must be infused. However, this is not without our 
co-operation. True, Christ is the door, but the door must be 
entered, and this implies synergistic activity on the part of the 
sinner. The vision of God, of which Thomas talks so much, 
does not satisfy the ideal of Scotus. Delectatio even smacks 
too much of Quietism. Even the knowledge of God, of which 
Scripture speaks, includes love. 

We have treated Scotus mainly as a philosopher, and not as 
a theologian. In this Utter province, and because of his thor- 
ough-going emphasis of freedom, he has, it is evident, some- 
what lost his balance. We can only stop to signify a few 
points in the briefest manner. In asserting freedom of God, 
he goes to the extreme of arbitrariness. The foundation of 
moral obligation, according to him, lies so completely in the 
will of God, that, had he chosen to do so, he might have made 
wrong to be right. Utter arbitrariness is thus enthroned in 
the very bosom of God, and spiritual freedom sweeps over 
into blind nature. Again, while Scotus struggles like a very 
Hercules with the problem of personality in his doctrine of the 
incarnation, he shows a vicious emphasis of the notion of free- 
dom in asserting that God could have become a stone as 
well as man. A valuable thought, on the other hand, is this, 
that the incarnation was not conditioned by human sin. Once 
again we see the same thing in his doctrine of the atonement, 
or the aeceptilatioy according to which the work of Christ was 
accepted as the ground of human salvation without reference 
to its exact adjustment to the relationship between God and 
man. Thus, as God could have saved the sinner without 
Christ's offering, and have justified him without the infusion 
of grace, so fallen man, by his native powers, may or might, 
apart from what he calls the ordinate power of God, obey tho 
Divine Will. 

We close the study of this great man, so marked by keen- 

26 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

ness of thought and originality full of the seeds of the future, 
by remarking that philosophy was in his day too deeply wedded 
to theology for Scotus to emancipate himself wholly from the 
rubrics of scholasticism. But he set to work a fermentation 
which began immediately to agitate thinkers. The image 
which Milton uses in his description of creation may be applied 
to Duns : 

44 Now half appeared 
The tawny liou, pawing to get free 
His hinder parts.* 1 

He never pawed himself loose from scholasticism. Hence 
the imperfect solution of the antinomy between faith and 
knowledge, the theoretical and the practical, intellect and wilL 
fetill he worked well at the problem, of which we are now 
linding the definitive solution — this, namely, the perfect har- 
mony of theology and philosophy, the rational vindication of 
the Christian Faith. 


What are the doctrinal standards of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church? What is their authority over the teaching and de- 
nominational standing of members of the Church ? What does 
the word of God require as touching those who publicly dissent 
from the doctrinal standards of the Church ? are questions of 
vital importance to its peace and prosperity ? 

I. What are the doctrinal standards of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church ? 

In T" 71 of the " Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church," we read : 

The General Conference shall have full powers to make rules 
and regulations for our Church, under the following limitation! 
and restrictions, namely : 

§ 1. The General Conference shall not revoke, alter, or change 
our Articles of Religion, nor establish any new standards or rules 
of doctrine contrary to our present existing and established stand- 
ards of doctrine.* 

1" 72 permits the General Conference, by a two thirds majority, 
and with the concurrent recommendation of three fourths of 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 37 

the members of tlie Annual Conferences, present and voting, 
to alter any of the Six Restrictive Rules, " excepting the First 

Judging from these two sections of the " Discipline," the ortho- 
doxlcal symbols of the Church are unalterable as "the laws of 
the Medes and Persians." Yet the multitude of contributions 
to the religious press, and the formal essays entrusted to maga- 
zines and reviews, postulate, for the most part, that it is a 
matter of entire uncertainty what the Methodist doctrinal stan- 
dards are. Ask one of the writers what the authoritative creed 
of the Church is, and he replies that he does not know. An- 
other answers that it is contained in the New Testament, and 
another in the Bible. 

That the latter statement is true in the sense that the Bible 
is the depository whence all the materials for the fabrication 
of the Methodist doctrinal standards have been drawn, is be- 
yond question ; and for that reason all candidates for diaconal 
ordination are obliged " to unfeignedly believe all the canonical 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament." * For the same 
reason, candidates for prcsbyterial and episcopal ordination are 
required to profess their persuasion " that the Holy Scriptures 
contain sufficiently all doctrine required of necessity for eter- 
nal salvation through faith in Jesus Christ," and they are " de- 
termined out of the said Scriptures to instruct the people com- 
mitted to " their u charge, and to teach nothing as required of 
necessity to eternal salvation but that which " they " shall be 
persuaded may be concluded and proved by the Scriptures." f 
They are also required to pledge themselves to " be ready with 
all fkithful diligence to banish and drive away all erroneous and 
6trange doctrines contrary to God's word," f and further, in the 
ease of bishops, " both privately and openly to call upon and 
encourage others to do the same." % 

These requirements denote the high estimate placed by the 
Church on the maintenance of sound doctrine, and indicate 
the zeal with which all its ministers ought to labor for its 

But the reply, that the Methodist doctrinal standards are to 
be found in the Bible is a mere evasion of the question. All 
are agreed that they ought to be in harmony with the teach- 

• " Discipline," p. 344. \ Ibid., pp. 319, 334. % Ibid., p. 319. 

28 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

ings of " God's word written," and that the creeds, confessions, 
and symbols of all branches of the visible Church are binding 
upon the conscience only to that extent in which they accord 
with them. " We believe," wrote Wesley in his " Character 
of a Methodist," " the written word of God to be the only and 
sufficient rule, both of Christian faith and practice. . . . We 
believe Christ to be the eternal, supreme God. . . . But as to 
all opinions which do not strike at the root of Christianity we 
think and let think." 

But what does Methodism in our Church " think " of the 
doctrinal contents of the Holy Scriptures ? " The Bible is of 
God ; the confession is man's answer to God's word. The 
liible is the norma norm arts / the confession the norma nor- 
mata. The Bible is the rule of faith, (reyula fidei /) the con- 
fession, the rule of doctrine, {rcgula doctrince.)" * What is the 
Methodistic confession ? What are the symbols regulating the 
public teaching of ministerial officials ? Protestant Episcopa- 
lians, Lutherans, Calviniets, have "summaries of the doctrine- 
of the Bible, aids to its sound understanding, bonds of uniori 
among their professors, public standards and guards against 
false doctrine and practice ; " and in these their interpretations 
of biblical teaching on the great subjects of theology, Christol- 
ogy, anthropology, the Church and the sacraments, soteriology, 
and eschatology, are more or less precisely defined. Has 
Methodism similar instruments, and if 60, where and what are 

Dr. Buckley says that " from the beginning till the present 
day Methodism has had, not indeed a confession, or a system- 
atic ereed, (for the absence of which we thank God and our 
fathers,) but a general backbone of theology, upon which its 
sermons, treatises, commentaries, catechisms, hymns, exhorta- 
tions, and ritual, rest. Every person who becomes a minister 
among us knows what that spinal column is, and also that the 
Church claims the right to dispense with the services of those 
who attempt to break it." f 

All of which is historically true ; but where shall we find 
this "general backbone i " 

Dr. Curry maintains " that there are no definite and ascer- 

• SchafTs "Creeds of Christendom," vol. i., p. 7. 
f •• Christian Advocate," October 20, 1881. 

1883J Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 29 

tained set of documents which are to be accepted as embodying 
the legally protected doctrines of Methodism ; " and that the 
" existing and established standards " recognized by the law of 
the Church " cannot be identified with " — he does not say in 
— u any given books or documents, and, therefore, it is left to 
those to whom the detection and punishment of heresy may be 
committed to find out and decide what doctrines are, in any 
case, contrary to the i standards.' " * 

" If it shall be asked what are those standards . . . and where 
may they be found ? " he 6ays that " the only possible answers 
arc that they are the generally accepted doctrines of Methodism, 
established at its beginning, and perpetuated by the common, 
consent of all concerned; and they are to be found in the 
memories and convictions of those upon whom the safe keep- 
ing of the body is devolved." f K this be an accurate state- 
ment, then the Methodist Episcopal Ghurch has only an oral 
theology, and that as diverse as the manifold receptacles to which 
its keeping is confided. A system more flexible, fluctuating, 
and intractable of reduction to method could not be devised. 
But even then, the existence of documentary Sources of the 
tenets held in memory and conviction is necessarily implied, 
Civilized theological associations have never been destitute of 
such primitive literature. Theological students need to know 
where and what it is, and if it take the form of creed, confes- 
sion, symbol, or serial articles. In these latter forms the 
Methodist doctrinal standards can easily be studied ; and even 
if they should be embodied in commentaries or sermons, it will 
be comparatively light labor to define and formulate them. 
But Dr. Curry denies the existence of any such authoritative 
fountains. " The Methodist Episcopal Church ... is without 
any definite documentary system of belief by law established." f 
And yet he affirms that Methodist theology " recognizes certain 
great truths, which lie ' at the root of Christianity,' which must 
be held sacred." He further asserts that the Church, " accord- 
ing to definite rules of judicature " has power to determine 
what are these essential Christian doctrines, " and also to re- 
move from the body all who reject them." 

He next, as one of those in whose " memories and convic- 
tions" the essential doctrines of Methodism are preserved, 

• " Independent," November 3, 1881. f Ihid -i December 1, 1881. 

30 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

enumerates them in the following order : " the nature of sin, 
and of its results and entailments;" "God's free grace in 
Christ offering salvation ... to all who, in penitence and faith, 
would call on God, through Christ, for pardon and salvation ; " 
" the character and work of Christ, his person and sacrifice ; 
" justification by faith ; " " the necessity of ' the new birth ; ' " 
the certainty that rejecters of the proffered grace " cannot see 
the kingdom of God ; " and " the assurance of the complete- 
ness of the work of the soul's practical redemption." " These 
several points/ (themselves an indivisible unity, with their 
necessary and natural implications,) are the essential doctrines 
of Methodism — these and no others — which all of its ministers 
are bound in good faith to cherish and defend ; but, beyond 
these, and if nothing repugnant to them is held or taught, it 
allows to all the utmost freedom of thinking and speaking." 
"The exposition and defense of these doctrines in Wesley's 
Sermons, and in his didactic and controversial writings, have 
been generally accepted as at once correct in substance and 
felicitous in manner ; and, therefore, they are accepted as, in a 
secondary sense, "standards of doctrine;" although mingled 
with these are extraneous matters wliich nobody is required to 
believe, and which not a few decidedly and openly reject. For 
more than a hundred years the Methodist pulpit and press, its 
public prayers and exhortations, its "experiences," and its 
hymns have embodied its theology in living forms." * 

These emissions from " memory and conviction," shed some 
light on the real answer to the question, " What are the Meth- 
odist doctrinal standards ? " In a secondary sense, at least, we 
learn that they are to be found in Wesley's writings, in the is- 
sues of the Methodist press, and in Methodist hymns — all of 
which may be thoroughly studied at leisure. 

Wise men change their opinions, and the learned critic seems 
to have changed his since April, 1 879, at which epoch he held 
that the Methodist Episcopal Church had a" definite documen- 
tary system of belief, by law established," and " that whatever 
is contained in the 4 Articles of Religon,' or the Ritual, (as it 
was in 1808,) is part of the creed of Methodism, which it is 
presumed that the whole Church agrees to as agreeable to the 
Word of God, and which every minister engages to teach, as of di- 

* "Independent," December 1, 1881. 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 31 

vine authority." But he did not then believe, nor does he now, 
that the "definite documentary system of belief, by law estab- 
lished," comprised in the Articles and Ritual of 1808, " contain 
all of the commonly accepted and well-ascertained doctrines of 
the Gospel, as held and taught by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church; and therefore that the proper guardians of the 
Church's orthodoxy must care for and protect other articles of 
faith than those formally legalized by the organic documents of 
the body." This earlier and more thoroughly considered de- 
liverance in the editorial department of the " National Reposi- 
tory " of April, 1879, p. 363, is historically justifiable. 

u Beyond the articles and the ritual, we certainly have no 
documents of any kind that can be referred to as decisively au- 
thoritative in matters of theological beliefs." The Methodist 
Episcopal Church has, from the beginning, held and taught 
more than is contained in any of its formally recognized stand- 

If we ask whether this surplus may not be found in John 
Wesley's Sermons and Notes on the New Testament, and 
whether those are not included among the doctrinal standards 
of Methodism, Dr. Curry makes answer that " other documents, 
as the ' Doctrinal Tracts,' "Wesley's Sermons, and his Notes on 
the New Testament, once had a kind of official recognition as 
standards of doctrine ; but they were never legally accepted as 
such, nor was there at any time general acceptance of some 
things taught in them, and they have ceased entirely to be so 
recognized." f 

Wesley's writings are no longer standards of doctrine to 
American Methodists — " were never legally accepted as such," 
not even as to the doctrines which are distinctive of that form 
of evangelical Arminianism of which, under God, he was the 
founder 1 How much of historical credibility there is in this 
statement, we will shortly endeavour to point out. Meanwhile, 
if "one asks for the standards of Methodist doctrines, what 
must be the answer?" Dr. Curry answers his own query in 
the words : " First, we find twenty-five i Articles of Religion.' " 
So far all is clear. All parties are agreed that among the 
Methodist doctrinal standards are : — 

L The Articles of Religion. These are first indicated as 

• a National Repository," April, 1879, p. 360. \ Ibid. 

32 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

under the protection of constitutional law in the first Restrict- 
ive Rule. But the Articles are entirely silent on "such im- 
portant subjects as the Christian sabbath, the Scripture doc- 
trine of marriage, and the whole subject of eschatology, be- 
yond the naked fact that there is to be a future life, judgment, 
and everlasting life after death." True — and they are also si- 
lent on the subject of the " Witness of the Spirit," and on 
" Christian Perfection," on both of which Methodist theology 
lays special emphasis. For these and other reasons we concur 
with the opinion that " it seems most likely that these articles 
were never intended to serve as a complete system of doctrine, 
and it is very certain that the accepted doctrines of Methodism 
have always been wider than the ground covered by them." * 

So far as we can ascertain from the histories and biographies 
of Methodism, no corporate attempt has ever been made to 
formulate " a complete system of doctrine." Methodist preach- 
ers have always been too busy in disseminating what they hold 
to be the essential doctrines of Christianity to undertake an 
achievement of that kind. Scholarly divines, belonging to na- 
tional Churches, may find congenial employment in fabricating 
complete doctrinal standards. Methodists have always found 
such a task to be supererogatory. They had expositions of all 
the essential doctrines of God's word in the writings of Wes- 
ley that satisfied their most pressing spiritual needs while 
only " United Societies," in other Churches ; and when they 
organized themselves into an independent and distinct Church 
of Jesus Christ they adopted an Episcopal form of govern- 
ment, and with it an abridgment of the Articles of the Angli- 
can Episcopal Church, and thus became the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. " Our Articles of Religion " were superadded to 
" our present existing and established standards of doctrine " 
at the Christmas Conference of 17S4. 

But some writers argue, and others impliedly admit, that 
the Articles constitute our sole denominational standards. 

The Rev. J. Pullman, in an elaborate article on " Method- 
ism and Heresy," insists that John Wesley and the General 
Conference of 1784 intended " the Articles of Religion to be 
the only authoritative creed of the Church under which a 
minister should be tried," and " that the law of the Methodist 

♦"National Repository," April, 1879, p. 359. 

1883 J Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 33 

Episcopal Church knows no heresy outside of the Articles of 
Religion " I According to this theory, a Methodist preacher 
may deny the doctrines of the direct and indirect testimony of 
the Holy Spirit to the believer's adoption into the family of 
God, and also the doctrine of entire sanctification, and yet not 
be guilty of heresy. Both of the writer's postulates are dis- 
cordant with the facts of history, and with the moral convic- 
tions and judicial procedures of the Church. 

Henry and Harris, on page 69 of their admirable work on 
" Ecclesiastical Law and Rules of Evidence, with Special Ref- 
erence to the Jurisprudence of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church," say : 

Again, T 207 of the Discipline provides that when a minister 
or preacher holds and disseminates, publicly or privately, doc- 
trines which are contrary to the Articles of Religion of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and will not solemnly promise to 
abstain from disseminating such erroneous doctrines, in public 
and private, [he] shall be dealt with preliminarily as when guilty 
of gross immorality. Yet, notwithstanding his promise not to 
disseminate such erroneous doctrines, he is liable to be dealt with 
canonically before the Annual Conference. 

In the revised edition of the same work, (1881,) p. 68, after 
the words, " Articles of Religion," follows this clause : " or es- 
tablished standards of doctrine," thus taking the authors out of 
the class of theorists who identify our established standards of 
doctrine with the Articles of Religion, and who repudiate all 

Dr. Miller, one of the clerical counsel of Dr. II. "W. Thomas, 
whose self -sought expulsion from the ministry of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church has occasioned much discussion by the 
secular as well as by the religious press, rejects all authoritative 
standards except the Articles. In his demurrer to the validity 
of the charges against his client, he urged that there are no au- 
thorized standards in the Church in relation to the endless pun- 
ishment of the wicked ; that what are the established standards 
of doctrine, other than the Articles of Religion, has never been 
defined by any General Conference ; and that there is no es- 
tablished standard of docjtrine other than the Articles of Relig- 
ion, or " such doctrine as the one clearly stated in the Book of 
Discipline, and protected by the first restrictive rule." * 

• "Independent" 

34 Metliodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The fact that the General Conference has never formally de- 
clared that the doctrinal standards of the European Methodists 
are also the doctrinal standards of the American Methodists 
does not prove that they are not The fact that they are has 
not been disputed until lately. Had the attempt to deny it 
been foreseen it might have been guarded against by formal 
enactment ; but as it was not, the consecutive General Confer- 
ences rested on the self-evident truth. 

Dr. D. A. "Whedon also states that the General Conference 
of 1784 "received Wesley's abridgment of the Articles of the 
Church of England, which continue to be their standard of 
doctrine to the present day." * He does not, however, main- 
tain that this abridgment is the only standard of orthodox 
teaching, but adds the following testimony: — 

" The theology of the Church is thoroughly Arminian, as it 
has been from the beginning. In this it agrees with universal 
Wesleyan Methodism. . . . Wesley's doctrinal Sermons, Notes 
on the New Testament, and other writings, have been its 
standards of Arminian orthodoxy ; while the rigid examination 
to which all candidates for the ministry are subjected is its chief 
security that only what is deemed correct and sound in doc- 
trine shall be preached in its pulpits." f 

The Methodist doctrinal standards include the first four vol- 
umes of Wesley's Sermons, his Notes on the New Testament, 
and also the " Large Minutes." This proposition will not be 
challenged so far as the Wesleyan Methodist Churches in Great 
Britain, Ireland, and the Colonies are regarded. In Great 
Britain and Ireland the Trust or "Model Deed," of all the 
churches, which is slightly modified from time to time as social 
changes may render necessary, contains the following clause : — 

Nevertheless, upon special trust and confidence, and to the in 
tent that they and the survivors of them, and the Trustees for 
the time being, do and shall permit from time to time, and at all 
times for ever, such persons as shall be appointed at the yearly 
Conference of the people called Methodists, held in London, Bris- 
tol, Leeds, Manchester, or elsewhere, specified by name in a deed 
enrolled in Chancery, under the hand and seal of the Rev. John 
Wesley, and bearing date 28th of February, 1784, and no others, 
to have and enjoy the said premises, in order that they may 
therein preach and expound God's holy word, and perform all 

* " McClintock & Strong's Cyclopedia," vol. vi, p. 157. \ Ibid., p. 17 L 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 35 

other acts of religious worship; provided, that the persons so ap- 
pointed preach no other doctrines than are contained in Mr. 
Wesley's Notes upon the New Testament, and his four volumes 
of Sermons, by him published.* 

By this " deed " Wesley's Notes and Sermons are made the 
legal as well as the ecclesiastical standards of the doctrines ex- 
pounded in the Church edifices settled on Trustees for the use 
of the Wesleyan Methodists. The "Large Minutes" them- 
selves, as well as the Sermons and Notes of Mr. Wesley 
referred to therein, may fairly be classed with the doctrinal 
standards of Wesleyan Methodism. 

Prior to the organization of tl*e Methodist Episcopal Chnrch 
in 1784, the doctrinal standards of American were avowedly 
the same as those of European Methodism. 

At the first Conference, held in Philadelphia, June, 1773, the 
following queries were proposed to every preacher, and answered 
affirmatively : — 

Quest. 2. Ought not the doctrine and discipline of the Metho- 
dists as contained in the Minutes, [which specify Wesley's 
Notes and Sermons as the standards of doctrine,] to be the sole 
rule of our conduct, who labor in the connection with Mr. Wesley 
in America? 

"Ans. Yes. 

" Quest. 3. If so, does it not follow, that if any preachers de- 
viate from the Minutes, we can have no fellowship with them till 
they change their conduct ? 

« Ans. Yes." f 

Again, in the Minutes of 1781 the first question recorded is : 

What preachers are now determined, after mature considera- 
tion, close observation, and earnest prayer, to preach the old 
Methodist doctrine, and strictly enforce the Discipline, as con- 
tained in the Notes, Sermons and Minutes published by Mr. 
Wesley, so far as they respect both preachers and people accord- 
ing to the knowledge we have of them, and the ability God shall 
give ; and firmly resolve to discountenance a separation among 
either preachers or people ? 

Atis.l [Here follow the names of thirty-nine, (probably all 
who were present save one,g) out of fifty four preachers.] 

*" Minutes of Several Conversations between the Rev. John Wesley, A.M., 
and the Preachers in Connection with him. Containing the form of Discipline 
established among the Preachers and People in the Methodist Societies." P. €5. 
These minutes are commonly known as the " Large Minutes." 

f Emory's " History of the Discipline," p. 10. $ Ibid., p. 16. 

§8tevens' u History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," vol ii, p. 9L 

36 Methodist Quarterly Review. Uanuary, 

In this practical unanimity the preachers were further 
strengthened by a letter from Mr. Wesley, dated at Bristol, 
October 3, 1783, and designed to guard the American preachers 
against foreign and domestic intruders who might attempt the 
" bringing in " of " new doctrines, particularly Calvinian." 
" Let all of you," he exhorted, " be determined to abide by the 
Methodist doctrine and Discipline, published in the four vol- 
umes of Sermons, and the Notes upon the New Testament, 
together with the " Large Minutes " of Conference.* 

With this advice the May Conference, held at Baltimore in 
1784, hastened to comply. 

Qvest. 21 asks, How shall we conduct ourselves toward 
European preachers? 

Ans. If they are recommended by Mr. Wesley, will be subject 
to the American Conference, preach the doctrine taught in the 
four volumes of Sermons and Notes on the New Testament, 
keep the circuits they are appointed to, following the directions of 
the London and American Minutes, and be subject to Francis 
Asbury as general assistant, whilst he stands approved by Mr. 
Wesley and the Conference, we will receive them.f 

The establishment of national independence had not, at that 
time, impaired the doctrinal and ecclesiastical unity of Metho- 
dism. But in the fall of the same year Mr. Wesley, pursuant 
to the indications of Providence and the desires of the Ameri- 
can Societies, took measures to organize the latter into a dis- 
tinct and independent Church. Assisted by presbyters of the 
Anglican Church he ordained Richard Whatcoat and Thomas 
Vasey to act as elders among them, by baptizing and adminis- 
tering the Lord's Supper. He also ordained Dr. Coke as 
superintendent "over our brethren in North America," and 
signified his wish that Francis Asbury should be ordained as 
deacon, elder, and superintendent, and that he should be asso- 
ciated with Thomas Coke in the general oversight of the pros- 
pective Church. He further prepared an expurgated and 
abridged edition of the Anglican Liturgy, Ritual, and Articles 
of Religion, and submitted it to the American Methodists for 

Hitherto what are called the " Large Minutes " of Wesley had 
been recognized as the authoritative Discipline of the American 

* Bangs' " History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," vol i, p. 148. 
f Emory's " History of the Discipline," p. 22. 

1883.1 Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 37 

Hocieties, with the special enactments of the American Conf erence 
8 a per added. The "Large Minutes" were a compilation made 
by Wesley from the Annual Minutes of the British Conference. 
In the preliminary deliberations at Perry Hall they were revised 
and adapted to the new form of the American Church, and being 
adopted by the Christmas Conference, were incorporated with the 
"Sunday service " and hymns, and published in 1785 as the Dis- 
cipline of American Methodism. In this volume, therefore, we 
find the enactments of the Christmas Conference.* 

But "Wesley's Sermons and Notes " were never legally ac- 
cepted" as standards of doctrine, Dr. Curry insists. What there 
was that was illegal in the acceptance of them by the Confer- 
ences of 1773, 1781, and 1784 he fails to point out. The legal- 
ity of these Conferences and of their actions has not hitherto 
been impeached. The words of Asbury about the Conference 
of 1792, which he styles "the first regular General Confer- 
ence," are construed by Dr. Sherman to mean that " the Con- 
ference of 1784 was irregular, partaking of the nature of a con- 
vention rather than of an established body. It was convened for 
the purpose of organizing the Church, and its recurrence not 
anticipated." f Irregular and unconventional as those assem- 
blages might be, their decisions had all the binding force of 
law, and have received the sanctions of the great Head of the 
Church. They were not composed of constitutional lawyers, 
but of # godly, sincere Methodist preachers, who knew what they 
intended and what they were doing, although comparatively 
unlearned in the science of ecclesiastical jurisprudence. Their 
actions have been acknowledged as legal by the tacit consent 
and by the uniform procedure of their successors. Their en- 
actments in relation to the essentials of Methodist doctrine and 
discipline have neither been repealed nor virtually annulled by 
antagonistic legislation. All laws imposed by rightful authority 
are valid until repealed by rightful authority ; and as the law 
repeatedly accepting certain specified writings of Wesley as tJie 
doctrinal standards of American Methodism has never been 
repealed, it follows that they must be such at tlie present day. 

It was in all probability with this view, as well as from the 
manifest impropriety of transferring Wesley's English " Model 
Deed " from the " Large Minutes " to the American Discipline 

♦Stevens' "History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," vol. ii, pp. 196, 197. 
f " History of the Discipline," p. 27. 

Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 8 

38 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

that it, though containing the clause requiring all Methodist 
preaching to be in concord with the doctrine of his Notes and 
Sermons, was left out by the revisers at Perry Hall. 

That the primary doctrinal standards of Methodism were 
wholly unchanged when the American societies formed them- 
selves into an Episcopal Church is obvious in the light of the 
minutes of the Christmas Conference of 1784. Quest. 2 reads : 

What can be done in order to the future union of the Meth- 
odists ? 

% An*. During the life of the Rev. Mr. Wesley we acknowl- 
edge ourselves his sons in the gospel, ready, in matters belonging 
to Church government, to obey his commands. And we do en- 
gage, after his death, to do every thing that we judge consistent 
with the cause of religion in America, and the political interests 
of these States, to preserve and promote our union with the Meth- 
odists in Europe.* 

Could the pledge, unwise as it was in relation to Church ad- 
ministration, have been voluntarily made by those heroic and 
truthful men if they had not intended to embrace doctrinal 
matters within its scope? Could their engagement "to pre- 
serve and promote union with the Methodists in Europe " be 
construed in any other sense than that of continuous adherence 
to " our present existing and established standards of doctrine ? " 

The subsequent lives of the itinerant fathers demonstrated 
their own understanding of this solemn and artless pledge. 
They persisted in preaching the distinctive Wesleyan doctrines 
of prevenient grace, the salvability of all men, the direct wit- 
ness of the Holy Spirit, and Christian perfection; none of 
which are incorporated with the articles, although always 
enumerated among the most precious possessions of Method- 
ism, and as such very carefully discussed in the " Large Min- 
utes," Notes, and Sermons. 

Again, the venerable Wesley himself, who never ceased to 
display the keenest interest in the Church indirectly organized 
by himself to spread Scriptural holiness over these lands, and 
who was not a little grieved when his name was left oif its 
minutes for prudential reasons, never suspected — what in fact 
did not exist — that his expositions of Christian doctrine had 
ceased to be the primary doctrinal standards of American 

* Emory's " History of the Discipline," p. 27. 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 39 

In a letter to the Rev. Ezekiel Cooper, written only twenty- 
nine days before his death, after mentioning his growing in- 
firmities, he says : 

Probably I should not be able to do so much, did not many of 
you assist me by your prayers. See that you never give place to one 
thought of separating from your brethren in Europe. Lose no 
opportunity of declaring to all men that the Methodists are one 
people in all the world, and that it is their full determination so 

to continue, 

*' Though mountains rise, and oceans roll, 
To sever us in vain." 

This proves that he did not consider us [in any thing essential to 
Methodist solidarity] as separated from himself or from our 
European brethren. 

The same sentiment has been since officially avowed both by 
the British and American Conferences. ... Of this state of 
unity and affection every friend of this great work will cordially 
say, May it be perpetual.* 

The notes to the Discipline appended to the edition of 1796, 
and which received the implied sanction of the General Con- 
ference of 1800, contain the following statement, which cer- 
tainly implies the doctrinal unity of universal Methodism: 
" We are but one body of people, one grand society, whether 
in Europe or America ; united in the closest spiritual bonds, and 
in external bonds as far as the circumstances of things will 
admit." f 

The conclusion reached by this review of our Church history is, 
that the primary doctrinal standards of the American Methodists 
were not revoked, altered, or changed in any particular when 
they passed from the status of societies in a Church to that of 
distinct and independent churchhood. 

When the American Methodists were organized into a sep- 
arate and distinct Church, they did not cease to be what they 
had previously been, namely, Methodists ; but they did be- 
come what hitherto they had not been, namely, the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. As persistent Methodists, they re- 
tained the old doctrinal standards ; and, as newborn ecclesias- 
tical Episcopalians, added to them twenty-four other standards 
abridged by Wesley from the standards of the Anglican Church, 
and purified from every vestige of Popery and Calvinism ; and 

* " Emory's " Defense of our Fathers." p. 132. 
f Sherman's '• History of the Discipline," p. 369. 

40 MeOvodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

also a twenty-fifth standard, fabricated by themselves, and 
suited to the national relations of the new Church. * 

Thenceforth the doctrinal symbols of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church have consisted of the old beloved standards com- 
mon to Methodism plus the articles supplied by Wesley and 
the Church-organizing Conference. 

Had the American Methodists remained in a mere societary 
relation to the Anglican Church, or assumed such relation to 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, its claimant successor in this 
country, it is in no wise probable that the articles would ever 
have been formally adopted into the number of our " estab- 
lished standards of doctrine." Their verbal primacy in the 
legal enumeration of the first Restrictive Rule is due to the 
6uifrages of the General Conference, that is to say, of the 
Church which placed them there. 

In the " Discipline," the Americanized form of the " Large 
Minutes," we find the following among other references to the 
old Methodist doctrines : 

^f Are you going on to perfection ? do you expect to be made 
perfect in this life ? are ^ou groaning after it ? " Let us strongly 
and closely insist upon inward and outward holiness in all its 


Let all the preachers carefully read over Mr. Wesley's and 

Mr. Fletcher's tracts. 

We have received as a maxim, that a man is to do nothing in 
order to justification. Nothing can be more false. Whoever de- 
sires to find favor with God should cease from evil and learn to 
do well. So God himself teacheth by the prophet Isaiah. 

We are every moment pleasing or displeasing to God according 
to our works ; according to the whole of our present inward 
tempers and outward behavior. 

If preachers and exhorters cannot attend, let some person of 
ability be appointed in every society to sing, pray, and read one 
of Mr. Wesley's sermons. 

» "At the organization of the Church, in 1784, it was the first religions body in 
the country to insert in its constitutional law (in its Articles of Religion) a recogni- 
tion of the new government, enforcing patriotism on its communicants." Iu 1800 
the General Conference, by a motion of Ezekiel Cooper, u struck out all allusion to 
the ' Act of Confederation,' inserting in its stead ' the Constitution of the United 
States,' etc., and declared that * the said States are a sovereign and independent 
nation.' Methodism thus deliberately, and in its constitutional law, recognized that 
the 'Constitution' superseded the 'Act of Confederation,' and that the Republic 
was no longer a confederacy but a nation, and, as such, supreme and sovereign 
over all its States.' w Stevens' "History of M. E. Church," vol iv, pp. 180, 181- 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 41 

Be active in dispersing the books among the people. 

From four to five in the morning, and from five to six in the 
evening, meditate, pray, and read the Scriptures with Mr. Wes- 
ley's Notes, and the closely practical parts of what he has pub- 

Let us strongly and explicitly exhort all believers to go on 
to perfection. 

Whoever will advance the gradual change in believers should 
strongly insist on the instantaneous. * 

There is no evidence to prove the theory that " our fathers " 
ever imagined that the Articles of Religion, superadded at Mr. 
Wesley's suggestion to the recognized standards, either super- 
seded or in any way took precedence of them. If such a 
thought every entered their minds, they were singularly careful 
not to voice it in word or written document. 

The assertion of the Rev. J. Pullman, that Wesley designedly 
procured the substitution of the Articles of Religion in place of 
his own Notes, Sermons, and the "Large Minutes" as the 
authoritative doctrinal standards of the Methodist Episcopal 
ChurchjUnintentionally charges that great divine, u whose genius 
for government was equal to that of Richelieu," with the com- 
mission of a great absurdity. " It is true," writes Mr. Pull- 
man, " that prior to the organization of the Church in 1784, 
i The Notes, Sermons, and Minutes of Mr. Wesley ' were, by 
special enactment, (Annual Minutes of 1781, and April, 1784,) 
declared the standard of doctrine ; but it is equally true that at 
the Christmas Conference, in 1784, when the Church assumed 
an organic form, the Articles of Religion were adopted, at the 
request of Mr. Wesley, as the authoritative doctrinal standard 
of the Church, and ever since they have had a conspicuous and 
sacred place in the Book of Discipline ; and it is also true that 
from the time of their adoption there has been no mention of 
Mr. Wesley 's Notes and Sermons;" — from which he infers 
that the Methodist doctrinal standards, universally binding up 
to that epoch, ceased thenceforth to possess any constitutional 
force. In other words, Mr. Pullman maintains that John Wes- 
ley deliberately substituted the purified and abbreviated doc- 
trinal symbols of the Anglican Church for the "existing and 
established standards of doctrine " hitherto obligatory on Meth- 
odist preachers, exhorters, and stewards; and that the pious 

• Bangs' " History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," voL L, pp. 182-211. 

42 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

and intelligent members of that epochal Conference knowingly 
accepted the substitution. 

This assertion is all the more startling in presence of the 
fact so forcibly stated by Dr. Stevens : 

But what is most noteworthy in the negative character of the 
American Articles, is the fact that the opiuions which are deemed 
most distinctive of Wesleyan theology have therein no expres- 
sion, if indeed any intimation. Wesley eliminates the supposed 
Anglican Calvinism, but he does not introduce his own Armin- 
ianism ; unless the thirty-iirst Anglican Article on the " Obla- 
tion of Christ " be admitted to be Arminian in spite of the sev- 
enteenth article on " Predestination." In like manner we have 
no statement of his doctrines of the " Witness of the Spirit," and 
" Christian Perfection." And yet no doctrines more thoroughly 

f>ermeate the preaching, or more entirely characterize the moral 
ife, of Methodism than his opinions of the universal salvability 
of man, assurance, and sanctincation.* 

Yet, notwithstanding these omissions, the thinkers of Mr. 
Pullman's school contend that Mr. Wesley intended to estab- 
lish a Methodist Episcopal Church, with all, or nearly all, that 
is distinctive of evangelically Arminian Methodism left out of 
its doctrinal Constitution. We venture to doubt whether this 
was the opinion of Bishop Simpson, when he told Dean Stan- 
ley, at the reception given to that distinguished churchman in 
St. Paul's Church, New York, that the Methodist Episcopal 
Church " reflects " John Wesley's " mind better than any other 
on earth." 

The rapid extension and growth of the Church, the difficulty 
of assembling all the preachers in General Conference, and 
the need of securing the assent of all to requisite legislation, 
induced the Conference of 1789 to order the creation of the 
ephemeral " Council," which was invested with authority "to 
preserve the essentials of the Methodist doctrines and disci- 
pline, pure and uncorrupted." f In 1792 the O'Kelly seces- 
sion, and its concomitant evils, led to the Conferential passage 
of the following rule : 

If a member of our Church shall be clearly convicted of en- 
deavoring to sow dissensions in any of our Societies, by inveigh- 
ing against either our doctrine or discipline, such person so of- 
fending shall be first reproved by the senior preacher of his cir- 

* Stevens' " History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," vol. ii, pp. 208, 209. 
f Bangs' " History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," vol. i, p. 303. 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 43 

cuit ; and if be afterward persist in such pernicious practices, he 
shall be expelled from the society.* 

This enactment is revelatory of the jealous care with which 
the fathers guarded the doctrines of the Church, and the ju- 
dicious promptitude with which they dealt with incorrigible 


Not until the session of the General Conference at Balti- 
more, in 1808, were the doctrinal standards of the Church 
placed under the protection of constitutional law. Up to that 
time the General Conference, in which the several Annual 
Conferences were of necessity unequally represented, "pos- 
sessed unlimited powers over our entire economy," and iC could 
alter, abolish, or add to any article of religion or any rule of 
discipline." " This depository of power was considered too 
great for the safety of the Church and the security of its gov- 
ernment and doctrine," f and the expediency "of limiting the 
powers of the General Conference, so as to secure forever the 
essential doctrines of Christianity from all encroachments," 
was generally and deeply felt. 

By the General Conference of 1808, the delegative principle 
was introduced into its future composition, and the Constitu- 
tion of the Church was adopted. This Constitution is con- 
tained in the Six Restrictive Rules, which state what the Gen- 
eral Conference may not do, leaving it free to adopt any other 
measures not therein prohibited. But to these restrictions 
was appended the proviso, " that upon the joint recommenda- 
tion of all the Annual Conferences, then a majority of two 
thirds of the General Conference succeeding, shall suffice to 
alter any of the above restrictions." X 

In their form, at this time, they leave open to change the fun- 
damental interests of the Church, even its theology and terms of 
membership, without representation of the laity; but in 1832, 
the proviso giving this power was modified, making the Articles 
of Religion and, if our views be correct, " our present existing 
and established standards of doctrine "] unalterable, and requir- 
ing a vote of three fourths of the members of the Annual, and 
two thirds of the General Conferences, to effect any of the speci- 
fied changes. § 

* Bangs' "History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," vol. i, p. 351. 

f Ibid., voL u\ pp. 177, 178. % lbid -^ vo1 * »> P- 233 - 

§ Stevens' " History of the Methodist Episcopal Cmircli, vol. iv, pp. 441, 442. 

44 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

Of these unalterable standards of doctrine, Methodism has 
just reason to be proud. Wesley's " Notes on the New Testa- 
ment, with a New Version of the Text,"-*-" remarkable as hav- 
ing anticipated many of the improved readings of later cri- 
tics,"*^!, work unrivaled among Biblical commentaries for its 
terseness, condensation, and pertinency, f is still a " recognized 
standard of theology " throughout the Methodi6tic world. For 
"conciseness, spirituality, acuteness, and soundness of opin- 
ion," it has won glowing commendations from the best judges. 

His Sermons, so " remarkable for the terseness and puri- 
ty of their style, in which not a word is wasted ; the trans- 
parency and compactness of their thoughts ; and a logical force 
which is not subtle, but the fruit of a ' keen, clear insight,' " 
merit equal praise. "No thinker in the modern Church has 
excelled Wesley in the direct logic, the precision, the trans- 
parent clearness, and popular suitableness with which he pre- 
sented the experimental truths of Christianity. Faith, justifi- 
cation, regeneration, sanctification, the witness of the Spirit, 
these were his themes, and never were they better defined and 
discriminated by an English theologian.:}: Although Wesley's 
Sermons and Notes on the New Testament are, in the opinion 
of Dr. Schaff, (a great Presbyterian authority,) " legally bind- 
ing only on the British Wesleyans^ . . . they are in fact as 
highly esteemed and as much used by American Methodists, 
and constitute the life of the denomination." " These sermons 
are fifty-eight in number, and cover the common faith and du- 
ties of Christians, but contain, at the same time, the doc- 
trines which constitute the distinctive creed of Methodism." 
" Creeds of Christendom," vol. i, p. 690. 

Among the Methodist doctrinal standards of secondary char- 
acter, not indicated (or but secondarily) in any section of the 
Discipline, and between which and the legalized standards 
there must be consensus to give them doctrinal weight, are the 
commentaries of Benson, Clarke, Whedon, and other exposi- 
tors, and the " Doctrinal Tracts," with other familiar treatises. 
Among those indicated by the Discipline are the works included 
by the Bishops, under authority from the General Conference, 
in the course of study prescribed for traveling and local preach- 

* Stevens 1 "History of Methodism," vol. ii, p. 504. 
t Ibid., vol i, p. 372. J lbid^ vol. i, p. 147. 

1883.1 Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 45 

era. For example, Pope's " Compendium of Christian Theol- 
ogy," Wesley's "Plain Account of Christian Perfection," 
Foster's " Christian Purity," Harman's " Introduction to the 
Iloly Scriptures," Fletcher's "Checks to Antinomianism," 
Whedon's treatise on " The Will," Watson's " Theological In- 
stitutes," Butler's " Analogy of Natural and Kevealed Relig- 
ion," Wakefield's " Christian Theology," Merrill's treatise on 
" Christian Baptism," and others whose titles " are to be found 
in the memories and convictions of those upon whom the 
safekeeping of the body is devolved." * 

The agreement of opinion with John Wesley, on all doc- 
trines distinctive of Methodism, and not presented in the Ar- 
ticles of Religion, constitutes a secondary standard of appeal 
in doctrinal controversies that possesses weighty authority. 
" Any doctrine clearly within the consensus of the Church is 
protected by the common law of the Church without special 
enactment." f From this proposition we utter no dissent, but 
argue that all the doctrines of Methodism, if our resume of its 
theological history be correct, are under the protection, not only 
of the " common," but also of the statute law of the Church. 

Wesley's opinions of the immortality of brutes, baptismal 
regeneration, and the materiality of the Gehenna fire, were 
never numbered by him, or any other Methodist writer of 
credit, among the essential and characteristic doctrines of 
Methodism. " Our main doctrines, which include all the rest," 
wrote Wesley, " are repentance, faith, and holiness. The first 
of these we account, as it were, the porch of religion ; the next, 
the door ; the third, religion itself." % 

Methodists may accept or reject the great divine's notions of 
brute immortality, or of the materiality of the Gehenna fire, 
without any liability to impeachment for heterodoxy. The 
first are mainly embodied in his sermon on " The General 
Deliverance," which is numbered sixty-five in the American 
edition of his works, and which was never included — so far as 
we understand — in the first fifty-three, or fifty-eight, (authors 
differ as to the number,) of his Sermons, which were legally 
made part of the standards of Wesleyan orthodoxy. 

• Dr. Curry in the " Independent," Dec. 1, 1881. 

f Dr. Curry in the "Natioual Repository," Dec., 1878. 

% " Principles of a Methodist further Explained," Works, vol y, p. 333. 

46 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The doctrine of baptismal regeneration, " that vanguard of 
Popery," as Mr. Pullman rigorously styles it, was never held 
in its naked unscripturalness by John Wesley ; not even in the 
very zenith of his High-Churchliness. That his treatise on 
baptism, written in 1756, contains expressions at variance 
with his later opinions cannot be denied. But even in that 
treatise he supplies a u guarded corrective " to its misleading 
utterances in the words : " Baptism doth now save us, if we 
live answerable thereto ; if we repent, believe, and obey the 
Gospel: supposing this, as it admits us into the Church 
here, so into glory hereafter." * 

When John Wesley prepared his abridgment of the Thirty- 
nine Articles for submission to the American Methodists, lis 
powerful mind had shaken off that last vestige of Komanism. 
The twenty-fifth of the Anglican Articles reads : " Sacraments 
ordained of Christ be not only badges or tokens of Christian 
men's profession, but rather they be certain 6ure witnesses and 
effectual signs of grace and God's good will toward us, by 
the which he doth work invisibly in us," etc. Wesley omitted 
from the definition the words " sure witnesses and effectual." 
See Article XVI. 

v More significant is his emendation of the twenty-seventh article, 
" Of Baptism " given in the seventh, [seventeenth,] American arti- 
cle. The former declares baptism to be " a sign of regeneration, 
or the new birth, whereby, as by an instrument, they that receive 
baptism rightly are grafted into the Church ; the promises of the 
forgiveness of sin, and of our adoption to be the sons of God by 
the Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed ; and faith is con- 
firmed and grace increased by virtue of prayer unto God." AH 
this phrase after " the new birth " is omitted in the American 
articles, though the concluding part of the original article is re- 
tained with amendments. The omission is the more remarkable 
as the original article presents little or nothing that is offensive 
to the general faith of Protestant Christendom. Evidently the 
reason for this cautious change was his apprehension that it 
might be supposed to favor, however indirectly, the doctrine of 
baptismal regeneration.! 

Wesley was not infallible. The keenest, largest, strongest 
minds are defective at some point ; as the biographies of 
Augustine, Luther, Calvin, and other great leaders amply attest. 

* Wesley's " Works." vol. vi, p. 15. 

f Stevens' •* History of the Methodist Episcopal Church/ 1 vol ii, p. 208. 



1883.1 Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 47 

Wesley was not an exception to the general rale ; but he did 
emancipate himself from bondage to error on this point as he 
subsequently did in matters of Church polity. The Articles 
of Religion are the carefully guarded expressions of Wesley's 
belief on the subjects to which they refer ; and, judging by 
them, he must logically be excluded from the number of be- 
lievers in the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. 

The distinctive doctrines of Methodism not comprised in the 
Articles, but to be found in the consensus of acknowledged 
theological authorities are: 

1. Prbvenient Grace. — "The freedom of will, as a gift of 
prevenient grace, which is given to every man as a check and 
antidote to original sin." * 

" No man living," says Wesley, " is without some preventing 
grace, and every degree of grace is a degree of life. There is 
a measure of free will supernaturally restored to every man, 
together with that supernatural light which enlightens every 
man that coraeth into the world." " That by the offense of one 
judgment came upon all men (all born into the world) unto con- 
demnation, is an undoubted truth, and affects every infant as 
well as every adult person. But it is equally true that by the 
righteousness of One, the free gift came upon all men, (all born 
into the world — infants and adults) unto justification." — D. D. 
Whedon, Bibliotheca Sacra, 1862, p. 258. " Under the redemp- 
tive system, the man is born into the world, from Adam, a de- 
praved being. It is as a depraved being that he becomes an 
Ego. But instantly after, in the order of nature, he is met by 
the provisions of the atonement." 

" Every human being," says Warren, " has a measure of grace 
(unless he has cast it away,) and those who faithfully use this 
intrusted gift will be accepted of God in the day of judgment, 
whether Jew or Greek, Christian or heathen." f 

With these representations of doctrinal belief, Clarke, 
Watson, Bunting, Fisk, and all acknowledged Methodist theol- 
ogical authorities concur ; nor is there any doctrine which " so 
irresistibly and universally appeals for its confirmation to the 
common conscience and judgment of mankind." 

" Original sin and original grace met in the mystery of 
mercy at the very gate of Paradise." $ 

2. The Witness of the Spirit. This is another character- 
istic doctrine of Methodism. 

• SchaflTs •« HUtory of Creeds," pp. 897. f -^t P- 897 » 89S - 

t Pope's «• Comp. of Christian Theology/' vol it, p. 61. See also p. 359 eiseq. 

48 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

With Wesley's definition of the doctrine all his Methodistic 
contemporaries and successors substantially agree. "By the 
testimony of the Spirit," he writes, " I mean, an inward im- 
pression on the soul, whereby the Spirit of God immediately 
and directly witnesses to my spirit, that I am a child of God : 
that Jesus Christ hath loved me, and given himself for me ; 
that all my sins are blotted out, and I, even I, am reconciled 
to God." " The immediate result of this testimony is * the 
fruit of the Spirit ; ' namely, love, joy, peace, long-suffering, 
gentleness, goodness ; and without these the testimony itself 
cannot continue." * 

This testimony of our spirit, as St. Paul calls it, or " indirect 
testimony of the Holy Spirit, by and through our own spirit, 
is considered confirmatory of the first testimony." 

The Spirit's evidence, based on the Word and Sacrament, is 
guarded oy the ethical and moral testimony of the life. Wher- 
ever the assurance of the Spirit is mentioned there is to be found 
hard by the appeal to the resulting and never-absent evidences 
of devotion, obedience, and charity, f Assurance is the fruit, not 
the essence, of faith. . . . Perfect faith must be assured of its 
object. . . . The internal assurance of faith is a privilege that 
all may claim and expect; seasons of darkness and depression 
and uncertainty are only the trial of that faith of assurance. 

3. Christian Perfection is another doctrine eminently char- 
acteristic of Methodism ; its " last and crowning doctrine." X 

In the minutes of 1744 we find it defined by the process of 
question and answer : 

Quest. What is it to be sanctified ? 

Arts. To be renewed in the image of God, in righteousness 
and true holiness. 

Quest What is implied in being a perfect Christian ? 

Arts. The loving God with all our heart, and mind, and soul; 

Deut. vi, 5. 

Quest. Does this imply that all inward sin is taken away ? 

Ans. Undoubtedly ; or how can we be said to be " saved 
from all our uncleannesses ? " Ezek. xxxvi, 29. 

The promises, commands, prayers, and illustrations con- 
tained in the Holy Scriptures abundantly warrant the Method- 
istic reply to the inquiry, " What is Christian Perfection ? " 

* " Works," vol. i, sermon xi. 

f Pope's " Compendium of Theology," vol. Hi, p. 121. 

% Setoff's " History of Creeds," p. 900. 

1883.1 Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 49 

"Ans. The loving God with all our heart, mind, soul, and 
strength. This implies that no wrong temper, none contrary 
to love, remains in the soul ; and that all the thoughts, words, 
and actions are governed by pure love." 

" Do you affirm that this perfection excludes all infirmities, 
ignorance, and mistake ? " it was asked, in substance, if not in 
words. " I continually affirm quite the contrary, and have al- 
ways done so," was Wesley's rejoinder. " The humble, gen- 
tle, patient love of God and our neighbor, ruling our tempers, 
words, and actions," " is the whole and sole perfection " * 
taught by him from the pulpit and the press. 

He cherished this " last and crowning doctrine " as " the pe- 
culiar doctrine committed to our trust," and advised that " all 
our preachers should make it a point of preaching perfection 
to believers, constantly, strongly, explicitly." Asbury, like 
the great majority of Methodist preachers, felt " divinely im- 
pressed with a charge to preach it in every sermon." 

The Methodist consensus on this doctrine is apparent in all 
our theological standards and highly prized biographies. 
Wesley, as many of his preachers have since done, held one 
opinion of the different constituents of a human being at one 
time, and a contrary opinion at a later period, but his testimony 
to Christian perfection was uniformly the same. Methodist 
orthodoxy is indifferent to the trichotomy or dichotomy of 
man ; " it allows a liberal margin for further theological devel- 
opment," but is zealous and uncompromising in its insistence 
on the privilege and duty of all believers in Christ to enter 
into and retain the state of entire sanctification. 

The doctrine of eternal rewards and punishments is not a 
distinctively Methodist tenet, but the agreement of Method- 
ist writers and preachers in the exposition and defense of this 
revealed truth is so positive and unvarying as to leave no 
room for doubt as to the faith of the Church in its Scriptural- 
ness and obligation. 

Neither can the possibility of falling from grace, and per- 
ishing forever, be distinguished as a distinctively Methodist 
doctrine. It does receive deserved prominence in the pulpit 
and the press, and its vital importance is recognized by the 
Methodist Episcopal Catechism No. 3, p. 37, which 6ays : " It 

* Wesley's "Works," vol. vi, pp. 530, 531. 

50 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

is the privilege of every believer to be wholly sanctified, and 
to love God with all his heart in the present life ; but at every 
stage of Christian experience there is danger of falling from 
grace, which danger is to be guarded against by watchfulness, 
prayer, and a life of faith in the Son of God." 

This quotation from the catechism of the Church raises the 
question in what sense and to what extent it is to be accepted 
as one of the Methodist doctrinal standards. Dr. Schaff f as- 
signs to it conspicuous authority as one of them. ^ 259 of 
the Discipline makes it " the duty of our preachers to enforce 
faithfully upon parents and Sunday-school teachers the great 
importance of instructing children in the doctrines and duties 
of our holy religion ; to see that our catechisms be used as ex- 
tensively as possible in our Sunday-schools and families," etc. 
The language of this section evidently conveys the impression 
that the catechism contains a summary of all the essential doc- 
trines of Christianity as held by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The General Conference of 1848 intended that it 
should be so when that body ordered its preparation. Their 
instructions were carried out by the Rev. Dr. Kidder, assisted 
by other divines, and their work was approved and adopted 
by the General Conference of 1852. The series Nos. 1, 2, 3, 
does not consist of three separate catechisms, but of on*, in 
three stages of development, the language of the basis being 
unchanged in the different numbers. No. 3 presents some- 
thing like a system of Christian doctrine in condensed form, 
and is designed " for an advanced grade of study." 

This summary of Church doctrines enjoys the acceptance of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, represented by the General 
Conference, and its U6e is obligatory, " as extensively as pos- 
sible," upon ministers and members. Assuredly the Church 
has not spoken in any uncertain tones about her doctrinal be- 
liefs. She has nothing to conceal, no set of opinions for pri- 
vate study and ministerial subscription, and one altogether dif- 
ferent for pulpit use and prudential ministration. What she 
believes is proclaimed with fervid boldness. The Catechism is 
as explicit as, and infinitely more credible than, the Westmin- 
ster Confession and the Longer and Shorter Catechisms. 

Nor did the General Conference of 1852 exceed the limits 

f " History of Creeds," p. 882. 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 51 

of constitutional authority in the approving adoption of the 
catechism, for it neither revoked, altered, nor changed our 
Articles of Keligion, nor established " any new standards or 
rules of doctrine contrary to our present existing and estab- 
lished standards of doctrine." All the definitions of the cate- 
chism are in concord with the Methodist consensus of creed, 
commentary, treatise, and discourse ; nor has any Methodist 
preacher the legal right to impugn or attack them, unless he 
can show their dissensus from the other standards. 



Tie Dramatic Works of Shakespeare. Revised by Georgb Stevens 20 vols., 
Folio. London : Printed by W. Bulmer & Co., Shakespeare Printing Office. 
For John and Josiah Boy dell, George and W. Nichol. From the Types of 
W. Martin. 1802. 

The Works of William Sliakespeare. In Reduced Facsimile. From the Famous 
First Folio Edit on of 1623. With an Introduction by J. 0. Hallivvell Phil- 
lips. Svo, pp. 993. London : Chatto A Windus. Piccadilly. 1376. 

Sliakespeare' s Comedy of the MtrcJiani of Venice^ etc. Edited with Notes by Will- 
iam J. Rolfe, A.M., Formerly Head- Master of the Hiph School, Cambridge, 
Mass. With Kugraviu^s. 37 vols., 12mo, square. New York : Harper & 
Brothers. 1880. 

The Works of William Sliakespeare. The Text Revised by Rev. Alexander Dycb. 
In Nine Volumes. Third Edition, 8vo. London: Chapman & Hall, 193 Pic- 
cadilly. 1875. 

The Dramatic Works of William Shakespeare. With a Glossary. A New Edition, 
Corrected and Improved. 8 vo, pp. 1124. London : Henry G. Bohn. 1863. 

Tfte Complete Works of Shakespeare. From the Oripinnl Text Carefully Collated 
and Compared with the Editions of Halliwell, Knight, and Collier. With His- 
torical and Critical Introduction and Notes to each Play ; and a Life of the 
Great Dramatist, by Charles Knioht. 3 vols., Royal 8vo, pp. 1725. Now 
York : Johnson, Wilson & Co. 

Critics have spoken at times extravagantly of Shakespeare's 
songs and sonnets. There is much that is admirable in both ; 
but the gems which give to " Venus and Adonis" and "The 
Rape of Lucrece" their radiant beauty are not the founda- 
tions on which his fame is built. If he had only sung in these 
songs and charmed in these sonnets he would never have 
" lifted us over all seas and mountains" — he would never have 
taken us, as he has, to the very summit of the highest heaven 
of genius-inspired and genius-inspiring rapture. 

Shakespeare's fame, undying, overwhelming, transforming, 

52 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 


radiates from the dramatic portions of his works : his thirty- 
five or thirty -seven well-authenticated plays. These are 
usually divided into three divisions : comedies, historical, and 
tragedies. By whom this division was first made we know 
not. It is not, we think, the happiest arrangement that might 
have been devised. It is not a sufficiently discriminating one. 
There are histories that are also tragedies, and tragedies in which 
the soberest facts of history are mixed with comic elements of 
the broadest kind. The idea of the framer of this plan seems to 
have been that a play in which the events issue happily for the 
principal characters, must, for that reason, be regarded as a 
comedy, whereas a play the events of which come to a calam- 
itous issue must, therefore, be regarded as a tragedy. In like 
manner, one in which the events happen in chronological 
order must be historical, though it might not be distinct from 
either tragedy or comedy. In noticing these divisions we will 
reverse the order in which they have been named. 

The thirteen tragedies are to be distinguished from the 
other plays by their continuous sublimity and massive grand- 
eur. Of these tragedies, ten are associated with countries 
which, so far as is known, Shakespeare never visited. Two of 
these, "King Lear" and "Cymbeline," belong to English 
history, and one, " Macbeth," has its scenes in Scotland. In 
"Hamlet," "Macbeth," "Othello," and "King Lear," we 
have an illustration of Shakespeare's power in unveiling and 
depicting the baser, the most unlovable, of human passions. 

In " King Lear," Taine tells us, " we have curses more than 
sufficient for all the madmen in an asylum and for all the 
oppressed of earth. Lear was the subject of ungrateful, sav- 
age, and diabolical cruelty in an age when vice reigned with 
lawless and gigantic power. He is a picture of human misery 
that has never been surpassed, and as an illustration of dis- 
ordered reason, a portraiture beyond all reach of rivalry." 

The dreaded suspicion that he was becoming insane dawns 
upon him in the midst of a dreadful tempest. Kent finds 
him on the heath in front of a hovel : 

Kent Here is the place, my lord ; good my lord, enter : 
The tyranny of the open night's too rough 
For nature to endure. 

Lear. Let me alone. 

1883.] Shakespeare : His Works and his Editors. 53 

Kent. Good my lord, enter here. 

Lear, Wilt break my heart ? 

Kent. Fd rather break mine own. Good my lord, enter. 

Lear. Thou think'st 't is much that this contentious storm 
Invades us to the skin ; so 't is to thee; 
But where the greater malady is fiVd 
The lesser is scarce felt. Thou *dst shun a bear; 
But if thy flight lay toward the roaring sea, 
Thou 'dst meet the bear i' the mouth. 

When the mind's free 
The body's delicate; the tempest in my mind 
Doth from my senses take all feeling else, 
Save what beats there. 

He then curses the ingratitude of his daughters^ and ex- 
claims : 

But I will punish home.: — 
No, I will weep no more. In such a night 
To shut me out ! Pour on ; I will endure : — 
In such a night as this! O Regan, Goneril! 
Your old kind father, whose frank heart gave all, — 
O, that way madness lies! let me shun that; 
No more of that! * 

"Troilus and Cressida," "Julius Caesar," " Coriolanus," 
" Timon of Athens," and "Pericles" are based upon Greek 
and Roman histories, as is "Antony and Cleopatra." The 
characters included in these plays have been limned by Plutarch 
and Homer; but in neither case do they bear the slightest 
comparison with the same characters as drawn by Shakespeare. 
He individualizes them as neither the historian or poet had the 
ability to do. This is remarkably apparent in the play of " Ju- 
lius Caesar." We feel that Cassius, Brutus, Caesar, and An- 
tony are living men. They stand and speak in our presence 
as only real men can. The play is intended to be an artistic 
development of the motives that influenced Brutus to aid in 
the assassination of Caesar, and of the result of that action. 
" Brutus is," says Swinburne, " the very noblest figure of a 
typical republican in all the literature of the world." 

As in "Julius Caesar" so in "Coriolanus." The principal 
character is not of Plutarch's painting. Plutarch makes Co- 
riolanus to have been a cold, haughty patrician. Shakespeare's 
Coriolanus is a coarse soldier, a man of the people. He is an 

* " King Lear," Act iii, Scene iv. 

Foubth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 4 

54 MetJiodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

athlete. He has a voice like a trumpet. He is proud and 
terrible. A lion's soul in the body of a steer.* He fights and 
drinks, and drinks and fights again. His military prowess is un- 
rivaled. His character is severely sublime. He has an undis- 
guised contempt for every thing base, vulgar, pusillanimous. 

It has been affirmed that " Macbeth " is the greatest effort of 
the poet's genius, and that it is the most sublime and imposing 
drama the world has ever seen. In the opinion of the pro- 
foundest critics, Macbeth is represented as being too great and 
good to fall under common temptations ; hence supernatural 
agencies* are employed to subvert him. He is exposed to the 
suggestions of hell on the one side, and to those of his fiend- 
like wife on the other. Originally brave, magnanimous, gen- 
tle, he falls a prey to the idea of Fate. This was first sug- 
gested by the weird sisters. To this suggestion was added the 
ferocious and sarcastic eloquence of Lady Macbeth. She 
clothes with splendor the issue of the deed ; she taunts him 
with cowardice and irresolution; and, maddened, he rushes 
into the 6nare. As soon as the deed is done, conscience awakes. 
It accuses and condemns him. Horrified, he becomes the vic- 
tim of agonizing remorse. He feels that he is deserted by God 
and man. 

With what wonderful dramatic power does Shakespeare de- 
pict the beginning of Macbeth's misery. As soon as the mur- 
der was committed, Macbeth rushes into the presence of Lady 
Macbeth, and falters out : 

Macbeth. I have done the deed. Didst thou not hear a noise? 
Lady Mad>eth. I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry. 
Did not you speak ? 

• ••••• 

Macbeth. This is a sorry sight. (Looking on his hands) 
Lady Macbeth. A foolish thought, to say a sorry sight. 
Macbeth. There's one did laugh in's sleep, and one cried, " Mur- 
ther ! " 
That they did wake each other. I stood and heard them : 
Bat they* did say their prayers, and address'd them 
Again to sleep. 

Lady Macbeth. There are two lodg'd together. 
Macbeth. One cried "God bless us ! " and "Amen " the other; 
as they had seen mo wiih these hangman's hands, 
Listening their fear. I could not say " Amen," 
When they did say, " God bless us ! " 

* Taiue. 

1883.] Shakespeare : His Works and his Editors. 55 

Lady Macbeth. Consider it not so deeply. 

Macbeth. But wherefore could not I pronounce "Amen"? 
I had most need of blessing, and " Amen " 
Stuck in my throat. 

After reproaches from Lady Macbeth, and her departure, he 
hears a knocking, and thus : 

Macbeth. Whence is that knocking ? 
How is't with me, when every noise appals me ? 
What hands are here ? Ha ! They pluck out mine eyes. 
Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood 
Clean from my hand ? No ; this my hand will rather 
The multitudinous seas incarnadine, 
Making the green one red.* 

After this Macbeth becomes distrustful, treacherous, cruel. 
He sweeps away all those whose talents, virtues, suflFerings, 
pretentions, endanger his life. He hourly becomes more and 
more desperate and wretched. 

In no other of Shakespeare's characters do we see so clearly 
the debilitating effect of a fear-creating conscience. 

In " Timon of Athens" we have a most admirable satire on 
the folly and ingratitude of mankind. Tirnon, in thoughtless 
profusion, scatters his gifts on poets, painters, warriors, states- 
men, only to find that men may buy flattery but not friend- 
ship. In the hour of trial his flatterers desert him, and he 
becomes misanthropic. Apemantus taunts him, and he replies :. 

. I am sick of this false world ; and will love nought 
But even the mere necessities upon it. 
Then, Timon, presently prepare thy grave ; 
Lie where the light foam of the sea may beat 
Thy grave-stone daily : mnke thine epitaph, 
That death in me at other's lives may laugh. 

The historical plays commence with " King John," and end 
with " Henry the Eighth." These plays give evidence of an 
almost inspired insight into human character. We have in 
them a subtle analvsis of the motives which control men in 
every possible position. Taking the dramatic incidents of any 
reign, Shakespeare crowds them together, and, regardless of 
the unities, he makes us to see and understand the political and 
social state of the people, f 

» "Macbeth/' Act ii, Scene 11. 

f Drake, Hudson, Rolfe. All the critics, in fine. 

56 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The fourteen comedies are, and ever will be, the best known 
of all the poet has ever written. No man could have uttered 
them who had not a marvelous familiarity with nature, or who 
did not tenderly, sweetly, appreciate it in all its varied phases. 
They display, also, a power to paint the weaknesses and follies 
of men — such as all other men have aspired to in vain. 

The necessity for quotation "is here so great, that this paper 
can be kept within reasonable bounds only by exercising a 
heroic self-denial. It is in this division of his plays that 
Shakespeare gives us Falstaff, Mercutio, Touchstone, Jaques, 
Bassanio, Puck, Caliban, the Gobbos, and a hundred others 
all akin. For wit, imagination, and vividness of description, 
these are the most wonderful creations of which human genius 
can boast. If space would allow, we would quote the feats 
of the fairy Oberon, Mercutio's description of Queen Mab ; 
Clarence's dream ; the gossip babble of the nurse in " Romeo 
and Juliet ;" Biondella's description of Petruchio's horse ; Fal- 
stafFs personification of Prince Hal's father; the same wor- 
thy's interview with his page on the occasion of his visit to the 
doctor and the haberdasher Dombledon ; his wonderful descrip- 
tion of Bardolph's nose ; his still more wonderful description 
of himself and his soldiers when about to march through Cov- 
entry ; nor would we omit, but for the reason named, Dog- 
berry's oration on the failure of the sexton to "write him 
down an ass." These plays bring into view and describe with 
inimitable fidelity over nine hundred characters, all wonderful, 
some of them not only unsurpassed, but uneqnaled, in literature. 

No question is so often put to those who are supposed to 
have studied Shakespeare, as a specialty, than the one which 
usually is formulated on this wise — " Which of the plays do you 
regard as Shakespeare's greatest, and which is the most strik- 
ing passage in that play ? " Some say that " Macbeth," " Ham- 
let," "Richard the Third," "Romeo and Juliet," and "Julius 
Caesar " are all equally great. Taine says that the most power- 
ful passage in all Shakespeare's works is the scene between the 
three queens in " Richard the Third." If we would go with the 
multitude we must make our choice out of the well-known pas- 
sages commencing : " The quality of mercy is not strained ; " 
" All the world 's a stage ; " " To be or not to be," etc. We 
choose to elect to the highest honor the beautiful paraphrase 

1883.1 Shakespeare: His Works and his Editors. 57 

of our Lord's words, given in the first act of " Measure for 
Measure." Read the words of the blessed Saviour on the im- 
policy of hiding the talent, and then read the duke's address 
to Angelo : 

Dukt* Angelo, 
There is a kind of chai*acter in thy life, 
That to th* observer, doth thy history 
Fully unfold. Thyself and thy belongings 
Are not thine own so proper, as to waste 
Thyself upon thy virtues, they on thee. 
Heaven doth with us as we with torches do; 
Not light them for themselves : for if our virtues 
Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike 
As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely touch'd 
But to fine issues : nor Nature never lends 
The smallest scruple of her excellence, 
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines 
Herself the glory of a creditor, 
Both thanks and use.* 

It is specially worthy of notice that Shakespeare modes conr 
sfam&rtferenceinaUhUworkAtoalifetocome. The poet seems 
to be constantly making an effort to unite men to two states 
of existence. This is especially true in "Henry the Sixth," 
"Hamlet," "Measure for Measure," and "Macbeth." Too 
much, in our opinion, has been made of Shakespeare's indebt- 
edness to the Bible. That he was familiar with the Scriptures, 
and that the revelations made therein lay at the foundation of 
bis belief in a future life, is, without doubt, true, very true ; 
but his philosophy embraces science and the loftiest thoughts of 
uninspired men. It is worthy of remark that Shakespeare uses 
the word "conversion" in the old-fashioned Methodist sense. 
But there is no such use of the Bible as is implied in the 
statement that the Scriptures suggested his religious thoughts. 
Bishop Wilberf orce has said : " If we take the entire range of 
English literature, and put together what our best authors 
have written upon subjects not professedly religious or the- 
ological, we shall not find in all united so much evidence of 
the Bible having been read as we find in Shakespeare." This 
is the proper way of putting the matter. Shakespeare was a 
reader, it may be a lover, of the Bible. But the man is nar- 
row, if not fanatical, who bases upon these admitted facts an 

* "Measure for Measure," Act i, Scene 1. 

58 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

argument to prove that Shakespeare was a pious man or a 
religionist in any sense. He was, doubtless, endued with re- 
ligious sentiment, and had penetration enough to see in the 
word of God a wonderful corroboration and illustration of 
those truths to which he was most anxious to give universal 
currency. There are in Shakespeare some most remarkable 
adaptations of inspired thought. In addition to the passage 
already quoted from " Measure for Measure," who does not 
call to mind the speech of Ulysses in " Troilus and Cressida " ? 

Ulysses. But when the planets 
In evil mixture, to disorder wander, 
What plagues, and what portents ? what mutiny ? 
What raging of the sea ? shaking of earth ? 
Commotion in the winds ? frights, changes, horrors, 
Divert and crack, rend and deracinate 
The unity and married calm of states 
Quite from their fixure ? 

This is almost a paraphrase of Luke xxi, 25-26. In fact, 
Shakespeare is always reminding us of the Bible. No wonder 
that careless readers confound their quotations, and sefek to ex- 
tenuate their inexcusable ignorance by the plea, " I was sure it 
was either in Shakespeare or the Bible." Shakespeare reminds 
us of the Bible, not by his direct quotations, but by a similar 
simplicity of diction. 

Of all the poets who ha/oe enriched our vocabulary, we owe 
the most to Shakespeare. 

Our great poet, Milton, has remarkable opulence of expres- 
sion, but we are told that his vocabulary is limited to eight 
thousand words; Dante has only five thousand eight hun- 
dred; whereas Shakespeare has fifteen thousand! Look into 
Mrs. Cowden Clarke's "Concordance," and stand amazed. 
Forty per cent, of his words are from the Latin, and some of 
those he has incorporated int$ our mother tongue are very 
choice. The greater part, however, are Saxon and monosyl- 
labic. A late writer in " Lippincott's Magazine " says that of 
these fifteen thousand, six thousand only appear once. {% On 
every average page of Shakespeare," he says, " you are greeted 
and gladdened by at least five new words that you never 
saw before in his writings, and that you will never see again — 
speaking once and then for ever holding their peace. Each 

1883.] Shakespeare : His Works and his Editors. 59 

not only rare, but a nonsuch. Five gems just shown and then 
snatched away." 

Shakespeare unlocks to us a vast store-house of epithets, and 
it is only by a careful study of this greatest master of the lan- 
guage that we can know the richness and copiousness of the 
mother tongue. The marvelous suggestiveness of these epi- 
thets is what will strike every thoughtful reader. 

In one short passage of four lines, we have epithets that do 
the work of a painter : 

Duke S. Come, shall we go and kill us venison ? 
And yet it irks me the poor dappled fools, — 
Being native burghers of this desert city, 
Should, in their own confines, with forked heads 
Have their round haunches gor'd. 

Let the student take a few of the abstract nouns, and see 
■what he makes of them. Sighs are Wood-consuming ; disdain 
is sour-eyed ; gentleness is milky ; despair is black ; rage is 
tiger footed ; pomp, painted; fear, shuddering; jealousy, 
green-eye* d ; scorn, salt; sorrow, gnarled ; envy, lean faced ; 
discontent has murmuring lips ; virtue, steely bones ; emula- 
tion, pale and bloodless ; a flatterer is glass faced; a power- 
less man has corky r , pithless arms ; hypocrites are onion eye*d ; 
pestilence is red ; the winds scold; winter is sap-consuming ; 
fortune has an ivory hand ; ambition vaults ; slow men have 
leaden legs ; homely men are tripe-visaged ; reputation is a 
bubble; hills are heaven-kissing; death is dusty. The writer 
has made a list of thousands of these epithetsj and they are a 
continual marvel to him. They would have been published, 
but the fate of Holofernes, the learned school-master, and the 
still sadder fate of Sir Nathaniel, the wise curate, have, in an 
admonitory way, stayed the compiler's hand. These worthies, 
it will be remembered, charge each other with having been to 
" a great feast of languages," and as having " stolen the scraps " 
of Nathaniel, thus : 

Hoi. He draweth out the thread of his verbosity finer than the 
staple of his argument. I abhor such fanatical fantasms, such 
insociable and point-devise companions; such nickers of orthog- 
raphy, as to speak, dout, fine, when he should say, doubt ; det, 
when he should pronounce debt d, e, b, t ; not d, e, t ; he cleneth 
a calf, cauf ; half, hauf. . . . This is abhominable (which he 
would call abominable): it insinuateth me of insanie." 


60 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

On the return of Titus Andronicus from a successful cam- 
paign, Marcus is represented as exhorting him to put on the 
white robe of those named for the empire : 

Mar. Titus Andronicus, the people of Rome, 
Whose friend in justice thou hast ever been, 
Send thee by me, their tribune, and their trust, 
This palliament of white and spotless hue; 
And name thee in election for the empire, 
With these our later deceased emperor's sons: 
Be candidatus, then, and put it on, 
And help to set an head on headless Home* 

With such a source the phrase we have italicised ceases to 
be slang. 

Lear, when addressing Gloucester, says : 

Get thee glass eyes ; 
And, like a scurvy politician, seem 
To see the things thou dost not.f 

Similar advice has been given in our day, and those who 
gave it allowed the multitude to suppose it new. Phrases 
which some of us were sure had their birth in our own day, 
are some of them more than two hundred years old. We recog- 
nize one such in Henry the Eighth. The king, frowning or* 
his flatterers, says : 

But know I come not 
To hear such flattery now, and in my presence ; 
They are too thin and bare to hide offenses. J 

The most astounding feature of these plays is the almost in- 
credible number of subjects that the writer has touched 
with his wonder-working wand. In his "Student's Shakes- 
peare," lately published, the writer of this article has collated 
Shakespeare's thoughts on no less than five thousand subjects, 
and the rich mine is far from being exhausted. The most as- 
tounding thing about it all is that there is no repetition, either 
of thought or phraseology. No ringing of the changes on a 
few favorite ideas or characters. It has been said that Byron 
could only paint two portraits. The one was a rake, the other 
a misanthrope. So with the great living authors. They have 
a few characters with whom they seem to be in love, and they 

* "Titus Andronicus," Act i, Scene 2. f " Kin K k» r »" Act iv, Scene & 

% " Ilenrr the Eighth," Act v, Scene 2. 

1883.] Shakespeare : His Works and his Editors. 61 

repeat them with slight variations again and again. It is said 
of Dickens that he had to keep within the smoke of London, 
and that he was lost ontside. Scott had to keep on his native 
heather, bat Shakespeare sweeps through all lands and ages, 
and gives us pictures of all of human kind. 

A distinction must be made between the plays of Shakespeare 
as they were written by him and as they are rendered on the 
stage. Swinburne tells us that the best passages in " Hamlet " 
are never given on the stage. Lear, as acted on the boards, has 
a miserable love story, written by one Nahum Tate, running 
all through it. It has been affirmed that there are not twenty 
consecutive lines from the great poet to be found in any ver- 
sion used by " the profession." His plays, we are told, have to 
he cut down to the level pf the actors. Many of the things to 
wliich exceptions are taken at times, it is suspected, were never 
written by Shakespeare. The interpolations, in stage parlance, 
are called " gags," and were extemporized by actors to suit the 
tastes of their audiences. 

There are some things which Shakespeare has treated origi- 
nally and almost prophetically — certainly he has treated them 
in advance of his times. It will be remembered that Shakes- 
peare died more than half a century before Newton gave to the 
world his theory of gravitation. Yet he makes Cressida say : 

The strong base and building of my love 
Is as the very center oftlve earthy 
Drawing all things to it.* 

Before narvey made his name immortal by proclaiming his 

great discovery of the circulation of the blood, Shakespeare's 

Brutus said to Portia : 

You are my true and honorable wife ; 
As dear to me, as are the ruddy drops 
That visit my sad hearty 

It is only as yesterday that even scholars began to use with 
any degree of frequency the word heredity, but how much of 
it we have in Shakespeare. So with regard to insanity. The 
greatest of our modern physicians have recourse to Shakes- 
peare for instruction in the diagnosis of this mysterious state. 
So, in regard to conscience, botli the platform and the pulpit 

♦ "Troilus and Cressidn," Act iv, Scene 2. 
f " Julius Caesar," Act ii, Scene 1. 

62 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

are. his debtors. Joseph Cook's rendering of some passages from 
46 Richard the Third " is like a new revelation from the sky. 
The dream of Richard on the eve of the battle, as given by him, 
thrilled us to the very core. 

There are many who object to the realistic pictures with which 
our great artist's works abound. And yet the objectors are per- 
haps the very persons who listen admiringly to lascivious Italian 
songs, or read with undisguised satisfaction the nastiest French 
novels. Consistency is worth something, but these hypocrites 
ignore it. Every objection in this direction lies with measur- 
able force against the Bible as translated under the patronage 
of King James. As compared with much that is read with- 
out a blush or an uttered. protest, Shakespeare lies 

Upon the wings of night 
Whiter than uew snow on a raven's back.* 

In selecting an edition of this great master of English thought 
and expression, the student will, of course, be guided by his 
tastes, his means, and by the end he seeks to gain in his studies. 

There are several editions that are utterly beyond the reach 
of all but millionaires. The Boydell edition of 1802 is without 
question the most sumptuous ever given to the public. The 
paper is heavy, the type larger than any we have elsewhere 
seen. The illustrations have a world-wide fame. It is difficult 
to obtain this edition at any price. It can be seen in some 
public libraries. We have not space to dwell upon other and 
equally rare editions, nor need we, as it would take the price 
of a principality to buy the cheapest of them. 

A writer in the " Quarterly Review" (Eng.) in 1859 tells us 
that the works of Shakespeare have passed through three 
stages. In the first, they were printed with care. In the 
second, conjectural criticism prevailed. In the third, ancient 
readings were more thoroughly ascertained, and the Elizabethan 
literature ransacked to clear up the allusions and the language. 
They have now reached a fourth and, it may be, a final one — 
a stage of digestion and comparison. This stage was inau- 
gurated by Knight, who had perhaps an undue faith in the 
readings of the first folios. In 1843 Mr. Collier entered the 
lists, and he put his confidence in the quartos. Then came 

* u Romeo and Juliet," Act iii, Scene 2. 

1883 J Shakespeare : His Works and his Editors. • 63 

the Dyce editions. That of '1875 is remarkable for the purity 
of its text. The notes are few, and they are marked by brevity 
and pointedness. The type is magnificent, it has broad mar- 
gins, and is correspondingly expensive. 

Fuiness' " New Variorum," (Phil., 1873,) is as yet incom- 
plete, and belongs to the luxurious class. It bids fair to occupy 
a very enviable position among scholars, but its cost places 
it out of the reach of men of ordinary means. Nothing of 
this kind can be said of the Globe, and numerous other cheap 
editions. They are, however, printed in small type and often 
on inferior paper, and to most they would be dear at any price. 

Much might be said in commendation of Hudson's edition, 
but upon the whole we give decided preference to the one 
in course of publication for Mr. Rolfe, of Cambridge, by the 
Harper Brothers. Twenty-five of the thirty-seven plays are 
already before the public. They are profusely illustrated, and 
in the highest style of typographical art. They are marvels 
of careful collation and painstaking accuracy. If "Rolfe's 
Edition" was not sufficiently distinctive, we would call it the 
" Friendly Edition," the edition whicli we can make a com- 
panion of. It is not a fatiguing book to hold, a play can be 
selected and put in our pocket, or it will lie modestly at the 
bottom of the smallest traveling-bag, furnishing just such a 
dainty morsel as an intellectual lunch should ever be. The 
compactness of the notes entitles it to the position of a stand- 
ard " Variorum " edition. It contains a vast amount of in- 
cidental information illustrative of the times of the .poet, 
the manners of the people, and of contemporary writers. As 
to Shakespearian localities, this edition is far in advance of all 
others. It is surprising how ignorant some English editors 
seem to have been of the topography of their own country. 
Mr. Rolfe not only avoids all errors of this kind himself, but 
exhaustively corrects the errors of others. For instance, in 
"Richard the Third" we do not know of a single English ed- 
itor who seems to know the truth as to what " Crosby House" 
was or is. Their statements are as various as the authorities 
on which they depend. The same and more is true of " Bar- 
nard's Castle," and " The Blue Boar." Of all editions, this for 
the teacher and the student is the best. To say more would 
be " wasteful and ridiculous excess." 

64 * Methodist Quarterly Beview. [January, 


Gvlist&n. Sheikh Sadi Shirazi. Munshi Newul Kishore Press, Lacknow. 1881. 
Boston. Sheikh Sadi Shirazi. Munshi Newul Kishore Press, Lucknow. 1881. 

" Poetry has ever been held in the greatest veneration in the 
East. If the ancient Greeks and Romans gave Xo their poets 
all the honors they lavished on their inferior divinities, the 
Persians have ranked thera with their Imams and Prophets, and 
have as willingly abided by their commands as by the injunc- 
tions of their Holy Writ. The Persians are enthusiastically 
devoted to poetry. It forms the very essence of their relig- 
ion. The meanest artisan, the rudest soldier, the proudest 
noble, and the tyrant king, are alike charmed by the strains 
of the minstrel who sings a mystic song of divine love. They 
may forget the words of Mohammed, they may neglect the 
maxims of their Sharehs, but the verses of Sadi and Hafiz are 
indelibly impressed on their memory." 

Centuries, long and busy and full of change, have passed 
since Ferdusi, Sadi, and Hafiz delighted the people of the 
country they adorned, but to-day, throughout Persia, India, 
and the lands that lie between, they are appealed to and their 
words quoted with a readiness and frequency difficult to de- 
scribe. In street-preaching among Mohammedans we often 
hear the verse from Sadi, 

Darogh i maslahat-aniez bih az r&st i fitna-angez. 

A lie purporting good is better than a truth exciting disturb* 

This is quoted with the greatest possible assurance, and the 
verse is used in its widest signification. In the year 1792, 
when the embassadors of Tippoo Sultan were at Madras, en- 
gaged in their mission of raising an insurrection against the 
British Government, one of them, in his letter to his master, 
advises him to agree to a proposal " upon the principle recom- 
mended by the sage and worthy Khivaja Hafiz Shirazi, (on 
whom may the mercy of the Lord forever rest,) With friends 
cordiality, with enemies dissimulation" 

As has been well remarked by Sir William Jones, the verses 
which justify vice are oftener quoted than those in praise of 
virtue — so weak, alas 1 is human nature, especially in Oriental 

1883.] Persian Poetry. 65 

lands. On the other hand, however, instances are not want- 
ing. It is related that one of the kings of Persia, a man of 
acknowledged talents, being out one Friday to attend service 
at the royal mosque, one of his attendants struck a poor 
Christian who ventured to approach the cavalcade, accompany- 
ing the blow with an awful imprecation : " Begone to hell, O 
cursed dog ; this is not your church ! " The injured youth 
with much presence of mind replied in a couplet from Hafiz : 

I have been to the temple, the mosque, and the church, 
And the same God I found worshiped in all. 

The king smiled with admiration, and extended his hand to 
the young man, who went home richer by two hundred rupees. 

Hafiz especially is constantly resorted to by Mohammedans 
when seeking for an omen. Owing, no doubt, to the ambiguous 
nature of many of the couplets in his " Diw&n," this book is 
regarded as the one of all others from which to draw an 
augury. The female members of the Mohammedan household 
make it the constant court of appeal in deciding the grave 
questions of every-day life. This practice is not confined to 
the zenanas ; it is said that the king, Nadir Shah, chose a pas- 
sage from the odes of Hafiz before undertaking a siege. 

The oldest extant specimen of Persian poetry is the romance 
of Wamik and Asra, which appeared in the latter part of the 
6ixth century, while as yet the worship of fire had not been 
superseded by the religion of Mohammed. The theme of the 
poem is: 

Old as the rose, first into beauty blowing, 

Old as the sun himself first into passion glowing. 

Wamik and Asra, the Glowing and the Blowing, are person- 
ifications of the two great principles of heat and vegetation, 
the vivifying energy of heaven and the corresponding fertility 
of earth. 

After the Moslem conquest of the country in 636, literature 
declined, and thus remained until the tenth century, when the 
language was restored, and there was hardly a prince or gov- 
ernor of a city who had not poets and literati in his train. 
One of the most distinguished of these patrons of letters was 
Mahmnd of Ghazni, famous also as being the first Moham- 
medan ruler who successfully invaded India. To his court 

66 Methodist Quarterly Review. January, 

repaired the peasant Ferdusi, to whom the sultan committed 
the execution of a long-cherished project — the composition of 
a poetical history of Persia from the foundation of the mon- 
archy till the Moslem conquest. A mass of materials, consist- 
ing of oral traditions collected by a previous poet, was placed 
at his disposal, and his reward was to be a dinar for every 
distich. The task occupied thirty years; the work, entitled 
the " Shahnamah," included sixty thousand distichs, and secured 
for its author the title of " the Homer of Persia." 

Of this production (which is still popular throughout India, 
where it is read in the original and in an Urdu translation) so 
eminent an authority as Sir W. Jones has declared that " the 
plan of the ' Shahnamah ' was in some respects finer than that 
of the i Iliad ; ' " but, as has been pointed out by later writers, 
the two plans cannot be compared because they have nothing in 
common. The " Shahnamah" cannot properly be styled an epic. 
" There is not from beginning to end so much as an endeavor 
to delineate character. Rustum, the hero, is no more of a 
human being than the Iron Man in Spenser's " Faerie Queene." 
He is simply a machine in the form of a man, and possessed of 
almost unlimited force. At the age of five he kills with one 
blow of a club a mad white elephant. When he puts his hand 
on the backs of the strongest horses they sink down and roll 
upon the earth incapable of enduring the pressure." The 
author excels, it is true, like the Homer with whom he is com- 
pared, in his descriptions of battles. * 

On the completion of his work the poet was paid with sixty 
thousand pieces of silver instead of gold. Indignant at this 
evasion of the contract, Ferdusi distributed the money on the 
spot to the people about him, and vowed to avenge himself in 
a manner worthy of a poet. He left Ghazni, but before his 
departure he committed to the monarch's private secretary a 
carefully sealed packet, desiring him to present it the first 
time his master happened to be in a melancholy mood. The 
packet contained the following bitter satire : 

What could one expect from the son of a slave, 
But that, sooner or later, he'd turn out a knave ? 
Let his head with a crown be encircled about, 
The meanness will somewhere be sure to peep out. 
Plant in Eden's fair garden a bitter-fruit tree, 
Let its waters of heavenly purity be; 

1883.] Persian Poetry. 67 

Let rich dropping honey bedew the young root — 

Still, still you will find that bitter's the fruit. 

Bring the heavenly peacock, and cause it to brood 

O'er the e?g of a raven ; and then let the food 

Of the nestling be fig-seeds from Eden's fair tree, 

And let Gabriel breathe on it — holy is he! 

Let it drink of the water of sweet S.ilsebil — 

What does it avail ? — 'tis a hoarse raven still I 

Deposit a viper in that rosy bed; 

With the choicest of luxuries let it be fed — 

Is it t:imed by your kindness, or softened its spite ? 

O no! it turns on you with venomous bite. 

By night, bring an owl to your elegant bowers; 

Let it perch on the rose-bushes, sport 'mid the flowers; 

But as soon as the day spreads its wings on the sky, 

So soon will the owl stretch its pinions to fly, 

And seek the tall forests in darkness to lie. 

So sure as our garments catch odorous smell 

Tn a shop of rich perfumes — and so far 'tis well — 

They will borrow as surely a dark dusty hue 

If we stand by a forge — you allow this is true; 

Then wonder no more if a dark, evil deed, 

From a dark evil man spontaneous proceed. 

No more can the Ethiop make himself white, 

Than a soul of mean birth can emerge into light, 

And show itself generous, noble, and wise — 

So let not the poets throw dust in our eyes. 

king! if I sooner this lesson had learned, 

1 should not be mourning my hopes overturned. 

, From the tenth century to the fourteenth was the Golden Age 
of Persian literature, the Mohammedan princes maintaining 
a kind of literary rivalship in the patronage of letters, so that 
to excel in poetry was the surest way to fame and fortune. Of 
all the cities of Persia none gave birth to more distinguished 
poets than Shiraz, "the Athens of the East." This classic 
city was so fertile in luxuries of every kind as to give occasion 
to a popular saying that " if Mohammed had tested the pleas- 
ures of Shiraz he would have begged of Allah to make him 
immortal there." It was the birth-place of Sadi and Haiiz, 
two of the brightest stars that shine in this constellation. 

Hafiz was born in 1300. He led a life of poverty, which he 
considered inseparable from genius, and which, according to 
his creed, was the only medium of salvation. Unlike most 
poets of his age, he refused all invitations to courts. Gheias 
Ud Din, Emperor of India, sent him a pressing request to visit 

68 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

him, but the poet politely declined. He replied in a poem 
which concluded as follows : 

O Hafiz, why conceal the desire that possesses you of visiting 

Sultan Gheias Ud Din? 
It is your business to complain of the distance that separates you 

The poetry of Hafiz is entirely lyrical ; his strains are 
noted for their music and eloquence. He was gifted with an 
imagination remarkable for its creative fancy. A recent 
writer praises him as follows : " Hafiz is a genuine poet — so far 
as we know, the sweetest of all Persian poets. There is in 
bis poetry a freshness and a fragrance as of early spring flow- 
ers, a careless outpouring of joy as free from any after-taste of 
bitterness as the caroling of a bird among the leaves of sum- 
mer." The same author says, and the words but too plainly 
indicate the saddest defect of Persian poetry, " All prob- 
lems of life and thought he pushes to one side by a simple 
reference to fate, and dwells upon an earth where i no cold 
moral reigns.' Roses, wine, and women, spring, summer, 
sunshine, these things are all pleasant surely ; and ' who know- 
eth what thing cometh after death ? ' Such is the beginning, 
middle, and end of Hafiz's philosophy." 

The following renderings of some of this poet's verses may 
be quoted : 

Be patient, O my heart! be not vexed; verily the morn is suc- 
ceeded by the night, and the night is succeeded by the day. 

Some labor in the paths of love; others leave every thing to 
fate. But place no reliance on the permanency of the world; it 
is a tenement liable to many changes. 

Be not sorry if a day of calamity should come; pass on, be 
thankful, lest greater ill betide thee. 

His celebrated ode on the " Maid of Shiraz " is not worthy 
a place in the pages of the Quarterly. The following may 
suffice : 


Veiled is my soul in this material clay; 
Blest be the hour that tears the veil away! 
The imprisoned bird in sadness pours her strains, 
So pines my soul to join her native plains. 
Where am I come ? or whence had I my birth t 
Alas! I know not, nor aught else on earth. 

1883.] Persian Poetry. 69 

Confined and bound in this material state 
How shall I soar to purer realms of fate ? 
Yet will I hope the promised world of bliss; 
An«l, with such hope, who would remain in this! 
What if my heart reveal its longing woes ? 
The musk of Khotun must its sweets disclose. 
The glittering tissue on my outward vest 
But ill conceals the flame within ray breast; 
Come, then, transcendent source of life divine! 
To thee the life thou gavest I resign; 
Thou only livest; Hatiz is but thine! 

It has been made a subject of discussion whether the poems 
of Hafiz should be taken in a literal or in a figurative sense. 
Strange as it may seem, the question is not capable of an easy 
solution. According to Jones, it u does not admit of a general 
answer. The most enthusiastic Sufis allow that there are some 
passages in the Odes of Hafiz which may be understood liter- 
ally, and which are void of mystery as the words of God, while 
there are some entire odes which breathe the very essence of 
their philosophy, and to the general reader appear confused and f 
obscure." * 

* To give an account of Suflsm — which has exercised so powerful an influence 
over the greatest minds of Persia and India — would require too lengthy a digres- 
sion. Intimately connected as it is with the subject in hand we cannot pass it 
without a few words. It is an at'ractive and very popular species of Pantheism. 
The following passage from the " Boston " of the poet Sadi helps to an under- 
standing of it in its more moderate form : 

"The love of a being composed, like thyself, of water and clay, destroys 
thy patience and pejce of mind; it excites thee in thy waking hours with 
minute beauties, and engages thee in thy sleep with vain imaginations. With 
such real affection dost thou lay thy head at her feet, that the universe, in 
comparison with her, vanishes into nothing before thee; and since thy gold 
allures not her eye, gold and mere earth appear equal in thine. Not a breath 
dost thou utter to any ono else, for with her thou hast no room for any other. 
Thou declarest that her abode is in thine eye; or, when thou closest it, in thy 
heart Tbou hast no fear of censure from any man ; thou hast no power to be 
at rest for a moment; if she demands thy soul, it runs instantly to thy lips. Since 
an absurd love, with its basis on air, affects thee so violently, and commands thee 
witli a sway so despotic, canst thou wouder that they who walk in the true path 
are drowned in the sea of mysterious adoration? They disregard life through 
affection for its giver ; they abandon the world, through remembrance of its maker ; 
they are inebriated with the melody of their amorous plaints; they remember 
their beloved, and resign to him both this life and tho next Through remem- 
brance of God they shun all mankind; they are so enamored of the cup-bearer 
that they spill the wine from the cup. No panacea can heal them, for no mortal 
can be apprised of their malady ; so loudly has rung in their ears, from eternity 

Focbth Series, Vol. XXXV. — 5 

?0 Methodist Quarterly Hemeia. [January, 

The countrymen of Hafiz regarded hira with mixed feelings. 
At the time of his death there were many who considered his 
works sinful and impious. They remonstrated against his 
being buried in consecrated ground ; but his followers main- 
tained that Hafiz never acted contrary to the leading tenets of 
the Koran, and that his life deserved every honor that could 
be bestowed on the life of a saint. u His opponents went even 
so far as to arrest the procession of his funeral. The dispute 
became hot, and blo\ys were imminent, when it was agreed 
that a line of his own should settle the dispute. If it were 
to be in favor of religion his friends were to proceed with the 
bier; if the verse were calculated to promote immorality, the 
corpse was to be removed to such quarters as are intended to 
receive the remains of the infidels. The odes were produced 
before a person whose eyes were bound, and seven pages were 
counted back, when the inspired finger pointed to the follow- 
ing couplet : 

Qadam daregh madar az janaza e Hafiz, 
Agarchi gharq i gunab ast mirawad rah bihisht. 

Or, in other words, 

Grudge not your steps to Hafiz 1 funeral train ; 
Though sunk in sin, his way to bliss is plain. 

A shout arose ; the admirers of the poet took up the bier, and 
those who had doubted joined them in carrying it for interment. 
To this day honor is done to the sacred spot, and to the mem- 
ory of the great bard, by strewing flowers and pouring out 
libations of the choicest wines on his grave." 

During the last four hundred years no names have appeared 
in Persia worthy to rank with those of Ferdusi, Sadi, and Hafiz. 
Persian literature became almost extinct in the sixteenth cent- 
ury, and has had little opportunity for revival, owing to the op- 
pression and social disorganization under which the country has 

Something should be said of the forms of poetic composition 

without beginning, the divine query addressed to myrinds of assembled pouIs, 
1 Art thou of God?' with the tumultuous reply, 4 We Hre.' They are a sect fully 
employed, but sitting in retirement ; their feet are of earth, but their breath is a 
flume : . . . like stone, they are silent, yet repeat God's praises. At early dawn 
their tears flow so copiously as to wash from their eyes the black powder of 
sleep. So enraptured are they with the beauty of Him who decorated the human 
form, that with the beauty of the form itself they have no concern/ 1 

1883.1 Persian Poetry. TL 

among the Persians. These are (1) the u Rubai :" this consists 
of four hemistichs or two 6tanzas, and bears some resemblance 
to the epigram of the ancients ; it is in great favor among Per- 
sian poets. (2) The " Ghazal : " this corresponds to the ode of 
the Greeks and Romans. The most common subject of which 
it treats is love ; other subjects are also dwelt upon, such as the 
delights of the season of spring, the beauties of the flowers of 
the garden, and the tuneful notes of the nightingales warbling 
among the rose-bushes ; the praise of wine and hilarity, with 
an occasional pithy allusion to the brevity of human life. The 
first couplet is called the "Matla," or "the place of rising," 
(of a heavenly body,) and the rule is that both hemistichs of 
this couplet should have the same meter and rhyme ; the re- 
maining couplets must have the same meter, and the second 
hemistichs of each (but not necessarily the first) must rhyme with 
the a Matla." The concluding couplet is called the " Makta," or 
" the place of cutting short." In the " Makta " the poet man- 
ages to introduce his own name, or rather his nom deplwne. 
As a general rule, the Ghazal must consist of at least five coup- 
lets, and not more than fifteen. (3) The " Kasida," which resem- 
bles the idyllium of the Greeks ; its subjects are generally praise 
of great personages, living or deceased ; satire, elegy, and some- 
times burlesques, also moral and religions reflections. When 
the subject is panegyric, in the concluding couplet the poet 
finishes with a benediction or prayer for the health and pros- 
perity of the person addressed, such as, " May thy life, health, 
and prosperity endure as long as the sun and moon revolve ! " 
(4) The u Kita ; " this resembles the " Kasida." (5) The u Mas- 
navi," a kind of epic poem, generally on amorous subjects or 
on the pleasures of the spring. The verses are not confined by 
any rule, as in the Ghazal ; the poet alone determines the length 
of the poem. 

Regarding the merits of Persian poetry, critics differ widely. 
Sir William Jones, the distinguished Oriental scholar, was pro- 
fuse in praise. A century ago he wrote: "It has been my 
endeavor for several years to inculcate this truth, that if the 
principal writings of the Asiatics which are reposited in our 
public libraries were printed, with the usual advantages of notes 
and illustrations, and if the languages of the Eastern nations 
were studied in our great seminaries of learning, where every 

72 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

other branch of useful knowledge is taught to perfection, a 
new and ample field would be opened for speculation; we 
should have a more extensive insight into the history of the 
human mind ; we should be furnished with a new set of images 
and similitudes, and a number of excellent compositions would 
be brought to light which future scholars might explain and 
future poets might imitate." 

We doubt if such sentiments are entertained by any emi- 
nent critic of to-day. Most would rather indorse the assertion 
of a recent writer in the " Calcutta Review," that " good 
poetry among the Persians might almost be designated as acci- 
dental." The cloudless sky of Persia and the serenity of its sum- 
mer nights make it natural for its poets to indulge in frequent 
allusions to the beauty of the heavenly bodies ; the profusion 
of flowers and the richness of their perfume impart a grace to 
some of the rural images which, it is urged, we can hardly 
appreciate. But, making due allowance for all this, we ven- 
ture the opinion that the world would have lost but little had 
all Persian literature been destroyed centuries ago. 

As compared with the poetry of Europe, Persian poetry can- 
not but be assigned a lower place. The following words of a 
recent writer are to the point : " A poem was not regarded by 
the Persians as something one and organic, to be molded and 
developed in accordance with 6orae preconceived idea. Cer- 
tain things, for example, roses, nightingales, wine, and women 
with black moles on their cheeks, are considered poetical in so 
special a sense that a man who rings the changes on these 
writes poetry of necessity. Strong in this conviction, the Per- 
sian poets sing out all that is in them, careful only for the 
construction of the verse and a due garniture of the recognized 
poetic imagery. The poet only hits upon excellence, as it 
were, by an accident. It is but a passing flash which illumin- 
ates the darkness." 

Persian poets as a rule are very egotistical. At the conclu- 
sion of one of his finest odes Hafiz thus speaks of himself : 

What can the minstrel sing at the banquet of a prince 
If he singeth not the verses of Hafiz ? 

The childish habit of incorporating their names in their 
verses, which the Persian poets adopted, evidences both 

1883.] Persian Poetry. ' 78 

weakness and vanity, and calls forth onr severest disapproval. 
Imagine the Poet Laureate closing a poem in some such fashion 
as this: 

Rather think of death than life, O iny Alfred Tennyson ; 
When thou goest from this world leave thy friends thy benison ! 

Passing by the charge of puerility, which may be fairly 
urged against these gifted but dreamy poets, we pause to speak 
briefly of the indecency which marks their writings. They 
often indulge their humor in what was coarse and immodest 
Sadi not only wrote a volume called " The Book of Impurities," 
which he said was designed to give a relish to his other works, 
but allowed violations of decency to disfigure the " Gulist&n " 
and the " Bostiin." In our mission schools we find it desira- 
ble to use these Persian classics, but are obliged to obtain ex- 
purgated editions, and these are published only at our mission 
presses. Native readers and publishers are alike blind to their 
blemishes. Comment here is needless. 

The " Musnavi," so highly praised by Jones, " is a medley of 
pathos and sublimity, the purest ethics minglpd with the gross- 
est obscenity, utter doggerel interspersed with passages of the 
finest poetry." This criticism is applicable indeed to all Per- 
sian poetry. 

This sad failure to attain the high level of purity of thought 
and grandeur of aim is not to be wondered at. The teachings 
of the Koran and the Mohammedan theory of the unseen world 
make any other result impossible. We would emphasize the 
words of a writer already quoted : 

" It is absolutely impossible to conceive of English literature 
if purged from the admixture of Christian thought ; of a Shak- 
speare, for example, without one thought of Him * who, eight- 
een hundred years ago, was nailed for our advantage to the 
bitter cross ;' or a Milton with no other conception of the 
celestial beatitudes than those compatible with black-eyed dam- 
sels and flowing cups of wine. The East and fhe West have 
reflected in their literature the image of the rock whence they 
were hewn, and, in so far as Christ was a greater power and more 
complete a being than the Prophet, in so far at least the poetry 
of the West must be superior to that of the East. If to this 
we add the absence of freedom and national life which mark 

74 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

the annals of the East, and the debasing tendencies of a social 
system wliich degrades woman into i a soulless toy for tyrant's 
lust,' we shall have said enough to account for the unspiritual 
and passionless character of Persian poetry." * 

We have reserved for the close our mention of Sadi, who is 
considered the greatest of Persian poets after Ferdusi. He 
was born in Shiraz in 1194. He early embraced a religious life, 
and is said to have performed fifteen pilgrimages on foot to 
Mecca. He further proved himself a good Mohammedan by 
bearing arms against the Crusaders of Europe. He was taken 
captive and was employed in digging trenches before Tripoli, 
where he was recognized and ransomed for ten dinars by a 
rich merchant of Aleppo. His benefactor afterward gave 
him his daughter in marriage with a dowry of a hundred 
dinars ; but she proved a termagant, and one day tauntingly 
asked him whether he was not the fellow her father had re- 
leased from slavery for ten dinars. " Yes," replied Sadi, "but 
only to enslave me to you for a hundred." 

The principal works of Sadi are the " Gulistdn," the " Bos- 
ton," and a collection of odes and sonnets arranged in a " Di- 
wdn." The " Gulistan," (Rose Garden,) which is his most 
celebrated work, is a collection of moral and political precepts, 
philosophical sentences, moral maxims, epigrams, and bonmots, 
in verse of various measure, each being generally introduced 
by a short anecdote or fable in prose. The work is divided 
into eight chapters, as follows : On the Morals of Kings ; on 
the Morals of Darweshes ; on the Excellency of Contentment ; 
on the Advantages of Taciturnity ; on Love and Youth ; on 
Imbecility and Old Age ; on the Effects of Education ; Rules 
for Conduct in Life. Of this very popular book it is no ex- 
aggeration to say that in India alone hundreds of thousands 
of copies are published every year. In vernacular schools as 
well as among the literati it is considered a vade mecum. 

We subjoin a few translations (mostly in prose and, there- 
fore, truer to the original) from this Rose Garden : 

I. The Flag and the Cuktain. 

In hikayat shano ki dar Bagdad 
Raiyat o parda r& Khilaf uf t&d 

• R D. Osborn. 

1883J Persian Poetry. 75 

Raiyat az gard i rah o ranie rakab, 
Guft ba parda az tarikh e itab, 
Man o to har do Khwaja ta shanem 
Baode bargah e Sultanem. 
Man zi khidmat dame na asudam, 
Gah o begah dar safar budam, 
To na rani azmudai na hisar, 
Na bayabanon bad e gard o gubar, 
Qadam i man ba sayi peshtar ast, 
Pas charra rahat e to beshtar ast, 
To bar e bandagan i mahrui, 
Ba gulaman e yasaman bui, 
Man fitada bad ast i sh&gird&n, 
Ba safar pacband o sargardan. 
Guft man sarbar as tar daram, 
Na cbo to sar bar asman daram. 
Har ki behuda gard an afrazad 
Kheshtan ra ba gardan andazad. 


Attend to the following story: In the city of Bagdad there 
happened a contention between the flag and the curtain. The 
flag, disgusted with the dust of the road and the fatigue of 
marching, said to the curtain in displeasure, " You and myself 
are schoolfellows, both servants of the sultan's court. I never 
enjoy a moment's relaxation from business, being obliged to 
travel at all seasons; you have not experienced the fatigue of 
marching, the danger of storming the fortress, the perils of the 
desert, nor the inconveniences of whirlwinds and dust; my foot 
is more forward in enterprise ; why, then, is thy dignity greater 
than mine ? You pass your time among youths beautiful as the 
moon, and with virgins odoriferous as jasmine; I am carried in 
the hands of menial servants, and travel with my feet in bands 
and my head agitated by the wind." The curtain replied : " My 
head is placed on the threshold, and not, like yours, raised up 
to the sky. Whosoever, through folly, exalts his neck, precipi- 
tates himself into distress." 

II. Prosperity and Adversity. 

A king was sitting in a vessel with a Persian slave. The boy 
having never before seen the sea, nor experienced the inconven- 
ience of a shij», began to cry and lament, and his whole body 
was in a tremor. Notwithstanding all the soothings that were 
offered, he would not be pacified. The king's diversions were 
interrupted, and no remedy could be found. A philosopher who 
was in the ship said, " If vou will command me I will silence him." 
The king replied, " It will be an act of great kindness." The 
philosopher ordered them to throw the boy into the *eea, and 


16 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

after several plunges, they laid hold of the hair of his head, and 
dragging him toward the ship, he clung to the rudder with both 
his hands. When he got out of the water he sat down quietly 
in a corner of the vessel. The king was pleased and asked how 
this was brought about. The philosopher replied, " At first he 
had never experienced the danger of being drowned; neither 
knew he the safety of the ship. In like manner he knoweth the 
value of prosperity who hath encountered adversity." 

III. Lip Service. 

A rich miser having* a son that was sick, his friends repre- 
sented that he ought either cause the Koran to be read from be- 
ginning to end, or else offer sacrifice, that the high God might 
restore his son to health. After a little consideration he said: 
" It is better to read the Koran, as it is at hand, and flocks are 
at a distance." A holy man, hearing this, said: "lie preferred 
reading the Koran because the words are at the tip of his tongue 
and the money is in the inside of his heart. Alas! if the perform- 
ance of religious rites was to be accompanied with alms, they would 
remain like the ass in the mire; but if you require only the first 
chapter of the Koran, they will repeat it a hundred times." 

IV. On a Miser, 

Were heaven's bright spheres placed in the miser's hands, 

To roll obsequious at his high commands; 

If all the wealth of Cnesus were his own, 

Or this huge globe became the wretch's throne; 

Fortune, his slave, could not produce one claim, 

To crown her lord with Fame's exalted name. 

What are their hoards of gold but dross the whole, 

Who lack that glowing mine, a feeling soul ? 

Poor sordid worms may crawl for years in pain, 

By land or sea, and look to heaven in vain. 

Religion says: "Sure nought avails his store, 

Whose aching heart is craving still for more." 

W T hile noble minds wealth's purest fruits enjoy, 

Gold's growing cares the miser's peace destroy. 

Those live indeed — these life's rich harvest blast, 

Nay, daily starve, and die of want at last. 

The " Bost&n " (Tree Garden) is a work wholly in verse, 

divided into ten. books, and embodying chiefly the religious 

sentiments of the author. A short " selection from the third 

book may suffice : 

The wise select the kernel, not the husk, 
And fools are all beside. lie the pure wine 
Alone has drunk, who, by remembering God, 
Has all things else in both worlds clean forgot. 

1883.] Persian Poetry. 11 

In conformity with such sentiments as these, Sadi built for 
himself, in his declining years, a hermitage near the walls of 
Shiraz; and here he lived absorbed in religious meditation. 
He received both visits and gifts from persons of exalted rank, 
but after appropriating to himself what was necessary to a 
bare subsistence, he distributed the rest to the poor. He is 
6aid to have lived to the age of 116, and to have been buried 
on the spot where his last days were spent. His tomb is still 
pointed out to travelers. 

• ♦ • 


1. Educational Reports; 2. Letters to Foreign Ecclesiastics; 3. Letters to the 
Hon. George Brown ; 4. Civil Government — A Discourse; 5. First Lessons in 
Agriculture; 6. Christian Morals; 7. The Loyalists of America and Their 
Times. Vols. I, II. 

It was at the Methodist Conference in Canada, held at Saltfleet, 
or Fifty-Mile Creek, in 1825, that Egerton Ryerson was re- 
ceived on trial into the Methodist ministry. It is a some- 
what singular coincidence that at the said Conference six were 
received on trial, six others remained on trial, and six more 
were received into full connection. The total number of the 
members of Conference, including the above, was thirty-three. 
Of this number Dr. Ryerson was the last survivor, and he now 
has also passed on before. 

Of those admitted on trial, two besides Mr. Ryerson be- 
came men of more than ordinary celebrity: James Rich- 
ardson, afterward Dr. Richardson, Bishop of the Episcopal 
Methodist Church in Canada, and Anson Green, afterward 
Dr. Green, who was three times president of Conference, 
and for many years book steward, and was often sent as 
representative to other ecclesiastical gatherings; he was a 
constant associate with Dr. Ryerson. They spent the even- 
ing of their lives together, and often walked to the house 
of God in company. When Dr. Ryerson preached the fu- 
neral sermon for his friend Green, he said that he "now 
felt lonely in the world, as he had outlived all the com- 
panions of his youth and the friends of his riper years." But 

78 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

after three more years he, too, has been called to his final 
rest in heaven. The event took place on Sunday,' February 
19, 1882, in the city of Toronto, Ontario, on which day one 
of the most distinguished men that was ever oouuected with 
Methodism in Canada passed away. His age was 79. He had 
been connected with all the doings of the Church, and had 
taken part in many of the stirring events that had occurred in 
the country. 

Dr. Ryerson belonged to a family in which there were six 
sons, five of whom became ministers in the Methodist Church: 
one traveled only a few years ; another, on being sent as a dele- 
gate to England, became a follower of the late Edward Irving, 
and is now, though more than ninety years of age, " the angel 
of the Apostolic Church " in Toronto. Of the others, William 
was for many years the most popular preacher in Canada. It 
is the opinion of some that at no period in the history of Meth- 
odism in Canada has there ever been one to excel him for 
pulpit oratory. To see him at a quarterly meeting in the 
olden time, or at a camp-meeting, was a sight never to be for- 
gotten. Dr. John Carroll says: "We can remember masses 
of people being moved by his word, like forest trees swayed to 
and fro by the wind." A public controversy was held on 
" the Clergy Reserve Question and Voluntaryism," in which 
Mr. W. Ryerson and several others took part. The late 
Bishop Cronyn declared that "Mr. Ryerson's sarcasm was 
uneqnaled by all that he had ever heard, and that it was worth 
the journey from London to Simcoe to hear it." For several 
years he was presiding elder, on two occasions was president 
of Conference, and was occasionally chosen as representative to 
the General Conference. 

John, the elder brother of Egerton, was a great ecclesiastical 
leader. He was a shrewd man, and at an early period of his 
ministry he was appointed by the venerable Bishop Hedding 
to the office of presiding elder. An amusing incident occurred 
in connection with this appointment. The ordination class 
was being examined, and one of the members, having heard of 
the Bishop's design, was asked by Mr. Ryerson, " Brother 
Black, who was Polycarp ? " " Polycarp, Polycarp, your 
reverence ? I think I have heard that he was presiding elder of 
Smyrna." The poor examiner, though usually one of the 

18S3.] Rev. Egerton Ryerson, D.D., ZZ.D. 79 

gravest of men, was unable to suppress his smiles, while the 
rest of the company was thrown into convulsive laughter. 
The class, of course, greatly enjoyed the wit of their brother, 
and passed through the remainder of the ordeal successfully. 
As a preacher, Mr. John Ryerson excelled in beauty of 
thought and chasteness of diction. He was truly apostolic, as 
he always used u sound speech that could not be condemned." 
He was, also, often intrusted with important duties which re- 
quired more than ordinary tact and skill to perform. He filled 
the presidential chair with great dignity. He was several times 
sent to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and to the Wesleyan Conference, England. He was, 
also, a member of the Evangelical Alliance which met in Lon- 
don in 1846. He was associated with Dr. Green on that im- 
portant occasion, at which they were the representatives of 
Methodism in Canada. 

But we must return from this digression. Egerton Ryerson, 
like most of great men, was much indebted to his mother, who 
was a strong-minded woman and exerted great influence for 
good in her family. He was converted in the eighteenth 
year of his age, and joined the Methodist Church, as his elder 
brothers had done. His father disapproved of his doing so, 
as he intended him to follow the profession of law, and, in a fit 
of anger, he commanded him to "either give up the Meth- 
odists or leave home." His brother George had established a 
grammar school near London. Egerton went thither, and for 
two years acted as usher in his brother's school, and at the same 
time pursued the study of classics. 

From early life he was an earnest student, and as the coun- 
try did not afford many educational facilities he made up 
for the lack by intense application. His father called him 
home ; he obeyed the mandate, and for some time was engaged 
with the duties of the farm, but he often rose at three o'clock 
in the morning that he might 6tudy a few hours before com- 
mencing his daily labor. 

In those days it was customary for the minister to call upon 
some oue to exhort after the sermon. Soon after his conver- 
sion, Egerton Ryerson was summoned to this duty. The poor 
young man obeyed, but he was so timid that he broke down, 
and, as a consequence, was very sad and discouraged, but he 

80 Methodist Quarterly lieuiew [January, 

was assured that this was no ill augury. Through life he was 
always tremulous as he began his discourses, but there is no 
mention of his ever breaking down after the first effort. He 
became a most fluent speaker, and was always popular, though, 
as he never wrote any thing for the pulpit before preaching, 
he was at times too diffuse, though always impressive and often 
eloquent. He invariably commanded large congregations, and 
was soon in great demand. 

In the year 1825 his brother William's health failed, which 
was the occasion of his being sent to supply the vacancy thus 
created. Egerton took for his first text the words, "He* that 
goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubt- 
less come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him." 
Psa. cxxvi, 6. A passage prospective of his future success. 
There were many discouragements in his path, but he perse- 
vered, believing that he was where God intended him to be. 
For eleven years he performed the duties of circuit preacher. 
Some of his circuits embraced, several townships, but he had 
put his hand to the plow and never looked back. He had 
his share of the hardships and privations peculiar to the pioneer 
work of those early days. A lady states that she remembers 
that when he lodged at her father's house, in one of his early 
circuits, he was accustomed to gather a heap of pine-knots, by 
the light of which he pursued his studies in the morning before 
the household were awake. 

Elder Case, " the father of Indian missions in Canada," 
made choice of him for the Indian work, as he was an adept in 
the study of languages, and was one of the best educated 
young men in the Connection. He remained only one year in 
the Indian work, but through life he was accustomed to speak 
of this appointment with no small degree of pleasure, as he 
enjoyed more quiet and real happiness and contentment than 
was his lot in city appointments and positions of greater 
emoluments. He labored with his usual zeal and diligence, 
and set the Indians an example of labor in the field, clearing 
and plowing the land. He kept up all the religious services, 
and studied hard to make himself familiar with the language 
of the people. A new church was also erected on the Indian 
reserve, largely through his instrumentality. More important 
fields of labor demanded his services, or else he would doubtless 

1883.] Rev. EgerUm Ryerson, D.D. y ZZ.D. 81 

have spent many years among the aborigines. During those 
years he was four times elected Secretary of Conference. 

Egerton Ryerson next appears as editor of the " Christian 
Guardian."' This was in 1829. The Canada Conference was 
separated from the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United 
States in 1828, and now it was deemed necessary to have a 
connectional organ, and a capital of $2,000 was created, mostly 
by the preachers taking shares of $20 each. Mr. Ryerson 
wrote the first editorial, and when the journal had attained 
its jubilee, he wrote a suitable article detailing many reminis- 
cences respecting its career, lie was comparatively young 
when he ascended the tripod, but he wielded a vigorous pen, 
and during the years he was connectional editor he wrote many 
powerful articles which were of immense value to the Method- 
ist Church, and greatly aided the cause of civil freedom in the 

During the first year of his probation, when only 23 years 
of age, he was unexpectedly drawn into controversy with 
Archdeacon Strachan, who afterward became the first Bishop 
of the Anglican Church in Upper Canada. That gentleman, 
with a view to secure increased aid from England on behalf 
of his Church in Canada, had published a gloomy account of 
the condition of the morals of the country, and greatly mis- 
represented other denominations, but especially the Methodists. 
Mr. Ryerson and his superintendent were accustomed to meet 
once a month with a few friends in a social gathering. At one 
of these social meetings the " diatribe " of the archdeacon was 
read, when all present thought that an answer should be pre- 
pared immediately. It was agreed that the two preachers 
should each prepare something against their next meeting, and 
out of what they should write something might be compiled that 
would be deemed suitable. When the next monthly meeting 
wa6 held, the junior preacher only had complied with the request 
of the previous meeting. He read his paper, and the meeting 
demanded that it should be forthwith published. The author 
protested, but he was overruled and the essay was issued in 
pamphlet form, signed, " By a Methodist Preacher." 

A wonderful sensation was produced by this little brochure. 
No previous publication had ever defended the Methodists of 
Canada, and nobody had presumed to question the arrogant 

82 Metlwdist Quarterly Review. [January, 

claims of the Established Church. In the course of a fortnight, 
four answers were published, three by clergymen of the Church 
of England, and one by a layman. All were full of bitterness. 
For a year the controversy thus begun was continued, during 
which the public mind was greatly excited. Public meetings 
were held in various places, and petitions were sent to the Legis- 
lature demanding that an investigation should be made as to tho 
allegations respecting the effects produced by the teachings of 
the Methodist preachers, who were said to be "preaching the 
Gospel out of idleness," they were " uneducated and preached 
without any preparation," and above all, the Imperial Parlia- 
ment must come to the rescue, as " republican principles will 
be instilled in the minds of the people by the religious teachers 
who come almost universally from the republican States of 
America." " The Methodist Preacher " denied this last allega- 
tion, for "out of the whole body of Methodist itinerant 
preachers there are only eight who have not been horn and 
educated in the British dominions. And of those eight, all 
except two have become naturalized British subjects, according 
to the statute of the province." The other allegations wero 
answered in an equally clear and conclusive manner. 

The controversy on the Clergy Reserve Question was now fair- 
ly inaugurated. One seventh portion of the public lands had 
been set apart for the maintenance of " the Protestant clergy, 
and the Anglican clergy claimed that they were the Protestant 
clergy," of whom there were then fifty-three in the British 
Colony of Canada, for whose special benefit nearly ten thou- 
sand pounds sterling were appropriated by tho British Parlia- 
ment, and the Propagation Society for the support of tho 
Church of England iu Canada ; and yet a piteous outcry was 
made for more money to save the Church of England from 
being swallowed up by " sectaries," and the country from 
becoming " republican." All this while the Methodist minis- 
ters were not only denied the right of solemnizing matrimony, 
but the Methodist people were without a law to enable them 
to hold a foot of land on which to erect a place of worship or 
in which to bury their dead. 

A Parliamentary Committee was appointed, which not only 
took into consideration the allegations previously named, but 
also "a Letter and Chart which had been sent to the Imperial 

1883J Rev. Egerton Eyerson^ D.D., LL.D. 83 

Parliament to procure additional grants for the support of tho 
Church of England in Canada and a charter for a university.'' 
Fifty-two witnesses were examined ; among whom were minis- 
ters of various denominations, members of Parliament, and 
private citizens. The committee of " the House," after a care- 
ful examination made their report, on which an address was 
drafted to the King of England which makes respectful men- 
tion of the " Methodist preachers." " The tendency of their 
influence and instruction is not hostile to our institutions, but, 
on the contrary, is eminently favorable to religion and moral- 
ity ; their labors are calculated to make their people better men 
and better subjects, and have already produced in this Province 
the happiest effects." 

One benefit which resulted from this controversy was that 
" the House " of Legislature passed an Act allowing all Chris- 
tian denominations to hold land for public purposes. Land 
could now be conveyed to trustees for a congregation, not 
exceeding five acres for the site of a church, meeting-house, or 
chapel, or burying-ground. For this benefit the Methodist 
Church is largely indebted to Egerton Ryerson. 

The controversy on the " Clergy Reserve Question " was 
continued for many years, and called forth numerous com- 
batants, but it was acknowledged that none wielded a more 
vigorous pen than Egerton Ryerson, " the Methodist Preacher." 
The question was finally 6et at rest, and though the finale 
might not be in every respect such as he and those associated 
with him desired, still, all denominations now enjoy equal 
rights and privileges. Since 1831 the Methodists have been 
allowed to perform the marriage ceremony, and for many 
years the ministers were accustomed to appropriate the fees 
thus received to the funds of Upper Canada Academy. 

Canada owes a debt of gratitude to the United States for 
planting Methodism in the country. For many years, at great 
personal sacrifices, its ministers followed the hardy settler to 
his humble home. When missionaries were sent out by the 
"Wesleyan Missionary Society it soon became manifest that 
two bodies of ministers preaching the same doctrines could 
not work harmoniously together. To avoid such an undesira- 
ble state of things, the late Rev. John Emory, afterward Bishop 
Emory, was sent to the English Conference in 1820 to effect 

84 Methodist Quarterly Review. f January, 

such a settlement of matters as might prevent collision and 
strife. It was agreed that Lower Canada, now the Province 
of Quebec, should be wholly given to the English Wesleyans, 
and Upper Canada be left to the care of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

For some years this plan worked admirably, but, by misrepre- 
sentations sent to England, the arrangement thus entered into 
was broken, and soon after the Church in Canada was declared 
to be independent of that in the United States. Missionaries 
were again sent out from England, and churches were erected 
in opposition to each other. Methodism in Canada again pre- 
sented a divided condition, but, mainly through the influence 
of Egerton Ryerson, a union was effected between the Wesleyan 
Conference in England and the Conference in Canada. 

When the said union was effected it was stipulated that the 
name of the Church should be " Wesleyan Methodist," instead 
of " Methodist Episcopal." Instead of " Bishops," Presidents 
of Conference were to be elected annually. " Chairmen of Dis- 
tricts " were to be no longer designated " Presiding Elders," 
and local preachers were not to be ordained, and were thus 
denuded of all ministerial functions in respect to administer- 
ing the ordinances and performing the ceremony of marriage. 
Some dissented from the terms of the agreement with the 
British Conference, and indeed they claimed to be the orig- 
inal * Methodist Episcopal Church of Canada, and contended 
that the unionists had by their own act given up all their 
Church property, which was now claimed by the dissentients. 
Several cases of litigation respecting Churches took place. 
Able counsel was employed by both parties, but it devolved 
mainly on the Rev. Egerton Ryerson to supply the counsel for 
the Wesleyan body with the necessary information. To acquire 
this he traveled thousands of miles and procured testimony 
from witnesses who could not attend the various trials. The 
great question on which the dissentients mainly rested their 
CJise was, that the Church had no right to change its form of 
government from that of Episcopacy to an annual presidency ; 
but Dr. Fisk and others declared that "Episcopacy" is not 
a doctrine or matter of faith — it is not essential to the exist- 
ence of a Gospel Church, but it is founded on expediency, and 
may be desirable and proper in some circumstances of the 

1883.] Iiev. Egerton Ryerson, D.D., ZL.D. $5 

Church and not in others. Only in one case were the Wes- 
Itryans defeated, which decision was reversed by a higher 
court ; they, therefore, held all the Church property, and the 
Episcopal Methodists went on in their own course, and it must 
be admitted that, considering all the circumstances in which 
they have been placed, their success has been marvelous. A 
better state of feeling now obtains between the two bodies, 
and they hold fraternal relations with each other. The Gen- 
eral Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the 
United States regards both bodies as its legitimate offspring. 

The union between the English and Canadian Conferences 
so happily consummated in 1833 was dissolved in 1840, but 
was again effected in 1847. These were years of agitation and 
uneasiness, arising mainly from the different views held by the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society in England aud the Methodist 
Church in Canada. The former were generally conservative 
in their views, and greatly in sympathy with the Established 
Church of England. This was well known to the High- 
Church party in Canada, which was resolved by all means to 
retain the u Clergy Reserve" lands for religions purposes. 
Dr. Kyerson, as editor of the "Christian Guardian" during 
6ome of those years, resolutely fought against this view, and in 
so doing he was sustained by a majority of the Methodist min- 
isters and people in Canada. 

The Wesleyan Missionary Committee and the Wesleyan 
Conference resolved that the editor should abstain from dis- 
cussing questions of a political character, but the editor had 
fought too long for civil and religious liberty to act otherwise 
than as he had hitherto done. Happily a delegation went to 
England in 1847, and, after mutual explanations, the union 
between the Conferences was renewed, to the delight of the 
majority on both sides. Dr. Bunting, who for many years 
was the most influential man in the Wesleyan Conference, ac- 
knowledged, at the period of the re-union, that they (the En- 
glish) had been mistaken respecting their brethren in Canada, 
who understood their position and duty on public questions 
better than their English brethren. The mi ton thereafter 
worked very harmoniously until 1874, when it was dissolved 
by mutual consent, and the present Methodist Church of Can- 
ada was organized by the amalgamation of the Wesleyan Con- 

Foubtii Sebies, Vol. XXXV.— 6 

86 Methodist Quarterhj Review. [January, 

ferences in Canada and Eastern British America, and the 
Methodist New Connection Conference, which w T ere again 
divided into six Annual Conferences, with one General Con- 
ference to meet once in four years. The first president of the 
General Conference was Dr. Ryerson, who had now become 
venerable in years, and received this appointment as a mark of 
approval of the. course which he had pursued during the event- 
ful years in which he had so nobly defended the Church of his 
youth against all assailants. 

The history of Methodism throughout the world has always 
been closely allied with the cause of education. Its founder 
was one of the best educated men in his day. No wonder, 
therefore, that the sons of John Wesley should always be the 
advocates of educational institutions. As early as 1830 the 
Methodists of Canada took steps to have an institution of their 
own to be known as Upper Canada Academy, for the higher 
education of the youth of both sexes. In this noble enterprise 
Mr. Ryerson was an active agent. The corner-stone was laid 
in 1832, and the building was completed and the institution 
commenced operations in 1835. Mr. Ryerson went to England 
and secured liberal aid for the academy, and when, in 1841, it 
was deemed advisable to change the institution into a college 
with university powers and the name of the Queen of England, 
as its designation, he was appointed its first principal. 

On this occasion the Middletown (Conn.) University con- 
ferred upon him the degree of D.D. Thenceforth Dr. Ryer- 
son was known as an educator, and under his wise guidance 
some who were under his care reached great influence in their 
various professions. The university, of which he was the head 
for three years, has sent out about 1,500 graduates, and it is 
worthy of remark that one of Dr. Ryerson's pupils, the Rev. 
Dr. Nelles, has for the space of more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury occupied the position which his revered tutor so nobly 
filled. Another of Dr. Ryerson's pupils, the Rev. Dr. Ormis- 
ton, is Presbyterian minister in New York ; while a third, Dr. 
Ilodgins, has for many years been Deputy Superintendent 
of Education in the Province of Ontario. Dr. Ryerson has 
always taken the deepest interest in Victoria University, and 
both by his advocacy and pecuniary aid, he has labored to the 
utmost of his power to promote its welfare. Since his death 


1883.] Rev. Egerton Ryerson, D.D., LL.D. 87 

it lias been resolved to endow a chair of " Mental and Moral 
Philosophy," to be called " The Ryerson Chair." Efforts are 
being made to raise the sum of $35,000. Such an object will 
be a noble monument to the memory of the first principal of 
the university. 

During the years in which there was great agitation in Can- 
ada on the subject of university reform, the object of which 
was to secure a share of the public moneys set apart for the 
purposes of higher education to be equally distributed among 
all denominational colleges, in proportion to the work done by 
each, Dr. Ryerson was again in the field of conflict, and was 
ever ready to take part in the hottest fight. He assisted at 
conventions, addressed public meetings, went before Parlia- 
mentary Committees, and also published pamphlets in advocacy 
of the liberal views held by himself and his friends. In 1860, 
when a committee of the legislature sat on the subject of uni- 
versity reform, the address of Dr. Ryerson was one of the most 
powerful that was ever delivered on such an occasion, and cre- 
ated such a sensation that all the corridors leading to the com- 
mittee-room were crowded by members of Parliament. Several 
who did not agree with the sentiments which he enunciated 
were, nevertheless, captivated by his eloquence. His speech 
was partly in reply to statements made by gentlemen connected 
with another university, which was enjoying a liberal endow- 
ment from public funds. Space forbids, or we would make 
some extracts from this memorable speech. 

The Hon. Senator Ferrier, of Montreal, when referring to 
this occasion, said : " Dr. Ryerson spoke with more than his 
usual ability and clearness for two hours and forty minutes 
the first day, and for one hour and forty-five minntes the 
second day, producing the deepest conviction on the minds 
of those who heard him of the correctness of his position. So 
overwhelming was the influence of his address, that one hon- 
orable member of the Upper House of Legislature, a pillar of 
the Church of England, came to me and said, 4 1 wish he be- 
longed to our Church.' Another member of the Legislature 
expressed his feelings by saying, i My ! what a good bishop he 
would make.' " 

Some men who have been elevated to influential positions 
have not been slow to use their influence in favor of friends. 

88 Meiliodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The most virulent opponent with whotn Dr. Ryerson ever con- 
tended could never charge him with acts of this kind. It is 
not known that he ever sought an office for a relative in his 
life. Positions of great influence were placed at his disposal, 
but he always preferred to dwell among his own people. At 
one time he might have been Vice-Chancellor of Toronto Uni- 
versity ; at another time a noble lord in England offered him a 
lucrative situation under the English Government ; and when 
but a young man he was more than once approached with 
overtures to enter the Anglican Church. He never sought for 
emoluments ; the love of money was not a sin of which he was 
guilty. To do good, and t o labor for the welfare of his country, 
was the highest ambition of his life. 

It is not the design of this paper to place Dr. Ryerson be- 
fore our readers in any other than his true position. There 
were acts in his life which occasioned his friends some uneasi- 
ness, and no doubt some felt themselves unable to defend his 
course, but all gave him credit for sincerity in what he did: He 
was no time-server, but always pursued the even tenor of his 
way, acting, as he believed he was doing, for the best interests 
of his country. When he undertook to defend Sir Charles 
Metcalfe, then Governor-General, for some high-handed meas- 
ures, he brought upon himself the indignation of many who 
had been his intimate friends ; but as he never courted favor or 
reward for his public acts, neither did he ever seek to merely 
do such things as would be pleasing to his friends. Some of 
his acts might appear very strange when compared with the 
course he had pursued in former years, but he always argued 
that posterity would approve his acts, and, whether or not, he 
had endeavored to do right. There was nothing vindictive in his 
nature, nor was he ever actuated by fear in his actions ; though 
often a counselor of public men, he was never afraid to attack 
their policy and plead for those whom he thought to have been 
injured. The course which he pursued toward some who had 
been implicated in the M'Kenzie Rebellion of 1837 will illus- 
trate this. The discourse, "Civil Government," named at the 
head of this article, was preached at this time. He was a far- 
seeing man, and as he was guided by principle in all things, 
he was often at variance with some with whom he would glad- 
ly have labored in harmony. 

18S3.1 liev. Egerton Ryerson, D.D. y LL.D. 89 

The monument of Dr. Ryerson is the public-school system 
of Ontario. From 1844 to 1876 he occupied the position of 
Chief Superintendent of Education. During those years he 
was unremitting in his exertions to perfect the school system. 
For several years his labors were Herculean. He made exten- 
sive tours in various countries, that he might become acquaint- 
ed with the systems of education which prevailed there. The 
result was, that he drafted a bill which, by various amendments 
and revisions that were added during the years of his administra- 
tion, became the school law of the country. Its chief features 
are "compulsory attendance of children, local assessment, gov- 
ernment aid, thorough inspection, complete equipment, graded 
examinations, and separate schools."* 

This system became so complete under his molding hand 
that it has been universally admired. Distinguished educa- 
tionalists have pronounced it the most complete they have ever 
seen, and not a few Ministers of the Crown in the Colonies of 
Great Britain, when drafting educational bills, have borrowed 
largely from the system which owes its existence to Dr. Ryerson. 
During the years that he sustained the important office of Chief 
Superintendent he was under the necessity of writing much. 
Happily he always wielded a ready pen, and one who knetf 
him well told the writer that it was always a marvel to the 
clerks in the educational establishment how the chief could 
do such an amount of desk work. Night and day, when he 
had important matters to engross his attention, he would plod 
through piles of papers, until more than once his health was in 
peril. He was the author of about sixty different volumes and 
pamphlets, the titles of which are given in the " Bibliotheoa 
Canadensis." Some were intended for school books, as the 
" First Lessons in Agriculture," and " Christian Morals," and 
others were the annual reports of the public schools. 

He was not in favor of u separate schools," but when they 
were granted by the Legislature, to satisfy the Roman Catholie 
portion of the community, he was in duty bound to see that 

* Since the death of Dr. Ryerson it has been determined to erect a bronze 
statue in the grounds of the Normal School, to defray the expense of which a' 
subscription has been commenced among the teachers and scholars of the public 
schools, to which Archbishop Lynch (Roman Catholic) not only gave his approval, 
but also gave his own personal subscription toward perpetuating the memory of 
a worthy man. 

90 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

the provisions of the u School Act " were faithfully carried 
out. In the discharge of his duty he sometimes found himself 
in collision with the dignitaries of the Romish Church, but he 
was not afraid, when necessity was laid upon him, to meas- 
ure swords even with an archbishop. A pamphlet now lies 
before us, and is also mentioned at the head of this article, 
which contains a correspondence entitled : " Dr. Ryerson's 
Letters in Reply to the Attacks of Foreign Ecclesiastics 
Against the Schools of Upper Canada, Including the Letters 
of Bishop Charbonnel, Mr. Bruyere, and Bishop Pinsoneault." 
Those attacks make an octavo pamphlet of 104 pages, and are 
characterized, on the one hand, by deep duplicity, insinuations, 
misrepresentations, and a determination at all hazards to secure 
the control of the education of Roman Catholic children by 
the Church without making reports to the government ; and on 
the other hand, the letters are characterized by that cogency of 
reasoning, incisive argument, and clear, terse language which 
distinguishes all Dr. Ryerson's writings. 

During the same period, Dr. Ryerson addressed a series of 
letters to a leading politician, who was at one time a great 
power in the land. The doctor was of the opinion, right or 
otherwise, that the said gentleman was becoming allied to those 
who were resolved to break up the school system of Ontario. 
Their object professedly was to reform existing abuses, but, 
as he conceived, it was neither more nor less than to adopt 
measures whereby " more power to the pope " would be the 
1 result. He felt it to be an imperative duty to buckle on his 
armor and go forth to meet the Goliath who once was a 
strong advocate of Protestantism. No controversial letters 
that have come in our way are at all equal to those now 
under consideration. They are not surpassed even by those of 
" Junius." 

While the controversy between Dr. Ryerson and his honor- 
able opponent was in progress, some of the doctor's friends 
believed that it was probable the honorable gentleman's polit- 
ical party would soon be at the helm of affairs in Ontario, and 
they were anxious, therefore, that he should not bo commit 
himself that, even should such an event occur, he would be 
likely to be removed from his office as Chief Superintendent, 
It was well known that at the time of his appointment there 

1883.] Bev. Egerton Ilyerson, D.&., ZZ.D. 91 

were those of the High-Church party who were greatly in- 
dignant that a " Methodist Preacher " should be elevated to 
such an honorable position in the land ; but Dr. Ryerson was 
never in the least alarmed about the consequences resulting 
from his course of action. He said to the writer, when con- 
versing on the subject, " They may do as they like," and in his 
concluding letter to the honorable gentleman he thus refers to 
the supposition : 

It is possible, sir, that you may attain the object of your po- 
litical ambition, when, as a Minister of the Crown, you will 
doubtless endeavor to carry your threats against me into execu- 
tion. It is possible, in the mysteries of Providence, and the 
freaks of unsuspecting credulity, that you may yet be able to 
undo and trample to dust the work I have been endeavoring to 
construct and build up, and that you may be able to avenge 
yourself upon me by reducing my family and myself to poverty; 
but as I have never indulged the desire for wealth, so I do not 
fear poverty. Your threats of loss of salary ,ind office do not, 
theretore, terrify or disturb me. I have confidence in the just- 
ice of my native country, which I have endeavored to serve from 
my youth, that it will not leave me a prey to your machinations 
in oid age. But be that as it may, though you may reduce me 
to want, you cannot make me a slave; though you may cause me 
to die a very poor man, you cannot prevent me from dying a 
free man, or from defending, as long as I am able, the right of 
individual choice in regard to schools and religious instruction 
on the part of both Protestants and Roman Catholics, the rights 
of school electors, of trustees, and of municipalities against the 
subversive attempts of Mr. and yourself. 

In 1876 Dr. Ryerson resigned his position as Chief Superin- 
tendent of Education, and spent the evening of his days in 
comparative quiet, though he did not cease to take a lively 
interest in all public affairs. The government dealt with him 
most generously by continuing his full salary of $4,000 until 
his death, and oir his demise awarded a gratuity of $10,000 to 
his widow. Such a magnanimous act entitles them to the grate- 
ful remembrance of all classes of the community. He wrote 
a series of Essays on a The Epochs and Characteristics of 
Methodism in Canada," which were published in the " Meth- 
odist Magazine," and have now been collected and embodied 
in one volume. They are a full repertory of facts and inci- 
dents, which will be of immense value to the future historian 
of Methodism. 

62 Method ist Quarterly Review. [January, 

Dr. Ryerson also, in his later years, completed his " History 
of the Loyalists of America and Their Times," which was 
published by the Methodist Book Room in Toronto, in two 
handsome large volumes, which will be perused with pleasure by 
all who take an interest in the history of their country, and es- 
pecially of that important class who made such immense sacri- 
fices and endured such great sufferings on behalf of the empire. 
They were truly heroes, and the author, who was himself a son 
of one who took part in the scenes of the American Revolu- 
tion, was, therefore, familiar with the narrative of their hard- 
ships, as they made themselves homes in the wilderness of 
Canada. He was justly proud of his ancestry, and was never 
weary of rehearsing the incidents connected with their eventful 

It is more than probable that some of our readers may not 
agree with some things which they will find in the author's his- 
tory, as, for instance, the manner in which he speaks of the 
Puritans, who claimed the most " ardent attachment to their 
4 dear mother,' the Church of England, and yet had not been 
long on this side the Atlantic before they not merely adopted 
Congregationalism, which they had a perfect right to do, but 
commenced a violent persecution upon Episcopalians, Presby- 
terians, Baptists, and Quakers. It was made an offense to 
use the 'Book of Common Prayer,' even in private families. 
Roger Williams and his fellow Baptists were driven out into 
the wilderness, and found a refuge in Rhode Island. Banish- 
ment, fines, imprisonments, and confiscations were the normal 
weapons of these apostles of liberty. . . . Truly, the history 
of New England Puritanism is not edifying." 

Many of the descendants of the loyalists became valuable 
citizens of Canada, and not a few of them to-day occupy im- 
portant positions in their native land. They are to be found 
in all the professions, and, in connection with their fathers, 
have taken an active part in the affairs of the country, and are 
justly proud of the noble position which it now occupies among 
the nations of the earth. In preparing this historical work 
Dr. Ryerson spared neither expense nor labor that he might 
make it as complete as possible. For this purpose he crossed 
the Atlantic and spent, several months in London, that he 
might avail himself of the rich treasures of literature to be 

1883.] Rev. Egerton Ryerson, D.D., LL.D. 93 

found in the British Museum. His style is always vigorous and 
perspicuous, and while he never forgets that he is the narrator 
of events, he always takes care to express his own opinion on 
all the matters which come before him. 

While Dr. Ryerson loved his country, he never forgot the 
Church of his youth. No matter what might be the perplex- 
ities of his office, he was always in his place in the sanctuary on 
the Lord's Day, and his pastor, the Rev. John Potts, D.D., testi- 
fies, " that there was no more sympathetic hearer in the Metro- 
politan Church than he was." As long as he was able he went 
to and fro preaching the Gospel,- and it is computed that he 
preached not less than 10,000 sermons, and no matter how 
much his journeys might cost him, when doing Church- work 
for more than thirty years past he did not even charge his 
traveling expenses. The Church honored him by assigning 
him to posts of honor and responsibility, and allowed him to 
be chief superintendent of education, though he always de- 
clared that he was ready at any moment to obey the call of his 
brethren and return to circuit work. 

Dr. Ryerson was a many-sided man. He was truly progres- 
sive. On the question of class-meetings some thought him to 
be a little erratic, and when he introduced his resolutions to 
the Conference, several years ago, on this subject, there was 
considerable commotion, and some of his brethren in the min- 
istry took strong ground against him. There were others, 
however, and the writer claims to be of the number, who were 
of opinion that the doctor did not receive the fair play at that 
time to which he was justly entitled. Those who wrote and 
spoke against him assumed that he was desirous to do away 
with class-meetings altogether, whereas he merely desired that 
attendance at class-meeting should not be a test of member- 
ship, but that it should be a prudential means of grace ; and 
it is a remarkable fact that, as time advances, a vast num- 
ber of "the people called Methodists," as well as the min- 
isters, are beginning to be of the same opinion. We do not 
see any necessity why class-meetings should not be continued 
in the Church ; they should be held every-where $ but 
appearances in all branches of the Methodist family seem to 
indicate that attendance on class-meeting will soon cease 
to be a test of membership. The Lord's Supper is a script- 


94 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

ural ordinance instituted by Christ, and why should attend- 
ance on this ordinance not be the test of membership in all 

Dr. Ryerson was a great man, and yet he was as humble as 
a child ; he was beautiful in his simplicity. At the Confer- 
ence love-feasts he always spoke with deep emotion, and as he 
advanced in years he ripened for heaven. Four year3 before 
he died he wrote the following sentences, which were found 
after his decease : 

March 24, 1878. 

I am this d-iy seventy-five years of age, and this day fifty- 
three years, after resisting nuiny solicitations to enter the minis- 
try, and after long and painful struggles, T decided to devote my 
lite and all to the ministry of the Methodist Chnrch. The pre- 
dominant feeling of my heart is that of gratitude and humilia- 
tion — gratitude for God's unbounded mercy, patience, and com- 
passion, in the bestowment of almost uninterrupted health and 
innumerable personal, d< mestic, and social blessings, for more 
than fifty years of a public life of great labor and many dangers; 
and humiliation under a deep-felt consciousness of personal un- 
faithfulness, of many defects, errors, and neglects in public du- 
ties. Mnnv tell me that I have been useful to the Church and to 
the country, but my own consciousness tills me that I have 
learned little, experienced little, done little in comparison of what I 
might and ought to have known and done. By the grace of God 
I am spared ; by his grace I am what I am ; ;:11 my trust for sal- 
vation is in the efficacy of Jesus' atoning blood. "I know whom 
I have trusted" and am persuaded that he is able to keep that 
which I have commit! ed unto him against that day. I have no 
melancholy feelings or fern's. The joy of the Lord is my strength. 
I feel that I am now on the bright side of seventy-five. As the 
evening twilight of my earthly life advances, my spiritual sun 
sh'nes with increasing splendor. This has been my experience 
for the last year. With an increased sense of my own sinfulness, 
unworthiness, and helplessness, I have an increased sense of the 
blessedness of pardon, the indwelling of the Comforter, and the 
communion of saints. 

Here, upon bended knee, I give myself and all I have and am 
afresh to Him whom I serve, but very imperfectly, for more than 
threescore years. All helpless myself, I most humbly and de- 
voutly pray that Divine strength may be perfected in my weak- 
ness, and that my last days on earth may be my best days — best 
days of implicit faith and unreserved consecration, best days of 
simple, scriptural ministrations and public usefulness, best days 
of change from glory to glory, and of becoming meet for the in- 
heritance of the saints in light, until my Lord shall dismiss me 
from the service of warfare and the weariness of toil to the glo- 
ries of victory and the repose of rest. E. Rybrson. 

1883.] Hev. Egerton Rijerson^ D.D., LL.D. 95 

His death was eminently peaceful. For about three months 
his health had been precarious. The strong man was bowing 
himself. But he was not afraid. The sting of death was 
taken away. Due preparations had been made for this event ; 
hence he met the last enemy with the most perfect composure. 
Until a few hours before he passed away he was perfectly con- 
scious, and often conversed with his friends, lie frequently 
repeated his favorite hymn, "Rock of Ages, cleft for me," 
etc On Sunday morning, February 19, 1882, at about seven 
o'clock, his spirit went home to God. The intelligence of his 
death was communicated to the various congregations of the 
Churches in Toronto, and on Monday the daily journals had 
lengthy articles respecting his busy life and happy death. 
Among the earliest message** of condolence received by his 
widow was one from his Excellency, the Governor-General of 
Canada, Lord Lome, who greatly esteemed him. At the time 
of the last visit of his Excellency to Toronto he spent an hour 
in Dr. Ryerson's sick-chamber. 

The funeral was probably the largest ever seen in the chief 
city of Ontario. Most of the places of business were closed, 
and the House of Assembly did not hold its usual afternoon 
sitting, but all the members attended the funeral. In the 
procession, which was of immense length, we observed his 
Honor, the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, J. B. Robinson, 
Esq.; Sir W. H. Howland, G. S. Gyow'ski, A.D.C. to the 
Queen ; the Professors of the University College, Trinity Col- 
lege, and St. Basil's College ; the Anglican Bishop and Roman 
Catholic Archbishop of Toronto ; the Protestant ministers of 
the city, and hundreds of Methodist ministers. Next to the 
chief mourners in the procession were Principal Nelles and 
the Faculty and Senate of Victoria University, and a deputa- 
tion of students representing the various classes in arts, the- 
ology, law, and medicine. The boys of the Ryerson, Dufferin, 
and Wellesley schools occupied the rear of the procession. 

Religious services were conducted at the house and at the 
Metropolitan Church, which was crowded to overflowing, by 
the Rev. S. G. Laird, President of Toronto Conference, R. 
Jones, G. Cochrane, D.D.. Chairman of Toronto District ; Dr. 
Rose, Dr. Sanderson, W. Scott, and E. A. Teller. Dr. Doug- 
la?, the President of the General Conference, was unable to 

96 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

reach the city. The funeral oration was delivered by the Eev. 
John Potts, D.D., pastor to the deceased. The choir sung the 
anthem, "Brother, thou art gone before us." The closing 
hymn, " Rock of ages, cleft for me," was sung with such sol- 
emnity and pathos that the vast audience was deeply affected 
and many wept aloud. Of the many floral tributes on his 
coffin one of the most beautiful was a crown from the pupils 
of the school which bears his honored name — Ryerson. His 
happy end was symbolized by another — a cluster of wheat and 
a floral sickle, for, like a sheaf fully ripe he was gathered to 
the harvest of the skies. The sable drapery of the church, the 
6olemn music, the touching prayers, and the beautiful, appro- 
priate address, and the deep emotion of the vast audience, pro- 
duced a service which will never be forgotten. 

Funeral sermons were preached on the following Sabbath 
by the Rev. Drs. Nelles and Potts, when the church was again 
crowded to overflowing. Truly, 

The memory of the just 
Smells sweet, and blossoms in the dust 

The venerable Doctor Ryerson was seventy-nine years of age 
when he died, and 

He was a man, taking him all for all, 
We shall not look upon his like again. 

Among the many articles which were published at the time 
of Dr? Ryerson's death none were more appropriate than the 
following by the writer's esteemed friend, the Rev. Dr. With- 
row, editor of the " Canadian Methodist Magazine : " 

Dr. Ryerson was one of the most lovable men we ever knew. 
Few men grow old so gracefully as he. He had been, we may 
say, a man of war from his youth, and was the hero of many a 
hard-fought fight, yet he was* without a particle of bitterness or 
guile. Some of his foes became some of his best friends — for 
instance, the late Bishop Strachan. He was fond of telling to 
youthful listeners stories of his youth, and by the young who 
knew him he was greatly revered and beloved. To the last he 
retained his sympathy with the young. No one could feel his 
lingering shake-hands without perceiving how much heart there 
was in it. We never knew a man so simple in his greatness, so 
generous in recognition of merit in others, so tender in the be- 
stowment of sympathy, so wise in the giving of counsel. Above 
all, he was the simple, earnest, cheerful, sunny-minded Christian. 
We have often heard him -say that not when receiving the high- 

1883.] Rev. Egerton Ryerson, D.D., LL.D. 97 

est dignities and honors that were conferred upon him has he 
experienced such rich enjoyments as in preaching the Gospel to 
the Indians, or to the scattered settlers of the backwoods. While 
enjoying life to the full with a genial hilarity of spirit that 
never could grow old, the thought of death was a familiar and 
not an unwelcome one. We have often heard him converse 
calmly and cheerfully of the decease which he must shortly ac- 
complish, and then address himself ardently to the duties of the 
hour. His religion had nothing ascetic in it. It was a calm, 
confident, holy trust. When apparently very near his end, 
he held the hand of the writer long, and spoke of that unfal- 
tering trust. He said he was " simply resting by faith on the 

" I the chief of sinners am, 
But Jesus died fur me." 

Akt. vl— the religion of babylonia and 


[first paper] 

Records of the Past ; being English Translations of the Assyrian and Egyptian 
Monuments. Twelve volumes. London. 1874-1881. 

Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaofogy. Seven volumes. London. 

77ie History of Herodotus. By George Rawlinson. Four volumes. New York. 

The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World. By George Rawlin- 
son. Three volumes. New York. 1880. 

Lectures ujmh the Assyrian Language and Syllabary. Babylonian Literature. As- 
syrian Grammar. By Rev. A H. S*yce. 

The Chaldean Account of Genesis. By George Smith. A New Edition, with Ad- 
ditions. New York. 1881. 

Tie Ancient History of tlie East By F. Lexormant. Two volumes. Philadel- 
phia. 1871. 

Chaldean Magic : Its Origin and Development By F. Lexorm axt. London. 1877. 

An Archaic Dictionary from the Egyptian, Assyrian, aud Etruscan Monuments 
and Papyri. By W. R. Cooper. London. 1876. 

Studies on Qie Times of Abraham. By Rev. Henry George Tomkixs. London. 

The discovery of a literature from twenty-five hundred to four 
thousand years old, which had been buried more than two 
thousand years in the ruins of the dead cities of Babylonia and 
Assyria, the recovery of the lost languages in which it is 
written, and their translation into modern tongues, are remark- 
able triumphs of nineteenth century scholarship. The geo- 
graphical position of these mighty empires, the richness of the 
soil, the size and magnificence of their great cities, the wide- 

98 MitJcodi8t Quarterly Heview. [January, 

ness of their sway in the days of their glory, the influence they 
exerted upon early Eastern thought and in molding and modi- 
fying religions and mythologies, the place they till in Oriental 
history, and their intimate relations with the chosen people of 
God — these lend importance to any new discoveries which 
may be made concerning their early history and the thoughts 
which moved the hearts of their people. Here was the home 
of Abraham, u the friend of God," and, in the light of recent 
Assyrian discoveries, we may now believe that he carried with 
him in his migration to Canaan the contents of the sacred books 
of the kingdom of Ur, embracing the earliest traditions of the 
creation, the fall, the flood, the tower of Babel, and other facts 
recorded by his descendants, under the guidance of the Spirit 
of God, in the book of Genesis. 

By public and private liberality and enterprise, the literary 
treasures of these mighty nations have had a resurrection, and 
Layard, the Rawlinsons, Norris, llincks, Smith, Sayce, Talbot, 
Menant, Oppert, Pinches, Houghton, Guyard, Boscawen, 
Lenormant, Schrader, Delitzsch, Haupt, Ilommel, and others, 
have breathed into them the breath of life, and they speak to 
us to-day and reveal wonderful secrets concerning the political, 
social, and religious history of many peoples. The language in 
which this history is written, with its difficult syllabary and 
strange cuneiform characters, is being slowly yet surely and thor- 
oughly deciphered and interpreted, and already we have gram- 
mars, contributions to a dictionary, reading books, texts, com- 
mentaries, translations, organized classes, and a " Society of 
Biblical Archaeology " devoted to the recovery of the meaning 
of hieroglyphic and cuneiform records of Egypt, Assyria, and 
other Bible lands of the East, several volumes of whose trans- 
actions show commendable learning and activity. 

The labor of decipherment and interpretation is but fairly 
in progress. What may be revealed in the future cannot be 
predicted. We may, however, rely upon present results, and, 
whatever may be the progress of Assyrian scholarship in the 
future, it is probable that the main results hitherto determined, 
as far at least as they have reference to the Assyrian religion, 
will not be materially changed. It is time to gather from 
many sources, and put into popular form, valuable material 
concerning Assyrian gods and religious beliefs and practices. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 99 

The Assyrians used a mode of writing borrowed from the 
Accadians, who spoke a Turanian tongue. To adapt a Turar 
nian hieroglyphic, ideographic, and syllabic alphabet to a Sem- 
itic language was found most difficult. That the mode of 
writing was originally hieroglyphic cannot now be questioned. 
" The Turanian cuneiform writing, as science has now proved," 
sajs Lenormant, "was originally hieroglyphic, that is, com- 
posed of pictures of material objects; and these forms can in 
some cases be reconstructed. An inscription entirely written 
in these hieroglyphics exists at Susa, as is positively known ; 
but it has not yet been copied, and is therefore unfortunately 
not available for study." 

The Accadians entered Accad from Elam at a period far back 
in the mists of antiquity. At first they seem to have used 
papyrus as writing material, but the earliest recovered monu- 
ments of their language are written or stamped clay tablets. 
They were conquered by the less cultured Semites, who appeared 
in Sumir or Shinar previous to 2000 B.O. These Semites 
were called Casdim, or " conquerors," (Assyrian, casidi,) in the 
Old Testament. Their language was Babylonian, with which 
Assyrian is closely allied ; their religion resembled that of the 
authors of the Himyaritic inscriptions. 

For some time the Semites dwelt with the Accads on terms 
of tolerable friendship, in general confining themselves to 
north-western Chaldea, while the Accads kept nearer the sea. 
From the latter the Semites borrowed not only their mode of 
writing, but also much of their religion and many of their arts 
and sciences. After some centuries the Accads were com- 
pletely subdued, and their language ceased to be spoken prob- 
ably not later than 1600 B.C. 

The arcliaic literature has been preserved on clay tablets. 
After having been stamped with the arrowhead charac- 
ters, the tablets were baked, and sometimes covered with 
a clay coating and baked the second time. Upon the removal 
of the outer coating a double impression of the writing is 
revealed. The tablets are of all sizes, " from an inch long to 
over a foot square." They are most frequently found in a 
fragmentary condition, and the task of restoration is very 
great. They were arranged according to subjects in libraries, 
had titles stamped upon them) and were carefully catalogued. 

100 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

In the royal library of Nineveh there were more than ten 
thousand volumes or tablets. 

The first library of Chaldea, according to Berosus, was es- 
tablished in the antediluvian Pantibiblia, the capital under 
Amelon, the third fabulous king. Sisuthrus, the Chaldean 
Noah, by command of Kronos buried his books at Sippara to 
be recovered after the deluge. The library of Erech, to which 
belonged the epic of Izdubar and the story of the flood, was 
the most ancient of which we possess any positive knowledge. 
The library of Cutha gave a legend of the creation and war 
of the giants ; that of Larsa or Senkereh has yielded a number 
of mathematical tablets. Sargon I., ("the genuine rightful 
king,") who bore the title " king of justice," (cf. Melchizedek^ 
was a noble patron of learning, 2000 B.O. He conquered the 
whole of Babylonia, and established his capital at Agan&. 
Here he founded a great library celebrated for its works on 
astronomy and astrology, one of which consisted of no less 
than seventy-two books. Berosus seems to have translated it 
into Greek. There was another important library at Calali. 
The royal library at Nineveh, belonging to Assurbanipal, which 
has yielded most of the rich literary treasures now being de- 
ciphered in the British Museum, was the most celebrated. 
Assurbanipal encouraged the study of the dead Accadian lan- 
guage, and caused grammars and dictionaries to be compiled 
and translations to be made. It has been remarked that the 
Assyrians anticipated the Hamiltonian method of teaching 
languages by many centuries. Copies of the works to be 
found in the library at Agane were made and distributed 
among the libraries of Assyria. During the period of great 
literary activity many new works were also produced. 

This royal library was most thoroughly organized, and must 
have been extensively patronized. We have even recovered 
some of the rules of the librarian. Chiefly through the labors 
of Mr. George Smith these tablets were unpacked, examined, 
ticketed, and pieced together. "Historical and mythological 
documents, religious records, legal, geographical, astronomical 
and astrological treatises ; poetical compositions, grammatical 
and lexical disquisitions, lists of stones and trees, of birds and 
beasts, copies of treatises, of commercial transactions, of cor- 
respondence, of petitions to the king, and of royal proclama- 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 101 

tions, such were the chief contents of this strange old library. 
The larger portion of the religious and poetical works were 
translations from Accadian, the original text being generally 
given side by side with the Assyrian rendering." * 

The library at Babylon may have been founded by Kham- 
mnragas, the first of the Hossaean kings, who overthrew the 
Sargon dynasty. Sennacherib carried most of its contents to 
Assyria when he took the city, 695 B.C. Assyriologists have 
awaited with great interest literary discoveries in Babylonia, 
the home of Assyrian art, science, and religion. They have not 
been disappointed. In his expedition of 1880-81, Mr. Hor- 
muzd Rassam recovered records and copies of religious texts 
from the ruins of temples and palaces of Babylon, Borsippa, 
Sippara, and Cutha. The records found in Jumjuma in 
1874 prove this mound to be the site of the great commercial 
exchange of Babylon. 

" These tablets 6how that for a long period, probably sev- 
eral centuries, the family of the Beni Egibi were the lead- 
ing commercial firm of Babylon, and to them was confided 
all the business of the Babylonian Ministry of Finance. The 
building, whose ruins are marked by the mound of Jum- 
juma, was the chancellerie of the firm, and from its ruins 
come the records of every class of monetary transactions. 
The documents being all most carefully dated and compiled, 
are of great value to the chronologist and histo rian ; while to 
the student of Babylonian civilization they are of the highest 
importance. From the tax receipts we learn how the revenue 
was raised by duties levied on land, on crops of dates and 
corn, on cattle, by imposts for the use of the irrigation canals 
and the use of the public roads. The insight into the com- 
ponent elements of social life, ranging from the king and 
princes, the priests and soldiers, down to the lowest peasant 
and slave, is such as is hardly afforded by the records of any 
other nation. By the aid of these records we can almost pict- 
ure the motley crowds of citizens and countrymen who 
gathered in the court-yard of the great Babylonian bankers. 
Then, as now, in the same land, the tax-gatherer was an extor- 
tionist ; and many a petition was lodged against his claims." f 

• "Babylonian Literature," p. 16. 

f The London " Times," Aug. 27, 1881. 

Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV. — 7 

102 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

" Egibi, the founder of the firm, probably lived in the latter 
part of the reign of Sennacherib." * 

A great triumph of Mr. Kassam in his last expedition was 
the identification of the mounds of Abu Hubba with the ante- 
diluvian Sippara, and the proof that the priests of thi6 ancient 
city were worshipers of the solar disk and solar rays, and had a 
creed resembling that of the disk-worshipers of the Eighteenth 
Egyptian dynasty. There was a second city of Sippara, and 
the two cities may be identified with the cities of Sepharvaim. 
Gutha, another religious center, was also identified. We await 
with interest the results of the present season's explorations. 

The Assyrian religion, as we have it in the monuments, 
is the product of the fusion of the two religious systems of 
the Accadians and Semites. This religious reformation 
took place in the time of Sargon I. We cannot study these 
systems separately throughout, but it will serve our present 
purpose best to give, in the beginning of our discussion, 
some account of the Accadian system. "There is a com- 
plete World of malevolent spirits, the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of which are strongly marked, and their attributes 
determined with precision ; while the hierarchy to which they 
belong is classed in a most learned manner. At the top of the 
scale are placed two classes of beings, which partake more 
nearly than the others of the divine nature, and are genii or 
demi-gods, a sort of inferior deities. The first bear the Acca- 
dian name, Mas, * soldier, warrior,' which is substituted in the 
Assyrian by Sed, ' genius ; ' the second, the Accadian name of 
JLamma, 'giant,' translated in Assyrian by Lamas. In the re- 
ligious texts these names often designate propitious and pro- 
tecting genii, under whose shelter people placed themselves ; 
but, at other times, wicked and hurtful genii, whose power 
had to be charmed away." Whether there were good and bad 
genii at first, or the genii possessed a double character, does 
not appear. The spirits of inferior orders were demons, and 
decidedly malevolent. They were " destroyers, warriors, en- 
snarers." Generally each class was divided into groups of 
seven.f The rank of each god in the hierarchy was designated 

* BoRcawen, in " Transactions Society of Biblical Archaeology," vol. vi, p. 9. 
f Among the Jews there were seven principal angels, oue of whom was 
BuphatL Tobit xii, 15. 

1883.] The Religion, of Babylonia arid Assyria. 103 

by a whole number from one to sixty ; the rank of each de- 
mon by a fractional number with sixty for the denominator. 
The Maskim, "ensnarers," which were cosmical demons, had 
the power to disturb the order of nature. They dwelt in the 
abyss. Their antagonist was " the God of Fire." Their de- 
structive power is thus described : 

From the four cardinal points the impetuosity of their invasion 

burns like fire. 
They violently attack the dwellings of man. 
They wither every thing in the town or in the country. 
They oppose the freeman and the slave. 
They pour down like a violent tempest in heaven and earth. 

There were also elementary malevolent spirits, the production 
of the infernal regions, which were present every-where, and 
greatly to be feared. 

On high they bring trouble, and below they bring confusion. 
Falling in rain from the sky, issuing from the earth, 
They penetrate the strong timbers, the thick timbers ; 
They pass from house to house ; * 

Doors do not stop them, 
Bolts do not stop them ; 
They glide in at the doors like serpents, 
They enter at the windows like the wind.* 

These Accadian spirits dwelt in the deserts, mountains, 
marshes, and sea, from which they visited and tormented men.f 
When they possessed the body of a man they were expelled 
by exorcisms, and favorable demons were invited by incanta- 
tions to take their place.J All diseases were thought to be the 
work of different demons, which possessed different parts of 
the body and were cast out by exorcisms, incantations, philters, 
and enchanted drinks. A complete knowledge of the system 
of Chaldean magic belonged only to the few, yet every one 
must needs know something of the incantations which per- 
tained to the common exigencies of life. There were many 
purifications, and mysterious rites and magic knots possessed 
great potency. Still more mighty was the power of numbers. 
To insure a good harvest the Accadians sung : 

* " Chaldean Magic," pp. 23-30. 
f Of. Isaiah xixv, 13, 14. 

% Cr. Mattltew xii, 27 ; Acta xix, 13-16: Tobitvi, 7, 1G, 17 ; Josephus, "Autiq.," 
wi, 2, 6 ; Justin Martyr, Dial, cum Tryph., c 85. 


104 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The corn which stands upright shall come to the end of its pros- 
perous growth ; 
The number (to produce that) we know it.* 

Seven was a magic number of great power, perhaps also three 
and four. But the highest power was possessed by the divine 
name known only to Ilea. Every thing mu6t yield to that 
name, and it was even made a distinct person. We may 
profitably compare the power which the Talmudists and Cabbal- 
ists believed was hidden in the name of God. The Chaldeans 
had great faith in the power of talismans and the efficacy of 
sacred texts like the Jewish phylacteries. Amulets, with 
sacred formulae chiefly in the Aecadian language, were worn 
about the neck as charms. Talismanic images were supplied 
with food and drink, and protected their houses. Sometimes 
a most monstrous image of the demon was made for a talis- 
man. It was believed that the demon would be frightened 
away by his own hideous likeness. Many gnostic gems also 
contain such monstrous representations. To cure a man of the 
plague,* let his face be turned toward the setting sun, and 
apply "to the living flesh of his body" a talismanic image, 
and the plague demon will flee. To protect against the 
deadly influence of the south-west wind, its frightful image — 
" the figure of a horrible demon in an upright posture, with 
the body of a dog, the feet of an eagle, the claws of a lion, the 
tail of a scorpion, the head of a skeleton but half decayed, and 
adorned with goats' horns, and the eyes still remaining, and 
lastly, four great expanded wings " — was placed at the door or 
window, and it dare not enter. Many such images have been 
recovered, and are to be found in the museums, f Tihainat, 
the primordial sea, was thus represented, and the first imper- 
fect beings created were of this monstrous character. The 
winged lions and bulls so numerous about palaces and temples 
probably possessed this talismanic character. To secure the 
constant defeat of evil demons, representations of battles in 
which the gods were victorious over them were placed upon 
the walls of the dwelling. Similar representations preserved 
the inscribed cylinders from diabolical influence. By conjur- 
ing, the Chaldeans professed to have supernatural power over 

* " Chaldean Ma^tc," p. 42. Cf. Horace, Carmen, xi, 2, 3. 
f "Chaldean Magic," pp. 51, 52. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 105 

all spirits, both good and bad. They could by choice ally them- 
selves with divine or demoniacal powers. Hence sorceries and 
witchcraft were most important in their religious rites. Hea 
and the sun were the chief protectors against the influence of 
sorceries. Through fear of their influence the practices of sor- 
cerers were described in mysterious language only to be under- 
stood by the initiated, though the Assyrian translations of Ao- 
cadian originals were more explicit. The sorcerer could bring 
all sorts of evil upon a map, and by magic spells could even de- 
stroy his life. 

The malicious imprecation acts on man like a wicked demon, 
The voice which curses has power over him ; 
The voice which curses has power over him ; 
The malicious imprecation is the spell (which produces) the dis- 
ease of the head. 
The malicious imprecation slaughters this man like a lamb ; 
His God oppresses him in his body ; 

His goddess creates anguish in him by a reciprocal influence, 
The voice which curses covers him and loads him like a veiL* 

Similar magic spells are familiar in all lands. 

We cannot here enter fully upon the discussion of the 
philosophy of magic. It is a most interesting subject. Magic 
probably arose from an interpretation of the power of nature 
as the power of individual personal spirits, which could work 
for man, weal or woe. The sorcerer was the man who lived 
nearest nature's heart, and could control these spirits. Hence 
he became a priest. A great majority of the people had not 
this familiar access to nature, and could not control the spirits. 
They must resort to the sorcerers, whose services were impera* 
tively necessary. When the good and evil spirits were formed 
into hierarchies, there might result a theurgy, as Neo-Platonism. 
Sorcerers were looked upon as almost superior beings. Their 
actions and mutterings were mysterious and full of awful 
meaning. They were feared, and their power dreaded. They 
could control the people and make them slaves. Some- 
times they were openly and professedly in league with the 
devil, willingly taking service with evil spirits, and depending 
on their protection. The priesthood became an all-powerful 

It will be seen that if the Accads might be said to worship 

* " Chaldean Magic," pp. 64, 65. 

106 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

at all, it was the worship of elementary spirits, which seemed 
frequently to have blended with material objects. These 
spirits were innumerable, and filled the universe. They were 
definite and distinct personalities, and were connected with 
every object Of all the operations of nature they were the 
active cause. There was no recognition of one supreme God, 
but the unseen was recognized every-where. The people 
scarcely loved the beneficent spirits ; they were in great terror 
of the malevolent. A great and deadly warfare was constantly 
waged between these two classes. The benefits which bless 
and the plagues that afflict humanity were their victories and 
defeats. They did not dwell separately, but a bad and a good 
6pirit was connected with every element, every object, and 
struggled for its mastery. "War was a necessity, peace im- 
possible. Physical discords were battles. Sin, with the Accads, 
was neglect of religious rite6 or communion with malevolent 
6pirits. This vast dualistic spiritualism, the very basis of the 
Chaldean magic, tyrannized mightily over men. All good and 
evil were connected with good and evil spirits. Every motion 
of moving cloud, waving grass, falling leaf, driving storm, 
every sound, the murmur of brook, the roar of ocean, the 
whisper of breeze, the voice of thunder, was caused by a spirit. 
It was impossible to do otherwise than to communicate with 
spirits.* Evil spirits must be driven away. Good spirits 
must be gained and strengthened against the evil. This could 
be accomplished by employing mysterious rites, charms, and 
talismans. Powerful secrets were mighty weapons in tliis 
warfare. The magician must be sought to protect man, to 
prevent direst calamities, and to control the forces of the un- 
seen world. This was the only way of happiness and peace. 

God and evil spirits were classified,t and at the summit of 
the hierarchy certain gods were placed ; and yet they were no 
gods, but only possessed a higher range of the same power as 
the inferior orders of spirits. Ana was the spirit of the heav- 
ens ; he was also the material heavens. Hea was the soul of 
the inhabited earth ; he was also the dwelling of all animated 
beings. Hea was the god of science, the foe of evil spirits, the 

* The Jews believed that angels could Call in love with beautiful women. Tobit 
vi, 14 ; Augustine, u De civ. Dei," c 23. 
f CI Book of Enoch lxviii, lxxvii. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 107 

protector of men, and the guardian of the world. His spouse, 
Davkina, was the personification of the surface of the earth. 
Their union produced the waters of the earth. They were 
translated bodily into the later Assyrian religion. Mulge was 
the god of the solid earth, and especially of the lower world, 
11 the temple of the dead." In that gloomy realm there was no 
marked distinction of rewards and punishments, yet some were 
permitted to drink of the spring of water of life, when they 
could again visit the earth. Namtar, the god of plague, and 
Nandara, the god of war, were sons of Mulge. Nandara was 
also the god of mineral treasures, and possessed many precious 
gems which were the repositories of great magic power. The 
belief in spirits which preside over minerals is characteristic 
of Turanian, and is common also among many other, peoples. 
The demons of the under-world loved darkness. They came 
forth in the night seasons to torment men and do them mis- 
chief. Because of this the early Accads dreaded the night and 
darkness. The sun was their protecting god against black spir- 
its, and was victorious over them every morning. While the 
Accads dreaded the night, the Chaldeans loved to behold the 
glories of the starry sky. 

Diseases were considered punishments for sin. The good 
demons would withdraw their influence from the man who did 
evil, and leave him for a time to the power of the demons of 
disease. The sun was the principal god invoked for deliver- 
ance. By his superior power he could overcome and drive 
away the demons of disease. In an incantation against " the 
disease of the head " the prayer is offered that the diseases may 
fly away " like doves to their dovecotes, like grasshoppers into 
the sky, like birds into 6pace," and be dissipated " like a noc- 
turnal dew," or " be carried away into the heavens like a vio- 
lent wind," and swallowed up in the earth " like passing waters.*' 

Fire, as a material god, was thought to be even superior to 
the sun. We quote a hymn to the god Fire : 

Fire, supreme chief, rising high in the country! 

Hero, son of the ocean, rising high in the country! 

Fire, with thy pure and brilliant flame, thou briugest light into 

the dwellings of darkness, thou decidest the fate of every 

thing which has a name; 
Thou mixest copper and tin, thou purifiest gold and silver. 
May the works of man, son of his god, shine with purity! 

108 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

May he be high as heaven! 

May he be holy and pure as the earth! 

May he shine as the midst of heaven! * 

Fire was called " warrior, hero, illuminator of darkness." As 
the god of the hearth he was called " god of the house, pro- 
tector of the house, protector of the family." When sacrifice 
was offered he was god of the flame. He was the god of the 
cosmic fire which is distributed throughout nature. He it was 
who shone in the stars, and he who was worshiped as the son 
of Ana. It was important in magic rites to hold most inti- 
mate communication with so powerful a god.f The Accads 
used the " fire-stick " in kindling fires for their temple worship. 
The elements of this fire-stick are shown in the old hiero- 
glyphics. Fire was believed to be self-producing, as shown by 
the word for the fifth month of the calendar, Nenegar, " Fire 
fire make " — a month under the patronage of a deity named 
46 Lord of the wood of life." Heavenly fire was discovered by 
u the great heavenly fire-stick," the lightning, whose Accadian 
name was " the piercer of heaven." % 

. Silik-mulu-khiy a mediator between Hea and man, was fre- 
quently addressed in the incantations. § We give a hymn : 

Who can escape thy hail? 

Thy will is the sublime cimeter with which thou rulest heaven 

and earth. 
I commanded the sea, and the sea became calm; 
I commanded the flower, and the flower ripened into grain; 
I commanded the girdle of the river of Sippara, and, by the will 

of Silik-mulu-khi, I overturned its course. 
Lord, thou art sublime, what transitory being is equal to thee? 
Silik-mulu-khi, among all the gods who are named, thou art the 

remunerator. || 

We may compare this god with the Assyrian Merodacb and 
the Zoroastrian Sraosha. We add one of the benignant spells : 

The noble cupbearer of Hea, the scribe of Merodach (am) I, 
Like fire have I blazed, (and) I rejoice; 
(Like) fire have I burned, (and) I grow; 

• " Chaldean Magic," p. 185. f /& **-» PP- 184-189. 

X Houghton and Boscawan in " Transactions Society Biblical Archaeology," vol 
▼1, pp. 280, 281, 467. 

' § Comp. " Book of Enoch," ix, 8 ; xl, 6 ; " Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs," 
iii and v. 

| u Chaldean Magic," p. 192. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 109 

The corn I purify and make heavy. 

Like fire have I blazed, (and) will rejoice; 

(Like) fire have I burned, (and) will grow; 

The corn will I purify and make heavy. 

O nadir (and) zenith, the light of god and man, 

May the store he collected, be delivered. 

May the store of (his) heart, whosoever he be, ye his god 

And his goddess, be delivered. 

May his gate be kept faM on that day, 

May they enrich him, may they deliver him.* 

No one can fail to observe, even in an English translation, the 
peculiar characteristics of Hebrew poetry. The rhyme of 
sense is strongly marked. The Hebrews must have borrowed 
their rules for "poetic composition primitively from the Accads. 

The Accads probably believed in the primal innocency of 
the human race ; at least sin was introduced in the world by 
the successful temptation of the dragon Tihamat. They be- 
lieved in vicarious punishment, in Silik-mulu-khi as mediator 
and redeemer, and tliat the dearest object should be given for 
the sin of the soul. Human sacrifices, even sacrifices of the 
first-born, were offered by fire. The bloody sacrifices offered to 
Moloch were an inheritance from the Accads. The Accadian 
hymns formed a collection which has been compared with the 
Rig- Veda, and which " became the authorized prayer-book of 
the Accadian Church," and "the authoritative text-book of 
the priesthood." "Its sacred scriptures" afterward became 
"the venerable ritual of both Babylonia and Assyria." "A 
superstitious reverence seems to have been attached to the 
mere letter and pronunciation of the sacred text," so that 
the language became sacred, like the Sanskrit to the Hindus, 
and the Latin to the Roman Catholic Church, f 

The Accads had made considerable progress in science and 
law. The great astronomical work of the library of Agane 
shows considerable knowledge of astronomy. Therein are dis- 
cussed eclipses, conjunctions of the sun and moon, spots 
on the sun, Venus, the Pole Star, comets; there were also 
predictions of the weather as determined by changes of the 
moon. It was supposed that the same weather was repeated 
after cycles of twelve years, and that the eclipses of the moon 
were repeated after two hundred and twenty lunations. The 

* Sayce on " Times of Abraham," p. 40. 
f " Babylonian Literature," pp. 46, 47. 

110 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

night was divided into watches of four hours each. From the 
Accads we get the signs of the zodiac, the week of seven days, 
and the Sabbath, " the day of rest for the heart." Names had 
already been given to many stars and constellations, and the 
phases of Venus had been detected. The ecliptic, or " yoke of 
the sky," had been divided into three hundred and sixty parts, 
and the year into four seasons, twelve lunar montlis, and three 
hundred and sixty days. Intercalary months were introduced 
to correct the calendar. The month was divided into two 
parts of fifteen days each, and these again into periods of five 
days. It has been thought that the Accads, or early Assyrians 
or Babylonians, must have been acquainted with the use of 
some kind of optical instrument. Perhaps all of this had l>een 
accomplished before the Semites entered Shinar. If this be 
so, the latter received a goodly intellectual heritage from their 
Turanian predecessors in Chaldea. The oldest code of laws in 
the world comes from ancient Chaldea. This is full of in- 
struction. Rare commercial documents, though belonging to 
a period later than Sennacherib, we have already noticed. 
In reading these legal treasures one might almost imagine he 
was reading pleas of modern lawyers and decisions of modern 
judges. There were the same tedious formality, the same citing 
of precedents, and the same care in drawing up, signing, seal- 
ing, and witnessing documents. It was believed that the gods 
favored the just judge, and that divine punishments were in- 
flicted upon those who received bribes or extorted unlawful 
tribute. These laws exist in both the original Accadian and 
the Assyrian translation. From legal documents we may 
learn much concerning the real life of the people and their 
position in the scale of civilization. An oath was required of 
the judge each day by which he bound himself to judge accord- 
ing to the law and testimony ; his decisions became precedents 
for the future. The slave and his children had certain rights in 
which they were protected ; descent was counted through the 
mother; she held the highest rank in the family; divorce on 
the part of a wife was more blameworthy than divorce on the 
part of a husband ; " whatsoever a married woman incloses shall 
be her own property ; " sacrilege was a very grave offense ; 
fine and imprisonment were the penalties for contempt of 
court ; the high roads and brick-yards were placed under the 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. Ill 

care o£ commissioners ; the empire was divided into districts 
for purposes of taxation ; careful records were kept of the pur- 
chase and sale of property ; awful curses were pronounced upon 
those who removed landmarks, and endowments were bestowed 
upon literary men for celebrating the praises of the sovereign. 
If all these laws have not their origin among the Accadians, 
they certainly belong to a most ancient period. The liigh es- 
teem in which women were held among the Accadian inven- 
tors of the syllabary is shown by the ideograph for mother, 
which means " deity of the house." This is far different from 
the esteem in which women were held among the Assyrians, 
to be mentioned hereafter. The ideograph for father means 
" maker of the nest," builder of the house.* 

The Accadian worship has not remained stationary during 
the centuries covered by our review. There are evidences of 
. an advancement toward solar worship even before the influence 
of Semitism was felt. The old spirits of fetish worship were 
reorganized in the time of Sargon. The spirits which had 
been worshiped as spirits of earth, heaven, and other objects, 
became deities instead of zi or spirit of fetish. The remainder 
of the spirits were divided into spirits of heaven, or angels, 
and spirits of earth, or demons. These classes were only in- 
voked collectively, and were regarded as the children of the 
greater gods, and the subjects of Anu and Ilea. The old Ac- 
cadian magic still remained, but was remanded to a subordinate 
position. In the Accadian inscriptions the great gods of the 
Assyrian pantheon are not mentioned, and sidereal deities re- 
ceive but slight notice. The sidereal gods themselves were not 
invoked, but rather their spirits, which were considered as in- 
dependent. The organized Chaldean hierarchy, with the de- 
velopment of the system of mythology and astro-theology, 
must have been the result of long study on the part of a 
learned priesthood. We present two liturgical prayers which 
will enable us to contrast the Accadian and Assyrian systems : 


From the curse, O Spirit of heaven, protect us ! O Spirit of earth, 

protect us. 
O Spirit of the lord of lands, protect us. 
O Spirit of the lady of lands, protect us. 

* "Transactions Society of Biblical Archaeology," vol. Ti, pp. 474, **3. 

112 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

O Spirit of the lord of stars, protect us, 

O Spirit of the lady of stars, protect us. 

O Spirit of the lord of the holy mound, protect us. 

O Spirit of the lady of the holy mound, protect us. 

O Spirit of the lord of the light of life, protect us. 

O Spirit of the lady of the light of life, protect us. 


May Be), (pardon,) the king my creator. 

May Belt is, queen of Bit-2ic/a, (?) pardon. 

May Bel-zida pardon my fault. 

May Hea pardon, may Davkina pardon. 

May Hea, lord of chaos, pardon. 

May the Abyss, the house of wisdom, pardon. 

Zeige, pardon ; the watery deep, may it pardon. 

Merodach, king of the angels, may he pardon. 

And so on for twenty-five lines more, calling on various gods.* 
These prayers mark a great step in advance. 

In entering upon the discussion of the Assyrian religion we 
do not part with the Accadian. We shall meet with its influ- 
ence again and again. After the court religion had become 
decidedly Assyrian, the Accadian probably lived long among 
the common people, and was never entirely abandoned. Relig- 
ions, even the poorest and beggarliest, are tenacious of life, and 
die not without many a struggle. "The astrologers, the Chal- 
deans and the soothsayers " in the time of Nebuchadnezzar were 
the legitimate religious successors of the Accadian magicians. 
The religion of the Etruscans, so powerful in its influence 
throughout the history of Rome, probably came from a source 
common with that of the Accads. The Etruscan and Accadian 
languages may show upon comparison genuine affinities. 

The Assyrians believed in one supreme being, Ilu, "the 
god," formerly a hearth god, whose manifestations were at 
length identified with the planetary and sidereal systems. Ilu 
is found as an element in the word Bab-Ilu, Babylon, " the 
gate of Ilu," which in ironical alliteration the Ilebrews called 
Babel, "the gate of confusion." Since the word Ilu is com- 
mon to all Semitic tongues, Ilu must have been the god of the 
Semites before their dispersion. 

" Next to Ilu, the universal and mysterious source of all things, 
came a trinity composed of his three first exterior and visible 

* BoscaweD in " Transactions of tho Society of Biblical Archaeology," vol. vi, 
pp. 539, 540. 

18S3.1 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 113 

nianifestations, which were placed at the summit of the scale 
in the popular worship ; Ann, the primordial chaos, the god 
of time and the world, (both xp6 V0 $ and ttoofws,) uncreated matter 
issuing from the fundamental and unique principle of all things ; 
Ilea, the intelligence, or we would willingly say, the Word, 
which animated matter and rendered it fertile, which pene- 
trated the universe, directed and inspired it with life, be- 
ing at the same time the king of the element of the water ; in 
one word, the spirit which moved upon the face of the 
waters ; " and lastly, Bel, the demiurgus and ruler of the or- 
ganized universe. "These three co-equal and co-substantial 
divine persons were not of the same degree of emanation, but 
they issued, on the contrary, one from the other : Ilea from 
Anu, and Bel from Nuah.* " From these gods came a female 
trinity; Anat, Belit, and Davkina — often confounded one 
with another, Belit ultimately excluding the others. We can- 
not hope to meet with entire consistency in any mythology, and 
must not be startled at the baldest inconsistencies. By another 
series of emanations was produced a second trinity : Sin, " the 
moon god," was the son of Bel ; Samas, " the sun god," the 
son of Ilea; and Bin, "the air god," the son of Anu. Each 
of these deities had a spouse : " the supreme lady," Gula, and 
Sala. Next in rank came the five planetary deities: Adar or 
Saturn, Merodach or Jupiter, Nergal or Mars, Ishtar or Venus, 
and Nebo or Mercury. Adar was both son and spouse of 
Belit. Because of the two forms of Mercury and Venus, as 
seen morning and evening, there was a double Ishtar ; and Nebo 
became Nebo and Nusku. Zarpanit was the consort of Mero- 
dach, Laz of Nergal, Tasmit of Nebo, and Duzi or Dumuzi of 
Ishtar. The twelve "great gods" were Anu, Hea, Bel, Belit, 
Sin, Samas, Bin, Adar, Merodach, Nergal, Ishtar, and Nebo. 

Many titles of the great gods acquired a distinct personality, 
and were invoked as deities. There were also many lesser 
gods, and personifications of the stars, which were thought to 
bo animated by gods or lower supernatural beings. Here were 
placed the protecting spirits: the Sed, Alap, or Kirub, a bull 
with a human face ; the Samas or Nirgal, a lion with a human 
head ; the Ustur, of human form ; and the Nattig, with the head 
of an eagle.f 

• "Chaldean Magic," pp. 114, 115. f cr - Ezckiel i, 10; x, 14. 

114 Methodist Quarterly lievlcw. [January, 

Here also we must place the Itjili and Anvnnaki y celestial 
and terrestrial spirits, three hundred of the former and six 
hundred of the latter. Ann, Hea, and Bel were sometimes 
called the children of Zicu or Zicara, "the sky," "the mother 
of Anu and all the gods," {Sige of Nicolaus Damasoenus.) 
Assur and his wife Seruya were afterward placed at the head 
of the Assyrian pantheon, and then Assur was called the 
father of Anu, Ilea, and Bel. 

Each god from time to time seems to be highest. This may 
be explained by attending to several considerations. In the first 
place, different gods were the patron deities of different places, 
and received special honors. Other gods were not neglected 
entirely, but were subordinate to the god who had the place 
under his special protection. Again, the inscriptions run 
through many centuries, during which the reputation of a god 
might rise or fall. We are also to notice that in the worship 
of the devoted Assyrian, he might exalt the god to whom he 
is praying as though there were no other, making that god high- 
est to whom prayer is at the time offered. Generally many 
gods are addressed, that the worshiper may be on friendly 
terms with all. 

Anu, the Assyrian Zeus, the god of Erech, was the ruler of 
heaven. When the religion had developed by philosophical 
study, Anu became an abstract deity, the first principle and 
source of all divine emanations. He was " the ancient, the 
progenitor and father of the gods," and dwelt in the seventh 
heaven, called " the heaven of Anu." His sign was the star, or 
a symbol resembling a Maltese cross, which was often worn 
round the necks of Chaldean kings. His spouse was Anatu. 
The whole universe was sometimes divided into two regions ; the 
upper, or heaven, was called Anu, the lower, or earth, Anatu. 
She was the lady of darkness, and of death and life. Bilkan, 
one of her sons, was the god of lire, (cf. Vulcan and Tubal- 
Cain.) She is frequently confounded with her daughter, Ishtar, 
and, like the latter, was the impersonation of passive reproduc- 
tive nature. As Anaitis, the wife of Reseph, she was worshiped 
by the Egyptians from the time of the Syrian conquests of 
Kamases II.* 

Ilea, identified with Oannes, the fish-god of Berosus, had 

* |; Chuldean Genesis," pp. 54, 65 ; " Archaeological Dictionary," pp. 63, 64. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 115 

the attribntes of several classical divinities. Like Pluto he 
was lord of the lower regions. Ninkigal, his spouse, was "the 
lady of the great land, the lady of the house of death." Like 
Poseidon, Ilea was " lord of the abyss, lord of fountains, and 
lord of sailors." He taught Hasisadra, the Chaldean Noah, 
how to bnild the ark and sail over the flood. He had domin- 
ion over various spirits of the deep, and was associated with the 
goddess Bahu, " the void," Bohu of Genesis, also called Gula. 
Like Hermes, Ilea was " the god who knows all things, lord of 
wisdom, mines, treasures, gifts, and music, and the lord of the 
bright eye." His consort, Davkina, resembled Persephone or 
Proserpi ne. 

Bel, the god of jSTipur, was the deity of physical power and 
of the moving, heavenly bodies, the lord of the surface 
of the earth and of the affairs of men, and the determiner 
of the destinies of nations. He was a popular national god, 
and his temple at Kipur the type of all temples. His 
wife, Belat, or Beltis, like Anatu, the goddess of reproductive 
nature, was also the goddess of war. Every woman in Babylon 
was obliged to prostitute herself in the temple once in her life- 
time to this goddess. Babylonian legends, found at Khorsa- 
bad on little clay olives, bear witness to this frightful custom.* 
Bel was represented as a kiug wearing a tiara crested with 
bulls' horns, and holding a scepter as an emblem of power. 
BjI Merodach, " the younger Bel," was the patron deity of 
Babylon. The Phoenician Baal, represented by a pillar of 
stone, was worshiped with human sacrifices. At Tyre he was 
called Melkarth, and had two pillars, one of gold and one of 
emerald, in front of his temple. Jezebel, the most beautiful 
but most wicked Israelitish queen, introduced his organized 
worship in Israel. With Baal were associated Ashtoreth, the 
moon-goddess, and Ashera, the goddess of fertility. 

Sin, the moon-god, the son of Bel, was a favorite deity of 
the Cushite kings of the early Babylonians, and the principal 
deity of Ur. He was called u lord of crowns, maker of bright- 

* u Records of the Pa«t," vol. xi, pp. 43, 44 : " Ratvlinson's Herodotus, v vol. 
i, pp. 265, 2C6: Bohn's "Strabo," vol. iii,pp. 155; Jeremias, 43. Succoth-Bennth 
of 2 Kings xvii, 30, "tents of daughters," is explained by most expositors as re- 
ferring to the teats of this prostitution. Succoth-Benoth may be Zirat-banit, wile 
of Bel-Merodach. 

116 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

ness, lord of the city of TTr, king of the gods, and god of the 
gods." He was also called Nannaru, " the bright one," whence 
the classical legend of Nannarus. He was worshiped under 
the name of Ur, " eldest son of Bel," and may be connected 
with Al-orus, the first mythical king of Berosus.* 

The following liturgical hymn to the moon-god was in use 
in the great city of Ur. Translated by Lenormant, Englished 
by Tomkins. The original Accadian was accompanied by an 
Assyrian translation : 

High-exalted, all-producing, life unfolding from above! 
Father, he who life reneweth in its circuit through all lands ! 
Lord ! in thy goodness far and wide as sky and sea thou spread'st 

thine awe! 
Warder of shrines in (Akkad's) land and . prophet of their high 

estate ! 
God's sire and men's, of childhood guide, (?) even Ishtar's self 

thou didst create ! 
Primeval seer, re warder, (sole,) fixing the doom of days remote, 
Unshaken chief, whose heart benign is never mindful of thy 

wrongs : 
Whose blessings cease not, ever flowing, leading on his fellow 

Who from depth to height bright piercing openeth the gate of 

heaven ! 
Father mine, of life the giver, cherishing, beholding (all) ! 
Lord who power benign extendeth over all the heaven and earth ! 
Seasons, (?) rains, from heaven forth drawing, watching life aud 

yielding showers ! 
Who in heaven is high exalted ? Thou ! Sublime in thy behest ! 
Who on earth is high exalted ? Thou ! Sublime in thy behest ! 
Thou thy will in heaven revealest; (thee) celestial spirits 

(praise) ! 
Thou thy will on earth revealest; thou subdu'st the spirits of 

Thou ! thy will in heaven as the luminous ether shines ! 
Thou ! thy will upon the earth to me by deeds . . . thou dost 

declare ! 
Thou ! thy will extendeth life in greatness, hope, and wonder 

Thou ! thy will itself gives being to the righteous dooms of men ! 
Thou through heaven and earth extendest goodness, not remem- 
bering wrong ! 
Thou ! thy will who knoweth ? Who with aught can it compare ? 
Lord ! in heaven and earth thy lordship of the gods none equals 

thee ! f 

* " Records of the Past," vol. iii, pp. 10-16; iv, p. 64. 
f Tomkins' u Times of Abraham," pp. 9, 10. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 117 

Samas, Sheraesh of the Bible, (1 Sam. vi, 9,) the sun-god, 
son of Hea, had important sanctuaries at Larsa and Sippara. 
lie unfastens the bolts of the shining sky, and opens the door 
of heaven. He covers the immensity of the heavens. He is 
the "illuminator of the darkness, who sets up those who are 
bowed down, who sustains the weak ; whose face the archan- 
gels of the abyss contemplate ; who rests like a bridegroom 
joyful and gracious; whom men contemplate and rejoice; 
the nourisher of the luminous heavens, who establishes truth 
in the thoughts of the nations, knowing the true and false; 
the supreme judge of heaven and earth, lord of living beings, 
whom the celestial archangels press about with respect and 
joy, and the servants of the lady of crowns lead in a festive 
manner, directing the human race and giving them peace, 
pardoning short-comings and transgressions, dissipating the 
evil influence of wonders, omens, sorceries, dreams, evil ap- 
paritions." * 

Bin or Rimmon, (also variously called Vul, Ao, Iva,) son of 
Ann, was god of storms and tempests, of rain and whirlwind, 
of thunder and lightning, of floods and watercourses — the god 
of the air " who causes the tempest to rage over hostile lands 
and wicked countries." He destroyed crops and rooted up 
trees, and was followed by famine and pestilence. He was 
" the great guardian of heaven and earth, the intelligent guide, 
the lord of the visible world, the lord of knowledge, glory, and 
life." His most usual symbols were the serpent and the double 
or triple bolt. 

Ninip, or ^dar, the Chaldean Hercules, is described as " the 
crusher of opponents, he who rolls along the mass of heaven 
and earth, treader of the wide earth, who has not lessened the 
glory of Lis face ; head of nations, bestower of scepters ; lord 
of lords, whose hand has controlled the vault of heaven and 
earth; lord of water-courses, seas, and whirlwinds; opener of 
canals, and lord of crops and boundaries; the deity who 
changes not his purposes, the light of heaven and earth, whose 
is the speech of the gods no god has ever disregarded, des- 
troyer of them that hate him." He is also called " 6on of the 
zenith, son of El the sublime." His temple is " the temple of 
the sanctuary." He gives power over the beasts of the fields, 

* " Records of the Past," vol. xi, pp. 123-128. 

Poueth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 8 

118 Methodist Quarterly Review. [ January, 

and reigns a monarch of the nations. His symbol was a 
winged bull.** 

Merodach was the guide of souls to Hades. He raised the 
dead to life, and was " the renowned chief of the gods and the 
lord of eternity without end." Khammurabi chose Merodach 
as the head of his worship. He is the mediator between gods 
and men, and answers the prayers of the good man. He 
changes the hearts of men, and determines their destinics.t 

Nergal was a the god of arms and bows, the great hero, king 
of fight, master of battles, champion of the gods, god of the 
chase." Nirgalli were Assyrian winged human-headed lions 
which, together with the Alapi, guarded the entrances to the 
royal palaces. The lion-god was worshiped by the Cuthaeans. 
2 Kings xvii, 30. 

Ishtar, the Assyrian Venus, though generically a goddess of 
the second rank, was raised to the first rank in both Assyria 
and Babylonia. She was the goddess of war, " the goddess of 
battles and victories." She gives arms to the warrior, upholds 
him, gives him the help of " sixty great gods," and utterly 
destroys his enemies. Long life, victory, and abundance are 
in her hand. She brings down the high head of the proud ; 
she exalts, strengthens, and preserves the kingdom. As 
Anaitis, she was worshiped at Comana, where her statue was 
of solid gold, her high-priest next in rank to the king, and her 
temple served by six thousand servants. She was called 
" queen of queens, archer of the gods, terrible in battle." She 
was represented as a winged figure with a halo and a bow. 
Ishtar was also the goddess of love, and was called " lover, 
nurse, guardian, and servant." She was the goddess of sensual 
indulgence, and in the Izdubar legends seemed to have been 
the goddess of witchcraft, like Hecate and Medea. We find 
her also in the character of goddess of treasures, and " queen 
of the spear " or " divining rod." % 

Nebowas"the overseer of the multitudes of heaven .and 
earth, the supreme watcher, the holy minister of the gods, of 
lofty intelligence, founder of the (fabric) of heaven and earth." 

* " Records of the Past," vol. iii, pp. 39, 40 : ix, p. 96 ; i, p. 11 ; ▼, p. 108 ; xi, p. 9. 
f Ibid, vol v, p. 116; vii, p. 75; v, p. 139. 

% Ibid., voL xi, pp. 61-T8; vii, pp. 67, 68; ix, p. 51. Bohn's "Strabo," voL ii, 
pp. 279, 309. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 119 

He caused the hand of Neriglissar to hold u a scepter of 
righteousness." More important is his character as god of 
knowledge, science and literature. With his wife Tasmit he 
invented writing, and directed the educatian of Assyrian kings. 
" Assurbanipal asserts that Nebo and Tasmit had i made broad 
his ears, and enlightened his eyes,' so that he ordered all the 
characters of the syllabaries and the ancient writings of Accad 
to be explained and written down." Nebo, as " the eastern 
sun in the height of heaven," may be identified with the Hin- 
du Mithras. He was represented as a king crowned with a 
triple-horned cap, and holding a scepter or staff. N usku, one 
of his attributes, grew into an independent deity. Upon the 
dedication of a temple, Nebuchadnezzar prayed : " O Nebo ! 
noble son, exalted (messenger) and beloved offspring of Mar- 
duk ! my works of piety behold joyfully ! A long life, abun 
dant offspring, a firm throne, a prolonged reign, the subjection 
of all rebels, the conquest of my enemies* land, grant to me as 
a recompense." * 

Assur, although not included in the genealogies of the gods, 
became the king and father of the gods, and " the worship of 
Assur " became the religion of the realm. His chief temple 
was dedicated to the " mountain of the world." He it is who, 
with Merodach, confided sovereign power to Sargon, "the vice- 
roy of the gods at Babylon," and " the favorite of the great gods." 
In his book the names of the pious are recorded. His favorite 
emblem was " the winged circle or globe, from which a figure 
in a horned cap is frequently seen to issue, sometimes simply 
holding a bow, sometimes shooting his arrows against the 
Assyrians' enemies." f 

Several gods are sometimes elaborately addressed in the same 
inscription. % 

We cannot even name all the gods of the Assyrian pantheon. 
In one inscription we have a list of several hundred with their 
attributes. We have named the most important. We have 
already met with El, who is the god of the Hebrews. We also 
find Yav, the Yaveh of the Moabite stone, the Jehovah of the 

* •• Records of the Past," vol. v, pp. 122-139 ; xi, p. 101 ; vii, p. 77. "Archaic 
Dictionary," p. 6J>7. 

f IbuL, voi xi, p. 17. " Transactions Society of Biblical Archaeology," vol. iii, 
p. 439. " Ancient Monarchies," vol ii, pp. 3, 4. 

X " Records of the Past," vol xi, p. 24; v, p. 29. 

120 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

Israelites. Turtak, the Accadian deity of the Tigris, is the 
Tartak of the Bible, (2 Kings xvii, 31.) Lagamar, whose 
temple at Susa was rebuilt by the emperor Kudur-Nakhunte, 
has left his name in Kedorlaomer, who fought in Palestine in 
the time of Abraham, (Genesis xiv, 1-17.) Deities of surround- 
ing nations were legitimate spoils of war. Assurbanipal cap- 
tured and carried away into Assyria nineteen " gods and god- 
desses, with their valuables, their gods, their furniture, and 
priests and worshipers." * 

The comparison of the Assyrian religion with the Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures must be reserved for a second paper. 



That is a superficial view of theology which makes it simply 
a science of religion. In its literal sense it means a science of 
God, or divine things. But even this definition, derived from 
the etymology of the word, is too meager. To be exhaustive 
as well as comprehensive it must include more. t Our Protest- 
ant theology is based upon the Christian religion, which is a 
supernatural revelation of salvation through Jesus Christ. The 
facts of Christianity were first divinely revealed, then realized 
in man's experience, and lastly elaborated into a systematic 
whole by a reflection on the facts of man's consciousness as 
guided and enlightened by the divine Spirit. Theology is, 
therefore, not only an affair of the head, but also of the heart ; 
it is a theory and a practice as well ; not only a form of 
knowledge, but also a precious experience. Hence a complete 
definition of theology must take these three points into consid- 
eration : first, the supernatural communication of the facts of 
salvation ; second, the personal experience of these facts by 
man ; and, third, their scientific arrangement. 

From this point of view an attempt will be made to sketch 
the Protestant theology of to-day, which may be divided, ac- 
cording to its hostile or friendly attitude toward the Bible, into 
two groups. The one reverently accepts, the other deliber- 

* u Records of the Past," vol. i, pp. 87, 88. 

1883 J Present State of Protestant Theology. 121 

ately rejects, the divine authority of the Scriptures. This atti- 
tude toward the Bible has acted as a sifting power, eliminating 
the unlike elements and drawing the like elements together 
more closely. The growth of Protestant theology seems to 
have been along two lines, parallel at first, but now diverging 
more and more. The champions of either side are uniting 
more closely in their respective encampments, while the breach 
between them is widening and the antagonism intensifying. 

For a clearer apprehension of tliis process of selection and 
rejection let us make 

I. A Brief Historical Review. 

We must go back to the Reformation, which is the mother, 
and, as it were, the source, of Protestant theology, in order to 
get at the fundamental principles which underlie the present. 
One of these primary principles of the Reformation was to put 
the divine authority of the Bible over the authority of the 
Church, thereby proclaiming freedom from all outward tra- 
ditional trammels. Protestantism delivered from the tyranny 
of the Church by carrying back to the Bible. Another of 
these first principles was its teaching that man is justified by 
faith, that he is dependent on God alone, with whom he can 
hold direct intercourse at any time by faith, without human 
intervention or priestly mediation. 

These two principles of man's dependence and man's inde- 
pendence — obligation and liberty — when held together prop- 
erly balance each other. But the equilibrium was sometimes 
destroyed by unduly emphasizing the one at the expense of 
the other. The two extremes in the Protestant theology of 
the present can be traced to a divorce of these two pervading 
principles of the Reformation. Whenever the idea of man's 
dependence has been so strongly insisted upon that the idea 
of his independence was lost sight of and separated from the 
true liberty of a living faith, then a cold orthodoxy, which 
ended with a soulless confessionalism, was the result. If, on 
the other hand, independence was exalted and faith severed 
from reason, it developed into latitudinarianism and generally 
ended with negation. But, happily, in the course of this his- 
toric, process a theology has grown up, based upon the Bible, 
recognizing the dependence required in the Scriptures and 

122 Methodist Quarterly Review. TJanuary, 

preserving independence, or the true liberty of the spirit. 
Without falling into confessionalism, it values creeds and con- 
fessions of faith as representing the ripest results of the piety 
and scholarship of the Church at any given period. This 
biblical orthodoxy rests upon the broad basis of the Scriptures, 
and counts its adherents by thousands in every tongue and 

If we closely observe this critico-historical process we shall 
find that a dry and lifeless orthodoxy gained the ascendency, 
not only in Germany and Switzerland, but also in Scandinavia, 
Holland, and England. In Germany, Luther had hardly closed 
his eyes when the opposing factions, which had been kept down 
by his personal presence and influence, began to threaten 
trouble. The conflict between the strict orthodoxy, led by 
Flaccius, and the milder evangelical faction, whose chief man 
was Melanchthon, ended with a signal victory for the orthodox 
party. In Switzerland, Holland, France, and Scotland, a Cal- 
vinism so stern that it was a crime to differ from it held ab- 
solute sway. In England the constitution of the State Church 
was about as exclusive and inflexible as could be devised. 
The unhappy effects of this controversial period which fol- 
lowed the Reformation appeared in a twofold manner : first, 
in a decay of vital religion ; second, in a petrifaction of the 
living doctrines of the Reformation into mere intellectual 

Such a frigid and rigid orthodoxy was impotent to satisfy the 
capacities of the head and the cravings of the heart. It was 
barren of all vital results. It could not inspire the heart with 
hope nor incite the intellect to any fruitful activity. It barred 
the door to all independent inquiry with its inexorable credo. 
No wonder, then, that the people, embittered at such a soulless 
orthodoxy, which suppressed the Christian truth, revolted, 
and, in their reaction against this ecclesiastical despotism which 
fostered such a theology, seriously threatened Christian truth 
itself. Nor did this process go on in Germany only. It ap- 
peared in Italy in a revival of the humanities ; in England as 
deism, and in France as atheism and bald materialism. In 
Germany sovereign reason, throwing away the " humility of 
knowledge," assumed the throne, and the so-called rationalism 
vulgaris began to prevail in the countries of the Reformation. 

1883 J Present State of Protestant Theology. 123 

In its interpretation of the Bible it did not tronble itself with 
any deep critical questions ; its exegesis was of a very elastic 
nature ; it set history aside when its testimony was not suit- 
able, and simply denied the supernatural, and ended with be- 
coming so trivial and frivolous that its divines preached on 
the best methods of raising and caring for cattle. The phi- 
losopher Kant calls the style of sermons of the age " Prose 
gone mad." 

Although this rationalism counted several able men among 
its ranks, as Dr. Semler, and deserves credit for having given 
the cold, dry orthodoxy a death-blow, yet its influence upon 
theology and upon public life was a very deplorable one. It 
produced a large class of persons devoid of principle, who 
called themselves theologians, as the notorious K. F. Bahrdt. 

Single men here and there stood on Bible ground, and let 
their light shine in the universal darkness; yet upon the 
whole, the theology of that period was at a very low ebb. But 
the Lord provided. He raised up Spener, Zinzendorf, and 
Wesley to purify and vitalize this corrupt theology. It is a 
great mistake to think that these men were merely the found- 
ers of the modern home mission work. For although the 
pietism of a Spener had no formulated creed, it nevertheless 
exerted a great influence upon the doctrines of the Church by 
placing the almost-forgotten Christian life in the foreground. 
Zinzendorf, with his motto, " My passion is He, only He," 
touched the theology of the day by its Achilles' heel. Wes- 
ley, with his clear notions of sin, justification, regeneration, 
and 8anctification, and with his wonderful talent for presenting 
these great truths level to the understanding of all classes, has 
helped, from his time onward to the present, both inside and 
outside of Methodism, at forming theological ideas. 

To be sure, the work of these divinely commissioned men 
did not end this process of separating all unlike elements, for 
that is still going on now. But one fundamental principle has 
been so firmly fixed that it has never since been lost sight of ; 
namely, that a true theology is not merely a speculative form 
of knowledge^ but a mode oflwing as well — a habitus prac- 
ticus — and that it must produce the fruits of a practical 
Christianity. We have never forgotten that there is an in- 
separable connection between religion and morality. Conflicts 

124 Metfwdist Quarterly Review. [January, 

have not been wanting. The admiring disciples of Kant at- 
tempted all kinds of possible and impossible " critiques of pure 
reason." Idealism was in its prime at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. The Bible has had to sustain a constant 
warfare with intellectualism, and, at present, is brought into 
frequent contact with the natural sciences. But, notwith- 
standing the most determined opposition, Bible theology has, 
from the times of Zinzendorf and Wesley forward, gained 
ground, established itself as a science, and driven to a decision 
either for or against itself. 

The last act of this theological clarification was precipitated 
by the appearance of Strauss' Leben Jesu, (1835.) It was not 
an epoch-making work in the sense of being productive of 
new ideas. On the contrary, it was not creative. Its con- 
structive power was almost equal to zero, but its destructive 
tendency was so much greater. It does not so much mark an 
epoch as a crisis which dissipated dreams and illusions, showed 
the futility of vague theories and half-measures, and caused 
emphatic divisions on vital questions of religion. The eyes of 
the theological world were opened as never before. It became 
evident that Strauss' road led to the atheism of a Feuerbach, 
and that this landed into the materialism of a Darwin. The 
friends of a supernatural revelation rallied around the Bible. 
Christians took a definite stand, and asked each other : Is your 
theology based upon the Bible ? Do you belong to the posi- 
tive or negative party ? Thus this earnest conflict has created 
a chasm, growing wider and more impassable than ever. 

In England and Germany honest efforts were made by the 
so-called Compromise Theology ( Yermittlungs-Theologie) to 
settle these differences. Schleiermacher, born at Breslau, 1768, 
is the founder of this movement. His father, an army chap- 
lain, was favorably disposed to the Moravians, and had him 
educated in their schools. Their deep piety and spirituality 
made a life-long impression on Schleiermacher. He was 
gifted with a wonderful talent for metaphysical speculations. 
He made the essence of religion consist in a feeling of abso- 
lute dependence upon God, and attempts to give to the relig- 
ious consciousness a scientific expression. He was peculiarly 
fitted, by nature and by training, to put an end to the conflict 
between the Christian dogma and rationalism, and to offer a 

1883.] Present State of Protestant Theology. . 125 

form of religion which could both satisfy the simple yearnings 
of a humble heart and the most exacting demands of an en- 
lightened intellect. It must be confessed, however, that he did 
not accomplish this object, despite his most strenuous efforts. 
One class called him a rationalizing skeptic, and the other an 
incorrigible orthodoxist. But much was gained, even if he did 
not fully realize his ideal. Schleiermacher impressed upon 
the educated classes what Spener, Zinzendorf , and Wesley had 
taught the masses, that theological knowledge and piety are 
not identical, hut must always he united in a true theology. 
He has, therefore, often been called the father of modern 

Quite a number of eminent men, following Schleiermach- 
er's footsteps, tried to reconcile the teachings of the Bible with 
the results of modern science. But the believers among these 
compromise theologians soon learned that the unbelievers made 
demands which those standing on Bible ground could not 
grant, and that these negative critics were not half so eager to 
arrive at a mutual understanding of the controverted points 
as to secure a full recognition of their claims. It soon be- 
came evident that concessions and half-way measures would not 
answer. Lafayette's remark explained the situation : " If I 
affirm 2x4=8, and some hot-head denies it, saying it is ten, 
then the compromiser comes in between, with dignified de- 
meanor, and says, ' The truth is somewhere between you ; we 
mu6t strike the difference, 2X4=9.' " Tholuck's word?, that 
44 truth is not in the middle but at the bottom," were taken to 
heart. To-day this kind of Vermittlungs-Theologie is a thing 
of the past. Our age is one of intense earnestness and deci- 
sion, and has inscribed upon its banner i " Be wholly what 
thou art." 

Let us now glance at 

II. The Present Situation. 

This critical historical process is marked by three character- 
istic tendencies. 

1. We shall first notice the so-called Liberal or Modern 
Theology. Of course this term is somewhat ambiguous. It is 
as indefinite as it is comprehensive, and may include panthe- 
ists, atheists, and materialists ; in fact all who are generally 

126 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

given to drawing theological conclusions from philosophical 
premises. But, however great their difference otherwise, they 
all agree on this point, that the human mind is the determines 
tor of religious truths and clearness the criterion of truth. It 
is in reason alone that truth and reality are to be found. Rea- 
son is the ultimate test of religious truth as well as of all truth. 
Reason must be obeyed as the only supreme guide. What the 
light of your mind pronounces incredible, that you are to leave 
uncredited. In a word, their principle is the absolute suprem- 
acy of the natural faculties of man. 

Some of these liberal theologians deny the supernatural in 
all of its forms. With one grand sweep they dispose of reve- 
lation, inspiration, miracles, and providence. They cull a few 
moral precepts from the Scriptures, but reject its objective 
elements entirely. They repudiate an historical Christianity, 
especially the God-man, Jesus Christ, his sinlessness, wondrous 
works, atoning death, and his resurrection. There are other 
liberals who are not quite so radical. While they profess great 
respect for Christianity — namely, their Christianity — and would 
shudder at the thought of rejecting Christ altogether, yet they 
assume the right to set up an eclectic Christianity, and decide 
how much is permanent and necessary and how much is tem- 
poral and accidental, what is essential and what is superfluous 
in Christ's teachings. Revelation is not denied^ but qualified. 
Revelation, as the outer light, is to be respected only so far as 
it agrees with reason, the inner light. This class approaches 
the holy word of God as a dinner-party does a well-spread ta- 
ble, where each may take what suits his taste. They sort the 
Bible, and say this passage we must accept and that we must 
reject ; this passage is genuine, that is doubtful, and that is 
corrupt. They approve of heaven, but ridicule the idea of 
hell ; they earnestly advocate immortality, but just as firmly 
reject what the Bible teaches on resurrection. 

These theories may be " modern," fashionable, and highly 
acceptable to a large class of people, but they certainly are not 
a theology, in so far as they refuse homage to Jesus Christ. 
The adjectives " liberal " and " modern " have entirely dis- 
placed the substantive " theology." However much we may 
respect the sincerity of its advocates, we cannot call their the- 
ology Christian. Although they have rendered some real and 

1883.] Present State of Protestant Theology. 127 

permanent services to theology by bringing a very industrious 
and acute, though not always fair, criticism to bear on the 
Christian records, and thus making a fresh study of the Script- 
ures and the grounds of their defense necessary, yet they 
awakened an appetite which could not produce bread, much 
less the bread of life. It leaves the cravings of the heart un- 
satisfied, and many unsolved problems for the inquiring mind, 
Pearson has truly said : " Modern theology is full of contradic- 
tions, which no philosopher would tolerate." You cannot live 
5y, nor die on, such a theology ; it is an insufficient light for 
those who tread the dark and dreary mazes of life ; its many 
interrogations can give no consolation in the gloom of death, 
nor fire the dying eye with the hope of life eternal. 

Those who venture upon this slippery ground are in danger 
of falling into absolute negation. If we can deny one Chris- 
tian truth, why not a second or a third t There is only one 
6tep between rejecting a divine revelation and denying the ex- 
istence of God. The next thing, after having denied God and 
put man upon his throne, is to obliterate the distinction be- 
tween mind and matter. This leaves no room for human lib- 
berty, and lands in a fatalistic materialism. 

Strauss, together with many others, has traveled this down- 
ward road. The denial of an historical Christianity led to a 
denial of God. Here was atheism and pantheism. The next 
was a denial of mind< as a free, self-active, and self-determining 
intelligence. Here was materialism. This extreme wing of 
modern theology was, as a matter of course, barren of all vital 
results. It lays its destructive hand upon every thing positive, 
and ends with nihilism. And how could it be otherwise ? If 
you add an infinite number of negations the sum will be 

This movement has a larger following in the Protestant 
world than is generally believed. It counts its adherents by 
the thousand in all the State Churches of Europe — sometimes 
lurking under guise of a faultless orthodoxy ; sometimes boldly 
avowing its purpose, as the Protestant Association of Germany, 
which welcomes to its wide folds all factions, orthodox, liberal, 
pantheist and materialist, in so far as they are willing to ac- 
cept and adhere to the ethical principles of Christianity. It 
claims to maintain a laudable ambition of " harmonizing 

128 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

discordant elements into a better consistency." In England 
and America tliey are generally, but not always, to be found 
in independent congregations, or among the Unitarians and 
Universalists. There are, however, a great many others, sail- 
ing under orthodox colors, who are more or less infected with 
this modern theology. 

The characteristic of this movement is that it emphasizes 
man's independence in things spiritual at the expense of a 
true dependence, and thus turns liberty into license. This 
caused a strong reaction. Another party arose and 6ought to 
avoid this extreme and save evangelical liberty. But it did so 
by hedging it in with narrow creeds and Church doctrines. 
This is 

2. Confessionalism. 

Instead of relying upon the power of faith, it relies «pon 
the power of the past, and goes back to the seventeenth cent- 
ury. Its position is explained in the sentence, " Teneamus, 
quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est" 
The theology of the nineteenth century must go back to the 
seventeenth century, or to the Reformation, or farther still, for 
its warrant. Hengstenberg, the father of the restored Lu- 
theranism, and Pusey, the founder of the High Church party 
in England, were by and by distanced by their bolder 

This movement gave great prominence to the ceremonies 
and ordinances of the Church, and restored a sort of sacrament 
worship. The sacraments are not only a means of grace, but 
the only medium through which grace is granted. The altar 
is, consequently, placed above the pulpit ; baptism is regen- 
eration ; justification is a material communication of divine 
life through the sacraments ; the visible Church is the true 
Church, and all who are baptized are its members. Besides 
this, the real presence of Christ in the elements of the Lord's 
Supper is taught, and confirmation and ordination are regarded 
as sacramental acts. Protestant theologians here take the 
place of the Catholic bishop, and the reformers the place of 
the Pope. Not the fellowship of saints or brotherhood of be- 
lievers, but the adherents to a certain creed, compose the true 
Church. Its standard and sacred treasure is the " sound doc- 
trine" and anathema sit upon him who varies from it a hairV 

1883.] Present State of Protestant Theology. 129 

breadth ! Piety is displaced by a belief which is not born of 
an inner conviction, but has been outwardly proposed for ac- 
ceptance as a mathematical formula. Any one can see that 
this tends toward Catholicism. Many of its leaders, in fact, 
are dallying with Romanism, and some of them openly avow 
that the Catholic idea of a Church is the only true one. 
Auricular confession, absolution, and extreme unction have been 
introduced by Loche among the Neo-Lutherans in Germany, 
and by the extreme left wing of the Puseyites in England. 

In connection with this abstract dogmatism we find their 
juridic construction of the rights of the Church, whose exist- 
ence, they teach, as a propounder and conserver of the sound 
doctrines, is guaranteed by state and international law. To 
hear the current talk of many Lutherans in our own country, 
one might conclude that theirs was the only Church which 
had a legal right to exist in the United States. All this savors 
strongly of Romanism, with which it has these and many other 
points in common. It is every-where infected with the pre- 
vailing social and political views, and is likewise strongly 
tainted with modern philosophy, which it really abhors and 
combats, but whose forms and culture it uses to ingratiate it- 
self with, and retain its hold upon, the public mind. Strifes 
and internal divisions also indicate that it is afflicted with the 
same symptoms that trouble Romanism. All of its dissimilar 
elements are gathered under one cover, and this harmonious 
company is faithfully described by the prophet : " They will 
eat every man the flesh of his own arm : Manasseh, Ephraim ; 
Ephraim, Manasseh ; aud they together will be against Judah." 
Isa. ix, 21, 22. 

But redeeming features are not altogether wanting. It de- 
serves credit for having brought about a better understanding 
of the Old Testament canon. Some of their spokesmen were 
very able Hebraists. But it has brought forth nothing that 
has the power to transform the heart and life of the individual, 
or to protect the Church universal from its common foe. For 
what is gained in thjs conflict against skepticism if you bolt 
the doors of your own little room when the entire structure 
upon which all creeds are built is assailed ? In fortifying and 
fighting for the Church these hide-bound orthodoxists seem to 
think that Christ's promises with regard to his Church, " The 

130 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

gates of hell shall not prevail against it," apply only to their 
denomination. This movement was of no account to defend 
the Church from foes without, nor could it strengthen the 
Church within. A multitude of formulas, dogmas, and threat- 
ening anathemas nipped the Christian life in the bud. 

Besides this radical theology, which is divided into two 
wings, latitudinarianism and confessional ism, there exists an- 
other form of theology, which we may call 

3. Evangelical Orthodoxy. It is distinguished by three 
characteristic features. 

The first feature we notice is its thorough and progressive 
scholarship. By its methods and by its results it answers the 
question which Schleiermacher once put in a sad mood, " Must 
Christianity and ignorance on the one hand, and skepticism 
and science on the other hand, always remain synonymous ? " 
with an emphatic No. Not proud reason, but the word of 
God, is proclaimed sovereign, and placed upon the throne. 
With this party progress does not mean " to always know more 
in science and believe less in theology." It is not true that 
" the pulpit is losing because the people are growing." It does 
not begin with affirmation to end with negation, but it goes 
from faith to knowledge, and from knowledge to a still larger 
faith and clearer understanding of the things believed. It is 
rearing its structure, with the true principles of scientific re- 
search, upon the firm foundation of the everlasting rock, and, 
consequently, it is fruitful in valuable results. True theology 
is like the granite mountain out of whose bosom flow the liv- 
ing waters, and from whose sides the storms may sweep loose 
sands away, but will leave the mountain itself unmoved. This 
theology has flung its banner to the breeze, upon which is 
written, in flaming letters, " Knowledge." While recognizing 
the fact that Christianity does not owe its rapid spread to the 
" enticing words of man's wisdom," yet it sees that a sanctified 
scholarship is a great help in its bitter conflict with rationalistic 
criticism. Our age lays great stress upon knowledge, which is 
its strong point and its weak point at the same time. Genuine 
theology does not shut its eyes against what is going on in 
the thinking world ; it will ever aim to appropriate the highest 
and best fruits of scientific research, and those theological 
drones who sneer at this advance of inquiry, or are too lazy and 

1883.] Present State of Protestant Theology. 131 

too indifferent to avail themselves of its results, will be simply 
left behind. 

A large number of German theologians belonging to this 
movement have made important contributions to the field of 
original research. They are like miners who dig the deep 
6hafts into the dark bowels of the earth to bring up the ore which 
others convert into a thousand useful instruments ; they have 
gone forth as pioneers to open the road in every direction ; 
working in some chosen branch as specialists, they have pro- 
duced works of great erudition, full of germinal thoughts for 
others to elaborate and apply. True, not a little chaff is some- 
times mixed with the wheat, but that does not destroy its value, 
which is fully appreciated on both sides of the Atlantic. 
There is scarcely a theologian of note who does not try to ac- 
quaint himself with the results of the evangelical theology of 

But Anglo-Saxon theology has likewise achieved some valu- 
able results, especially in the department of Bible interpreta- 
tion and homiletics. It is greatly to be regretted that these 
excellent works are not more widely known in Germany, 
where they would, doubtless, exert a most beneficent influence 
on account of their positive and practical tendency. If space 
permitted we might mention a long list of English and Amer- 
ican theologians who have rendered valuable services not only 
in exegetical and homiletical, but also in other departments of 
theology. Suffice it to say that the Anglo-Saxons and their 
German brethren are vying with each other to raise the schol- 
arship of evangelical theology to the highest standard. 

A second feature of this theology is that it is based upon 
faith. A thorough scholarship is necessary, but faith and rea- 
son must be united in holy wedlock. Belief in the Bible as a 
positive divine revelation is required. We must bow before 
the Scriptures with a reverential mind as the unerring word 
of God, as the objective noun for our subjective faith — knowl- 
edge. Our theological structure must be built upon a divine 
as well as human foundation. It will not do to permit an ap- 
peal to this or that Church creed, or to the so-called " Christian 
consciousness." Many theories destructive of the fundamental 
principles of Christianity have been smuggled in on this plea. 
Differences on subordinate questions are permissible, but in 

132 MetJiodist Quarterly IZeview. [January, 

our system of doctrine the Scriptures furnish the only authori- 
tative criterion. 

All streams that flow here point back to their infallible 
source, to the personal Christ and the revelation of divine truth 
in his person. This Christ Jesus, blessed for evermore, is the 
nucleus around which evangelical theology has formed ; the 
center from which the gracious light of divine truth is thrown 
upon God's relation to man, and man's relation to God. Christ 
is the ground and corner-stone to which the theological struct- 
ure is inseparably joined— not, however, a Christ, the fanciful 
product of human imagination, but the Christ, as revealed in 
the gospels. It is beginning to be fully appreciated that this 
God-man, Jesus Christ, " the same yesterday, and to-day, and 
forever," is " the true light, which lighteth every man that 
cometh into the world," and that he only can impart vigor and 
vitality to the theological science. 

But this evangelical orthodoxy of to-day goes one step fur- 
ther, and every-where insists that this Christ, who has " en- 
lightened the eyes of our understanding," must also take 
complete possession of our heart, and make it his permanent 
abode. Christ in the heart is what makes the true theologians 
deserving his name. Wherever Christian truth has only en- 
tered the head it may be quickly displaced by other thoughts ; 
but where it has not only touched but taken full possession of 
the heart, it will not be so easily removed. The study shall 
also become a closet of prayer ; we must read the Scriptures, 
not only with the critical eye of the student, but with the tear- 
ful eye of a penitent sinner — as one who reads his pardon. 
We must read the Bible with the filial affection of a son who 
would hear his father's voice. These well-known Wesleyan 
maxims have now become a distinctive feature of the evan- 
gelical theology of all lands. However much yet remains 
to be done, we see the 6un is rising. The day is dawn- 
ing, and it is especially gratifying that this theology not 
only requires, but presumes faith in this personal, living, and 
life-giving Christ in all of its professors. Even men who, on 
account of their speculative leanings, are generally classed with 
the negative school, confess that Jesus Christ is the source and 
center of their thought and Christian life. Richard Rothc 
writes thus : " I can honestly say, that simple faith in Christ 

1883J Present State of Protestant Theology. 133 

is the sure foundation of all my thought — the Christ (not a 
dogma or a theology) who has for eighteen centuries conquered 
the world ; and I will gladly surrender any so-called form of 
knowledge conflicting with him, my highest certainty." Vic- 
tus vincam — Conquered I shall conquer — was the motto of this 
great religious thinker : it is likewise the motto of this evan- 
gelical theology. And as long as a Christian belief and a 
Christian life remain the crown of this theological science it 
will go on to still greater triumphs, and need not fear death or 

It is due to Methodism more than to any other evangelical 
movement that a personal and living, as well as an intellectual 
and historical faith lias become a characteristic feature of the 
theology of the present. By putting piety in the foreground, 
and constantly insisting on the necessity of a holy Christian 
life, it was the occasion of forming the evangelical party in 
the Anglican Church. In America it showed a dry, cold Cal- 
vinism what a theology of the heart could accomplish. In 
France, Germany, and Scandinavia it acted as a healthy leaven. 
Methodism deserves great credit for having proved to the 
Christian world that a personal, living faith in the crucified 
Christ must be the fundamental principle of theology. This 
is the sign in which it conquers : u The Gospel of Christ is the 
power of God unto salvation." 

Although faith in Christ is the great distinguishing charac- 
teristic of this theological movement, one must not, therefore, 
think that it is without a doctrinal system, or that it is incapable 
of being formulated into a creed. On the contrary, nearly all 
who have joined this movement belong to one denomination or 
other. While they demand evangelical liberty for themselves, 
they freely grant it, without hurling anathemas to others who 
may differ from them on minor points. 

A third feature of this theology is its very practical tend- 
ency. In Germany as well as England it is beginning to be 
thoroughly understood that practical and available men are 
quite as much needed as educated theologians. Our age is se- 
verely practical, and measures the value of a principle by its 
results. He who would aspire to a worthy leadership among 
men must know how to stay and sway the course of events. 
Theological squabbling and hair-splitting will not answer. 

Foubth Sebies, Vol. XXXV. — 9 

134 Methodist Quarterly lieview. [January, 

Piety and learning must produce practical results in deeds of 
mercy. It was not the learned Pharisee nor the orthodox Le- 
vite, but the good Samaritan who saved the life of the man 
who fell among the thieves. 

This evangelical theology in Germany is remarkable for the 
wealth of learning and painstaking labor which it employs to get 
at clearer ideas on the mighty problems of religion, while their 
Anglo-Saxon brethren are taking the lead in practical benevo- 
lences. The German is the miner who digs down into the 
depths of the earth to bring up the crude ore which the Anglo- 
Saxon smelts and converts into machines that move the world. 
The German bores the artesian well, and then delights in the 
beautiful play of the waters ; while the Anglo-Saxon dams 
them, makes them irrigate the dry places, and change the bar- 
ren desert into a blooming garden. Corresponding to this 
national trait, we find that practical theology has reached a very 
high state of development in England and America, both as 
regards an excellent literature as well as the objective results 
in its public charities and home mission work. 

Incited by the example of their Anglo-Saxon brethren, tha 
Germans have entered this practical field with a commendable 
zeal. The final abundant proof of thi6 is not only in the'r 
manifold benevolences, but, what is more remarkable for Ger- 
many, in the literature of the last decade. Practical theology 
in all its forms is ably treated, and live issues, current abuses, 
social, political, and ecclesiastical, necessary reforms, methods, 
and experiments, are treated with a fullness and thoroughness 
which command our admiration. The believing German the- 
ologian will always remain more or less of an investigator, 
and we are glad of it. True, some of them, impatient at the 
slow fulfillment of their biblical realism, are having chiliastic 
dreams, and weaving fine-spun theories on the spiritual corpo 
reality of Christ ; but, upon the whole, the evangelical theol- 
ogy of Germany has taken a decidedly practical turn. Young 
Germany, with the Bible in one hand, a thorough education 
in the other, and Jesus Christ in the heart, has planted itself 
with these weapons right in the midst of the people, and is 
bravely fighting for the final victory. To-day practical theol- 
ogy is virtually taking the first rank in the whole Protestant- 
orthodox world. Christian Evidences, important as it may 

1883.] Present State of Protestant Theology, 135 

seem, is not now getting the same amount of attention which 
it received two decades ago. The duties of the present are 
too urgent, for evangelical theology to give the witticisms of 
an Ingersoll or the new discoveries of a Darwin much atten- 
tion. It sees that enough time has been spent to equip the 
ship and make it seaworthy, and, therefore, it boldly steel's for 
the deep to accomplish its purpose. It is fully convinced of the 
fact that the time has now come when, with the testimony 
concerning Christ supported by science and by faith, it were 
folly to stop and answer the thousand-and-one objections which 
may be urged against Christianity. Now is the time to push 
forward aggressively if permanent results of real value are to 
be achieved. 

This practical tendency, together with personal faith, has 
done a great deal toward drawing the different denominations 
nearer to each other, out of which has come the Alliance. 
There was a common ground upon which they could meet as 
brothers, and a common foe who could be conquered only by a 
union of all the forces ; and so differences were set aside, bar- 
riers broken down, mutual approaches made, and, as a result, 
Christian fraternity followed. Such an alliance must develop 
gradually; diplomatic negotiations cannot bring it about; it 
grows out of a mutual understanding and a mutual respect for 
each other, in which both the differences and the agreements 
come to light. Spiritual unity does not require outward uni- 
formity. To have brought about a spiritual confederation of 
believers is one of the grand results of the practical tendency 
of the evangelical theology of to-day. 

It is going to be the theology of the future. Negation ends 
with nihilism, and confessionalism ends with lifeless formalism. 
Neither of these movements have a future as a theology. 
Indeed they do not deserve the name. The future belongs to 
the theology which is founded upon a true knowledge, born of 
a living faith, centering around our Lord Jesus Christ, whose 
active charities are as wide as the world ; such a healthy, spir- 
itual, living, evangelical orthodoxy, which is in full sympathy 
with every thing human, and ready to recognize the divine in 
whatever form it may be revealed — 6uch a theology has a long 
lease on life ; for it is anchored on Him of whom it is writ- 
ten : " Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given 

136 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

him a name which is above every name : that at the name of 
Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things 
in earth, and things under the earth ; and that every tongue 
should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God 
the Father." 

• ♦• 



American Reviews. 


American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, October, 1882. (Chicago, HI.) 
—1. Native Races of Colombia, S. A. ; by E. G. Barney. 2. The Cubit of the 
Ancients; by Charles Whittlesey. 3. Palaeolithic Man in America; by L. P. 
Gratacap. 4. Phonetics of the Kayowe Language; by Albert 8. Gatschet. 

6. The Sister and Brother: an Iowa Tradition; by J. 0. Dorsey. 6. Antiqui- 
ties of Nicaragua — Origin of the Palenque Builders; by Dr. Karl Flint 

7. The Origin of the Architectural Orders; by Stephen D. Peet 8. Keltiberian 
Inscriptions in Spain ; by Rev. Went worth Webster. 

American Cathouo Quarterly Review, 0< tober. 1882. (Philadelphia.) — 1. The 
Origin of Civil Authority ; by Rev. J. Ming, S.J. 2. Cardinal Newman as a 
Man of Letters ; by John Charles Earle, B.A. 3. Cesare Cautu and the Neo- 
GuelphB of Italy ; by Rev. Bernard O'Reilly, LL.D. 4. The Attitude of So- 
ciety Toward Religion ; by Arthur Fcatherstone Marshall, B.A. 6. American 
Preethinking. 6. Superior Instruction in Our Colleges; by Rev. Aug.- J. The- 
baud, S.J. 7. Labor Discontent; by John Gilrunry Shea, LL.D. 8. The Com- 
ing Transit of Venus ; by Rev. J. M. Degni, S.J. 9. England's Latest Con- 
quest 10. Irish Crime and its Causes; by John MacCurthy. 

Baptist Quarterly Review, October, November, December, 1882. (Cincinnati.) 
— 1. Thomas Aquinas; by the laio Rev. Richard M. Nott. 2. Comments on 
Matthew xvi, 16-18; by Rev. David Foster Estes. 3. The Free State of Te- 
phrice; by L. P. Brockett, M.D. 4. Historical Proofs of the Soul's Immortal- 
ity ; by Rev. Lewis M. Ayer. 5. Our Debt to the Huguenots; or, What wo 
Owe to French Protestantism ; by Rev. J. N. William*. 6. As to a Millen- 
nium; by Rev. H. A. Sawtelle, D.D. 7. The Sin Unto Death and Prayer; by 
C. E. W. Dobbs, D.D. 8. The Rise of the Use of Pouring and Sprinkliug for 
Baptism ; by Rev. Norman Fox. 

Bibliotheca Sacra. October, 1882. (Andover.) — 1. The End of Luke's Gospel 
and the Beginning of the Acta: Two Studies ;-by Theodore D. Woolsey, D.D., 
LL.D. 2. The Development of Monotheism among the Greeks; by Dr. Edward 
Zeller; translated from the German by Edwin D. Mead. 3. the Trial of 
Christ: A Diatessaron with Dissertations; by Henry C. Veddcr. 4. Positiv- 
ism as a Working System ; by Rev. F. H. Johnson. 6. The Epistle to the Ro- 
mans in the Revised Version ; by Rev. R. D. C. Robbina. 6. Dr. Dorner'a Po- 
sition with Regard to Probation After Death ; by Rev. William Henry Cobb. 

Christian Philosophy Quarterly, October, 1882. (New York.) — 1. Anniver- 
sary Address; by Pres. Charles F. Deems, D.D. 2. The Validation of Knowl- 
edge; by Prof. Henry N. Dny, D.D. 3. Christ and Our Century; by Rev. A. 
H. Bradford. 4. The Duality of Mind and Brain ; by Prof. Noah K. Davip, 
LL.D. 6. Nature, the Supernatural, etc.; by Prof. George T. Ladd, D.D. 
6. God and Man Mutually Visible: by Howard Crosby, D.D. 7. Proceedings 
of the Institute. 


1883.] Synapsis of the Quarterlies. 137 

CHWsnAH QujlBTBBIT Review. October, 1882. (Columbia, Mo.}— 1. Baccalaure- 
ate Sermon ; by M. Rhodes, D.D. 2. Exegeses of John xvi, 8 : Mission of the 
Spirit ; by Elder G. R. Hand. 3. The Alleged Cruelties of the Old Testament ; 
by Prof. J. W. M'Garvey. 4. Inspiration; by Elder H. W. B. Myrick. 5. The 
Name Christian and Pros. Pendleton's Essay ; by Elder B. U. Watkins. 6. S m- 
plicity of the Gospel; by W. J. Barbee, A.M., M.D. 7. The Question Settled ; 
by H. Christopher, A.M, M.D. 8. Our Ahar of Incense; by N. 8. Haynes. 
9. Reflections on a Pagan Picture of Primitive Christianity; by Robert T. 
Mathews, A.M. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Quarterly Review, October, 1882. (Lebanon, 
Temi.>— 1. Holiness; by J. W. Poindexter, D.D. 2. Rev. Thomas C. Ander- 
son. D.D. : by 8. G. Bumey, D.D. 3. Japan and the Japanese; by C. H. Bell, 
D.D. 4. Faith; by Rev. J. T. A. Henderson. 5. Studies in Christiau Evi- 
dence ; by S. H. Buchanan, D.D. 6. One Aspect of the Atonement ; by Rev. 
W. C. Logan. 

Lutheran Quarterly, October, 1882. (Gettysburg. )— I. The Strength of Young 
Men; by M. Valentine, D.D. 2. A Monophyeitic Confession; translated by 
Prof. George H. Schodde, Ph.D. 3. The Old Matin and Vesper 8ervice of the 
Lutheran Church; by Rev. Edward T. Horn, A.M. 4. Mission Work and 
Prophecy : A translation from the German of Prof. Franz Delitsch in " Saat auf 
Hoffnung;" by Rev. P. C.Croll, A.M. 5. The Lutheran Church in Ulster 
County, N. Y. ; by Rev. William Hull. 6. The Salvation Army : Its Methods 
and Lessons; by Prof. C. A. Stork, D.D. 7. A Glance at Modern Missions; 
by Rev. William K Uy. 8. Ecclesiastical Quarterlies in the United States ; by 
Rev. Matthias Sheelcigh, A.M. 

New Englander, September, 1882. (New Haven.)— 1. The Importance and the 
Method of Bible Study; by Prof. C. J. H. Ropes. 2. Some Honest Doubts 
about the Supposed Only Scriptural Ground for Divorce; by Rev. I. E. Dwinell. 
3. The Historic Religions of India — Buddhism ; by Rev. C. W. Clapp. 4. The 
Real School Contest in Germany ; by Prof. Edward Hungerford. 5. Liberty 
of Man, Woman, and Child in Unchristian Lands; by W. F. Crafts. 6. Les 
Basques; by J. Wentworth Webster; translated by John Davenport Wheeler. 
7. Progress in Psychology ; by Rev. E. Janes. 

November, 1882. — 1. Why did the Pilgrim Fathers come to New England? 
by Edwin D. Mead. 2. Emerson's Relation to Christ and Christianity; by 
Rev. C. S. Walker. 3. Provision and Method of Salvation; by R<»v. L. O. 
Brastow. 4. Hickok's Mental Science ; by Prof. C. E. Garman. 6. A Chapter 
in tlie Religious History of Italy; by Rov. J. B. Chase. 6. Les Basques; by 
J. Wentworth Webster; translated by John Davenport Wheeler. 7. Professor 
Bowne's Metaphysics; by J. P. Gordy. 8. Non-competitive Economics; by 
Prof. J. B. Clark. 

January, 1883. — I. Spiritism a Scientific Question: An Answer to Professor 
Wundt's Open Letter ; by Dr. H. Ulrici ; translated by Rev. J. B. Chase. 2. Con- 
ditions of Belief; by Rev. Burdett Hart. 3. Swedenbonj as a Theologian ai:d 
a Seer: by Rev. J. Brainerd Thrall. 4. Darwin and Darwinism; by Rev. J. 
M. Whiion. 6. The Preservation of the Classic Texts; by Prof. A. G. Hop- 
kins. 6. St. Thomas Aquinas; or, Scholastic Philosophy in Modern Theology; 
by Austin Bierbower. 7. Herbert Spencer's Data of Ethics; by Rev. A. C. 
Sewali. 8. The Pilgrim Line of Theological Progress : by Rev. George Mooar, 
D.D. 9. Saint Luke: Physician, Painter, and Poet; by Hon. Frederick J. 
Kingsbury. 10. A Popular Fallacy; by Rev. F. H. Burdick. 

North America* Revtew, September, 1882. (New York.) — 1 Political Assess- 
ments ; by Dorman B. Eaton. 2. Oaths in Legal Proceedings; by Judge Edward 
A. Thomas. 3. Tornadoes and their Causes; by T. B. Maury. 4. Architec- 
ture in America; by Clarence Cook. 5. Constitutional Protection of Property 
Rights; by A. <*. Sedgwick. 6. Earth-Burial and Cremation; by Augustus G. 
Cobb. 7. The Geneva Award and the Ship-Owners ; by J. F. Manniug. 

October, 1882. — 1. The Coming Revolution in England; by H. M Hyndman. 
2. The Morally Objectionable in Literature ; by 0. B. Frothingham. 3. Recent 

138 Methodist Quarterly Review. f January, 

Discoveries at Troy ; by Dr. Henry Schlieraann. 4. Political Bosses : by Sen- 
ator John I. Mitchell. 5. Safety in Railway Travel ; by Prof. George L Vose. 
6. The Protection of Forests ; by Prof. Charles S. Sargent. 

November, 1882.— 1. English Views of Free Trade; by John Welsh. 2. Disor- 
der in Court-Rooms; by Judge Joseph Neilson. 3. A Problem for Sociolo- 
gists ; by Dr. William A. Hammond. 4. The Industrial Value of Woman ; by 
Julia Ward Howe. 5. Advantages of the Jury System: by Judge Dwight 
Foster. 6. Safetv in Theaters; bv Steele Mackaye. 7. The Pretensions of 
Journalism; by Rev. George T. Rider. 8. The Suppression of Vice; by An- 
thony Comstock, O. B. Frothingham, and Rev. Dr. J. M. Buckley. 

Princeton Review, November, 1882. (New York.) — 1. Wages; by William G. 
Sumner. 2. The Theological Renaissance of the Nineteenth Century; by Prof. 
Allen. 3. Great Briiain, America, and Irelaud; by Goldwin Smith, D.C.L. 
4. The Education of the Will; by G. Stanley Hall. Ph.D. 5. The Scottish 
Philosophy as Contrasted with the German: by President James M'Cosh. 

6. Tariff Revision ; by David A. Wells, LL.D., D.C.L. 

January, 1883.— -1. Revision of the Tariff; by David A. Wells, LL.D., DAL. 

2. An Early American Version of the Scriptures; by Prof. Francis Bowen. 

3. Disfranchisement lor Crime ; by James Fairbanks Colby. 4. The Theolog- 
ical Renaissance of the Nineteenth Century: by Prof. Allen. 6. Art and Eth- 
ics; by Henry J. Vau Dyke, Jun. 6. The Latest Irish Legislation and its 
Principles ; by Sheldon Amos, LL.D. 

Quarterly Review of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, October, 1882. 
(Nashville, Term.)— 1. Attitudes of Atheism; by the Edtor. 2. The Work 
of the Ministry; by Rev. S. W. Cope. 3. Miloy's Atonement in Christ; by 
Rev. J. C. Allen. 4. The Genesis of Knowledge. 5. An and Woman; by 
Rev. M. Callaway, D.D. C. Macaulav's E>savs: by J. C. Hinton, A.M. 

7. Rev. A. L. P. Green. D.D.: by Rev. J. B. Walker. D.D. 8. Meteoric Visit- 
ations; by A. Means, D.D.. LL.D. 9. Local Preachers; by Rev. David Wil- 
son. 10. American Statesmen: Alexander Hamilton ; by the Editor. 

Universale Quarterly, October, 1 882. (Boston.) — 1 The Catacombs of Rome : 
The Pervading Spirit of their Teachings ; by Rev. A. B. Grosh. 2. Critical and 
Kxepetical Notes on Certaiu Controverted Texts of Scripture: by 0. D. Miller, 
D.D. 3. Literary Remains of Emanuel Deutsch ; by Chaplain G. Collins. U.S A. 

4. Theories of Skepticism— Pantheism ; by William Tucker, D.D. 5. The Con- 
tinent of Atlantis ; by Rev. J. P. M'Lean. 6. The Universalis Origin of Amer- 
ican Sunday-School «: bv Rev. Richard Eddy. 7. Eternal Regret; by Rev. 
Stephen Crane. 8. Other World Order; by G. T. Flauders, D.D. 

Presbyterian Retiew, October, 1882. (New York.)— 1. Lyman Beechor on the 
Atonement— Its Nature and Extent; by Prof. E. D. Morris. D.D. 2. " The Light 
of A«ia;" by the Rev. Robert D. Wilson. 3. The Sabbath in the Cuneiform 
Records; by Prof. Francis Brown, A.M. 4. The Logical Methods of Prof. 
Kuencn: bv Prof. Willis J. Beecher, D.D. 5. The Origin of Theism; by Prof. 
Francis L. Patton, D.D., LL.D. 

Prof. Brown's article on the " Sabbath in the Cuneiform Rec- 
ords" is an interesting production by a learned specialist on 
Assyriology. But, though the work of an expert, and valuable 
from the facts it presents, he expresses opinions for which he 
favors us with no proofs, if he has proofs. 

We still retain the old-fashioned view that the Sabbath is a 
divine institution established at the close of the creative week. 
" The Sabbath was made for man ; " and man's first living 
week, as antitype of the great divine week, closed with the 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 139 

first Sabbath. "We suppose that the constitution of man re- 
quires the week and the Sabbath, and that the seven-day work 
of God is a conception formed very much to authenticate the 
6even-day work of man to be closed with a sacred rest. That 
sublime Psalm of the Creation, Gen. i, we can easily imagine, 
was chanted in the antediluvian Church where Enoch, seventh 
from Adam, was one time preacher. Hence the cosmogenic con- 
ception and the decalogue are counterparts of each other. The 
Sabbath, being " made for man," was based in the constitution 
for whom the weekly labor and the Sabbath rest are a duty 
and a blessing. And thence seven became a sacred number, 
founded in the nature of man and recognized by God. That 
this number spread among the various races of men was natu- 
ral, and no wonder we find it in Babylonia. 
We quote Prof. Brown : 

In the very first section of the Book of Genesis (ii, 2) God is 
represented as resting on the seventh day, and in Exodus (xx, 11) 
the command to observe the Sabbath is based upon God's so rest- 
ing. Now it became evident, as soon as men were able to study 
the fundamental notions of the Babylonians and Assyrians with 
the help of contemporary documents, that the number seven was 
one of great significance to them. Oppert found in an astro- 
nomical tablet a connection between the sun, moon, and five 
planets, and the days of the week; and Schrader argued at length 
for the week of seven days as original with the Babylonians. 
But still earlier than this George Smith had made an important 
discovery. He says: " In the year 1869 I discovered, among other 
things, a curious religious calendar of the Assyrians, in which 
every month is divided into four weeks, and the seventh days, 
or * Sabbaths,' are marked out as days on which no work should 
be undertaken." In another place he tells us, more explicitly, 
that the 7th, 14th, 19th, 21st, and 28th days are desoribed by an 
ideogram equivalent to sulu or sulum, " Hebrew Tyh& and D&t?, 
meaning 'rest.' The calendar contains lists of works forbidden 
to be done on these days, which evidently correspond to the 
Sabbaths of the Jews." 

. ^ In 1875 appeared the fourth volume of the " Cuneiform Inscrip- 
tions of Western Asia," containing some calendar texts, (pi. 32 and 
33,) and in connection with thewe Sayce took occasion to confirm 
the statements of Smith, and gave a translation of the require- 
ments for the seventh day. Here we find, also, the first mention 
of Boscawen's discovery that iahuttu is in one place explained as 
umi nuh libbi, " a day of rest of heart." In the following year 
Sayce published a translation of the whole hemerology, or descrip- 
tion of the days, of the intercalary month JEJiul, calling special 

140 Met/iodist Quarterly Review. (January, 

attention to the restrictions imposed for each seventh day. Since 
then there have been repeated allusions to the " Babylonian Sab- 
bath," and some employment of it by a too hasty Apologetics. — 
Pp. 688, 689. 

For some reason not clearly disclosed the professor sets him- 
self to sever the apparent connection between the Babylon 
seven and the primeval. It seems a useless labor. He merely 
shows subordinate differences ; but who imagines that in the 
course of ages and racial changes a clean identity would be pre- 
served ? That the number seven among the antediluvians was 
transferred to a variety of sacred groups of objects, so that 
there were weeks of things as well as weeks of days, is abun- 
dantly narrated in Genesis. It seems then perfectly a natural 
result that it should be found in Babylon as follows : 

It is quite certain that this number appears among the Baby- 
lonians in different connections with such frequency as to prove 
that a special significance was attached to it. The mention of 
seven " Planetary Gods," of seven Evil Spirits, the use of seven 
as a multiplier to express many sins, the occurrence of "seven 
days" three times in the Chaldean account of the flood — these 
are well-attested and ancient examples. — P. 690. 

Nor are we quite ready to indorse such reasoning as this : 

"We are nowhere informed that the command to keep the Sab- 
bath was laid upon man at the creation, and there is nothing ir- 
religious in the supposition that the seven-day week was the result 
of lunar observations for the Hebrews as well as for other peoples. 
In the presence of historical proof that the Hebrew Sabbath owed 
its origin, as a regular institution, to Shemitic or Akkadian 
heathen, the soundest faith need suffer no shock. — Pp. 696, 697. 

To attribute the Jewish Sabbath to lunar observation, when 
the decalogue assigns its origin to the divine creative week, 
seems truly heroic. Nor are we ready to accept such a state- 
ment as this : 

It is a groundless assertion to declare that the Babylonian 
seventh-day observance points back to a primitive revelation.— - 
P. 697. 

On the whole, the professor's article seems to us to be a reg- 
ular battle between his facts and his conclusions. 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 141 

English Reviews. 

British Quarterly Review, July, 1882. (London.) — 1. Recent Japanese Prog- 
ress. 2. The Puritan Element in Longfellow. 3. The Hittites and the Bible. 
4. Bach aud HandeL 5. The Poetry of RossettL 6. The Situation in Ireland. 
7. The Ministry and Parliament 

October, 1882.— 1. The Sieges of Rome in the Sixth Century. 2. Is the Church 
of England a National Church? 3. Incidents of Land and Pleas for Rolorm. 
4. Is the Belief in Miracles Reasonable? 5. Frederick Ritschl. 6. The Hou^e 
of Obrenovitch. 7. The War in Egypt. 8. Songs of the Italian People. 

Edinburgh Review, October, 1882. (New York.) — 1. Gardiner's Pall of the 
Monarchy of Charles L 2. The Ancient Architecture of India. 3. Sir John 
Lubbock on Ants and Bees. 4. Mozley's Reminiscences. 5. Inland Naviga- 
tion. 6. Shelley and Mary. 7. Natural Religion. 8. The Egyptian Rebel- 

Westminster Review. October, 1882. (New York.) — 1. River Pollution. 
2. Count Struenaee and Queen Caroline Mathilde. 3. Socialism. 4. The Po- 
etry of Mrs. E. B. Browning. 5. France: The Chamber, the Gambetta Minis- 
try, and its Successors. 6. The Jubilee of the First Reform Act. 7. The 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. 8. Parliamentary Pro- 

London Quarterly Review, October, 1882. (New York.) — 1. Henry Erskine 
and His Times. 2. The Speaker's Commentary and Canon Cook. 3. Greek 
Sculpture, 4. Yauban and Modern Sieges. 5. The New Religion of Nature. 
6. The Fish Supply of London. 7. Oxford Under the Puritana 8. Ten Years 
of Italian Progress. 9. Dr. Pusey and the Church. KK The Justification of 
Lord Beaconsfield's Policy. 

A work on " Natural Religion " by the author of " Ecce Homo " 
is a subject of leading articles in the Reviews of the quarter. 
" Ecce Homo " appeared seventeen years ago, excited great 
attention, and greatly divided public opinion. All admitted its 
great ability, while one class condemned its heterodoxy ; whilst 
others, without according with its outside stand-point, found 
thoughts evolved in it of great value to the Christian argument. 
To this last class our Quarterly belonged, and our notice aimed 
at a brief development of its logical results. Sadly has the 
author receded, under the influence of scientific conclusions, not 
only from Christ but from God. His position is, in fact, blank 
atheism ; yet the purpose of his book is to find a substitute 
for God to which he may transfer the name of God, and so 
claim to be a theist and a maintainer of a u religion." That 
substitute, which is henceforth to be God, is the Universe, 
with its matter and its forces. The awe we feel for its stupen- 
dousness is worship, the benefits we derive from it work love, 
and the science and the civilization that result complete the 
sum-total of a full religion. The " London Quarterly " well 

142 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

replies that religion requires a personal object of worship, and 
cannot take up with a mechanical bulk of matter for a God : 

We say that it is not a natural religion, but the very reverse. 
If the history of religion teaches any thing, it is that it is nat- 
ural to man to look above Nature to some mysterious Power be- 
yond it, toward which his religious emotions may ascend — some 
lJeing whom he can believe to be conscious of him and interested 
in him, and to whom, therefore, he may utter his aspirations and 
desires with a hope of obtaining sympathy and help. When we 
look within ourselves and listen to the voice of our own hearts, 
we find them confirming this lesson of history, by refusing to 
bestow reverence and worship where sympathy is out of the 
question, and no response is possible to their emotions of desire, 
faith, and trust. All real experience attests that nothing is more 
contrary to human nature, nothing more unnatural, than for the 
living, palpitating, aspiring soul to lavish its religious affections 
on that which it knows to be nothing better than lifeless matter 
and unconscious mechanism. There was, indeed, a time when 
Nature-worship was possible and even natural; but it was only 
when living, personal, unseen powers were supposed to animate 
the physical world, and to use its elements and forces as the ve- 
hicle of their own manifestation and action. But science, by 
sweeping away that ancient belief and reducing the conception 
of Nature to that of a mechanical system governed by invariable 
laws, has extinguished such worship, and rendered it henceforth 
impossible. As soon as Nature ceases to be credited with a con- 
scious spirit, responsive to human desire, the worshiper is im- 
pelled by the very constitution of his being to turn away from it 
with disdain, to carry his prayers and longings elsewhere, and to 
direct them toward some new r object which he believes able to 
hear his cry, and to be touched with his aspirations and wants. 
" Le roi est nwrt, vice le roV expresses the inevitable transfer of 
homage from the dead to the living. We do not, of course, 
mean that Nature, as expounded by science, ceases to be admi- 
rable. Its immensity, its order, its manifold adaptations and rela- 
tions, its magnificence and beauty, all appeal to the intellectual 
and aesthetic faculties, in proportion to their development by 
culture, and are the sources of genuine wonder a.ud delight. But 
it is not to the rdiyious faculty that Nature appeals, until it 
comes to be regarded as more than a mere physical system, and 
is understood to be the symbol and veil of a Power greater than 
itself, whose handiwork or habitation it is, and with whose mys- 
terious presence it is instinct ; and hence, in the absence of such 
a faith, and so long as Nature is viewed with no other eyes thau 
those of science or of taste, it is not possible that the contempla- 
tion of it should produce that uplifting of the spirit, that atti- 
tude of reverence, that outpouring of desire and reposing of con- 
fidence, which religion claims for the object of real worship. 
If then, by a stretcn of language, the sentiment inspired by mere 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 143 

Nature is allowed to be styled a religion, we must maintain that, 
so far from deserving the title of " Natural Religion," it is of all 
religions the least natural to mankind, the least akin to their 
mental constitution, or in unison with the voice of their hearts. 
—Pp. 225, 226. 

And the atheistic " Westminster " thus responds to this sad 
result in pessimism : 

As we read, we ask, Is there a Power, not Matter, nor Force 
— but a form of being, infinite, eternal — one called Nature, yet 
higher than Nature ; or is not Nature the Nature we know, mul- 
tiform, enigmatic, fallacious, and even cruel ? — P. 247. 

Loxdon Quarterly Review, October, 1882. (London.) — 1. William Rufus. 
2. Siberia. 3. Two American Divines. 4. Hofmaun ou tlie Epistle to the 
Hebrews. 5. The Jewish Question. 6. The Latest Assault on the Fourth 
Gospel. 7. The Revised Form of Baptism. 8. The Author of " Eece Homo" 
on Natural Religion. 

In a notice (p. 217) of this Review of a work entitled "The 
Fire-Baptism of all Flesh," by S. Borton Brown, B.A., the 
learned editor says: "There is no express statement in this 
volume as to the nationality of the author, but ' his speech be- 
wrayeth him.' The frequent use of the word 4 transfigured/ 
in a sense not usual with English writers, and some other pecul- 
iarities of style, indicate that he is an American ; and he is also 
a Universal ist. Of course there is nothing in his nationality 
to be ashamed of." — P. 217. 

Of course it is a very generous concession that our "nation- 
ality " is " nothing to be ashamed of ; " especially as we had no 
choice in the selection of our " nationality." We were not 
asked before bom ; and " we might have been a Russian," " or 
a Prussian," instead of an Amer-i-can. But we greatly doubt 
whether Mr. Brown is an American ; as we are assured by the 
highest authority, Dr. Thayer, of the " Universalist Quarterly," 
that " there is no 6uch person as S. Borton Brown, B. A., among 
our clergy ; and even if he were a layman, it is hardly possible 
I should not know something about his book. It is wholly un- 
likely that an American Universalist would publish his book 
in London." We also venture a doubt whether the editor 
knows as much about the distinguishing peculiarities of the 
" speech " of the countrymen of Lowell and Longfellow as he 
imagines. We are tolerably well read in English literature, 
liaving even in and from our boyhood been familiar with the 
best authors from Queen Anne's age to the present, and we are 

144 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [January, 

also slightly versed in American literature; but we are yet 
to learn that the word " transfigured " is used differently in 
these two literatures. If the free use of an Americanism dis- 
tinguishes an American, then, singularly and happily enough, 
the editor is himself an American ! For, four pages later, he 
twice, in two successive sentences, uses an Americanism, The 
sentences are : " Thirteen ten minutes' sermons or sermonettes 
of excellent quality. We should be sorry if the sermonette 
were to become the model of English preaching.' 1 — P. 222. 

Now this word " sermonette " is an Americanism. This we 
know, because it is a word of our own personal invention. It 
is one of what Dr. Buckley calls our "jaw-breakers," and what 
Dr. Bledsoe styled our " Whedonese." Three or four years 
ago a discussion arose in our western Methodist papers as to 
the originator of this word, and two or three early utterers of 
the word were designated. We sent a postal to the editor of 
our St. Louis paper informing him that if he would turn to 
the "Ladies' Repository" for about the year 1854 he would 
find a brief sermon of ours entitled " The Sacred Test," and 
headed " A Sermonette." We had the conscious recollection 
of the origination, and may safely deny its earlier existence. 
We have since seen the word canonized by use in " The Cath- 
olic Mirror." And now it felicitously serves to show that our 
brother of the "London Quarterly" is an American; which 
means " a nationality " not " to be ashamed of." 

Calcutta Review. July, 1882. (Calcutta.)— 1. The Aryan Germ; by H. G. 
Keeiie. 2. Hindi. Hindustani, and the Behar Dialects; by Syamachurn Gan- 
gooly. 3. Some Hindu Songs and Catches from the Villages of Northern In- 
dia; by R. C Temple. 4. Antecedents of the Modern Book ; by J. W. Sherer. 
5. Mandelslo and Thevenot : Their Travels in India ; by E. Rehatsek. 6. X.-W. 
P. Settlements ; by J. S. Macintosh. 7. Phases in the Fortunes of the Kast 
India Company ; by G. W. Cline, LL.D., F.G.S. 8. Chronicles of the Mnrava 
Country; by J. L. W. 9. Modern Researches into the Origin and Early Pha- 
ses of Civilization ; by R. C. Dutt, C.S. 10. A Resume" of the Various Theo- 
ries Respecting the Maintenance of the Suu's Light and Heat; by John 

Indian Evangelical Review, October, 1882. (Calcutta.)— 1. Missionary Let- 
ters: III. Siam and the Light of Asia; by Rev. T. 8. Wynkoop. 2. Patna, 
Gaya, and Benares— Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity ; by the Editor. 
3. The Theosophical Socie«y; by Rev. Arthur Theophilus. 4. Swedenborg; 
by C. E. G. Crawford, Esq. 6. Indian English Churches and Mission Work; 
by Rev. T. H. Whitamore. 6. The Aborigines and Outcastes of India; by 
Major Con ran. 7. Hindu Caste and its Practical Operation in Travancore ; by 
Rev. S. Mateer. 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 145 

German Reviews. 

Theologische Studies und Kritiken. (Theological Essays and Reviews.) 1883. 
First Number. — Essay: 1. Bruckner, Composition of the Liturgy in the 
Eighth Book of the Apostolic Constitutions. 2. Kleinert, Observations on the 
Composition of the Liturgy of Clement. 3. Schultz, Religion and Moraliiy in 
thrir Co-relation. Tlioughte and Remarks: 1. Franke, The Galatian Opponents 
of the Apostle Paul. 2. Bohl, I he Ancient Christian Inscriptions according to 
the Text of the Septuagint 3. Usteri, (Ecolampadius on Infant Baptism. Re- 
view : I. Erdx anx's, The Epistle of James ; and Beyschlag, Critical and Ex- 
egetical Manual on the Epis'le of James ; reviewed by Haupt 2. Bohl, Clirist- 
ology of the Old Testament ; or Exposition of the Most Important Messianic 
Prophecies; reviewed by Klostermann. 3. Klostermann, Corrections in the 
Usual Exegesis of the Epistle to the Romans; reviewed by M. Kahler. 

Zeitsohript pur Kirchliche Wissenschapt. (Journal for Ecclesiastical Science.) 
1882. Numbers 7 and 8. — Contents: Franz Delitzsch, The Primitive Mosaic 
Element in the Pentateuch. Zimmbr, The Codex Vatican us in the Epistle to 
the Hebrews. Burkhardt, New Investigations into Luther's Life. Kawkran, 
Comments on Janssen's Life of Luther. Engelhardt, Dietrich's Participation 
in Tneological Questions, (1538-1545.) Wexdland. the Doctrine of the 
" KKOKaTdaraotg Uuvtuv." Heuch, The Official Pastor's Spiritual Care of the 
Sick. Traxtwetter, The Nile in the Superstitions and the Customs of the 

Jahrbucher pur Protrstanti8CHB Theologie. 1882. Fourth Number. Kdtt- 
xer. The Value of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason for the Present Baethoen, 
The Critical Worth of the Ancient Translations of the Psalms. Weiffenbach, 
Interpolations to the Introduction of Mark's Gospel. Benrath, The Summa of 
the Holy 8cripturea. Barth, Tertullian's View of the Apostle Paul and his 
Relations to the Primitive Apostles. Benrath, Supplementary Notice to Roselli. 
Lipstus, On the Acts of Paul and Andrew. 

In the " Theological Studies " we find an unusual measure of 
attention to the ancient liturgy on the part of both Bruckner 
and Kleinert ; evidently in sympathy with the interest now 
manifested among German theologians to impart more life and 
practical effect to the liturgy of the period, which in some 
regions seems to have become almost a barren machine. 
Among the rich treasures of the ancient liturgies which have 
come down from the early centuries of the Christian Church 
the so-called Clementinian or Apostolic Liturgy, found in the 
eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, holds in every re- 
spect a prominent position. Every thing that makes the 6tudy 
of old liturgies attractive and profitable is here found in rich 
measure. It not only gives the explanation to a multitude of 
individual points and questions of ancient Church history, but 
also shows us the clearest objective picture of the customs and 
arrangements of divine service ; and, what is of more import- 
ance, imparts the sense and significance which the Church 
attached to them. And the fact that they are found in this 
particular book is a certain guarantee for their high age. The 

146 Metliodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

contents of this book are very rich, but because their disposi- 
tion is so clear and so well arranged for the various degrees of 
divine service, there is all the wealth displayed, yet no sense 
of over fullness. 

We refer with very peculiar pleasure to another capital ar- 
ticle in the same journal, entitled, " Religion and Morality in 
their Co-relation." In it the author shows with great force that 
true religion is in very strict relation to morality, and proves 
it by numerous illustrations ; while he at the same time shows 
that all false religions are more or less in collusion with 
'immoral aims or results. For every sincere member of the 
Christian Church religion and morality are conceptions insep- 
arably bound together. All Christian people are alike in the 
conviction that no individual can be called religious who does 
not make his life conform to moral laws, and that there is no 
genuine morality that is not rooted in Christian soil. The Old 
Testament precepts declare that to be upright means to walk 
before God ; but these two parallel conditions have not always 
been acknowledged, and are not now absolutely necessary in 
much of the theology and philosophy of the period, especially 
among the Germans. We need simply refer to the verdicts of 
Schleiermacher, Kant, and Fichte in regard to the relations 
between these two ideas. And the emphatic import of this 
question to the religious antagonisms of the day may be seen 
in the attention now paid to the subject in recent publications, 
namely, Kaftan's "Nature of the Christian Religion," and 
" The Christian Faith and Human Freedom." According to 
this zealous and luminous author, religion is a practical affair of 
the human mind, which reposes on the position which we as 
living beings assume toward the interests that are working 
within us. The desire for salvation, security, and life, for 
which man's own power in his worldly relations offers no satis- 
faction, seeks its fulfillment through a higher power which con- 
trols our temporal life. All religion is originally the desire 
for this security temporally and eternally. In illustration of 
his position, and development of his aim, the author goes into 
a learned and lucid exposition of the history and influence of 
all false religions on the morality of their adherents, and proves 
conclusively that the natural or artificial religions have never 
proved a genial soil for the true morality of a people. Even 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 147 

the Christian religion, when it is a matter of the State, loses 
greatly in its moral influence, for it is then the State rather than 
the Church which executes all religious functions. Thus, the 
ideas of sin and crime, sacredness and justice, are commin- 
gled in a way that mars their true character for a, believer. 
A genuine moral dealing of man to man can only spring from 
an undefiled religion, and not one which may trace any of itd 
duty directly to the State. The whole tendency of this article 
is quite salutary at a period when the thinking Christians 
abroad are more than ever examining the influence of State 
religion on the masses. 

• ♦• 

French Reviews. 

Revue Chbetienne, (Christian Review.) August, 1882. — 1. Hoixard, Alexander 
Vinct in his Correspondence. 2. Menezog, Schleie macher's Idea of God. 
3. Dupin de Saint Andre, The Algerian Sahara. And, by the same, Histori- 
cal Notices. Review of the Month by Pressense. 

Sepiember. — 1. L. E., A Primate of Spain before the Inquisition. 2. Loyson, 
The Psalm Chanted in the Banquet of tho Ten Virgins. 3. Malan. How Treat 
the Thesis of Conditional Immortality ? Review of the Month by Pressense. 

October. — 1. E. de PRESftENs3. Lecture ou the Morality of Interest and the Moral- 
ity of Obligation. 2. Dautigce, The Preaching of Lacordaire. 3. DuPIN DE 
Saint Andre, The Algerian Sahara, (Conclusion.) Literary Chronicle, Saba- 
tier, and Monthly Review by Pressensb. 

Saint Andre yields to the impulse of his countrymen in treat- 
ing very largely of the Algerian Sahara in the August and 
October numbers of the " Review." The French are taking 
refuge in the "Dark Continent" from all their recent losses 
both in Europe and at the mouth of the Nile. They very un- 
gracefully give up Egypt only to dive with more vigor into 
the interior of Africa. Having taken possession of the north- 
ern coast pretty well up to the Egyptian line, they now pro- 
pose entering the interior with a view to utilizing it for na- 
tional aggrandizement. They do not seem at all abashed by 
the lamentable failure and sad end of the Flatters expedition, 
and keep on finding all the consolation they can in their brill- 
iant hope of creating inland seas and constructing railways to 
the rich regions of Central Africa. And Saint Andre at least 
ceases to regard the entrance to the Sahara as inviting. 
He acknowledges that it is a stern climate for those not born 
on the soil and acclimated to it. Even the European shivers 

148 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [January, 

there in winter, while the air of summer scorches his lungs. 
In the greatest heat the thermometer ascends to fearful heights, 
and the traveler lost in the sands would give a kingdom for a 
cold bath. But water is very rare south of the Atlas range, as 
the few torrents that descend from the mountains are soon lost 
in the sands. Even on the southern portion of the present 
territory of French Algeria one can journey for ten days with- 
out reaching a well. 

This indispensable water the French are fast obtaining by 
sinking Artesian wells, and where they are successful they 
thus obtain great control over the rude inhabitants and the 
nomads of the desert, who have an immense respect for men 
who can draw from the bosom of the earth a jet of pure water 
that springs forth like a captive delighted to find its liberty. 
The enthusiasm among the rude natives has at times been 
touching. In their joy they sacrifice a goat on the border of 
the well, and invoke on the French the benediction of Allah. 
Young girls hasten to dance at the festival, and poets sing the 
birth of the miraculous spring. 

Notwithstanding the sad fate of the expedition of Colonel 
Flatters, the French still hope to construct a line of rail across 
this Algerian Sahara as far as Timbuctoo, and are largely en- 
couraged in this hope by their success in these Artesian wells ; 
for without water they cannot effect the construction nor run 
their engines, unless electricity should come to their aid. In- 
deed, the great questions are fuel and water. And but a few 
superlatively enthusiastic Frenchmen can even imagine the 
possibility of laying the rail across a barren and burning 
desert of which they scarcely as yet know the borders. But 
Duponchel, chief engineer of roads and bridges, declares that 
he can go from Algiers to Timbuctoo as easily as from Paris to 
Tours. But this is not bluster ; it is something more though ; 
to the credit of said engineer be it said that these wild words 
were uttered before, and not after, the total destruction, even 
to the last man, of the expedition sent out to examine the route 
and report. One thing seems clear in the present humor of 
the French nation, and that is, that either in success or failure 
a good many Frenchmen are destined to leave their bones on 
the desert before this great object is effected. 

Pressens6, in his " Monthly Review," gives a very interesting 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 149 

account of a reunion in Switzerland of all Protestant Chris- 
tians in the interest of pure Bible Christianity, in which the 
French Protestants largely engaged, on the ground that to re- 
ligious thought there are no boundary lines. And they found 
in this Helvetian Republic their own troubles in the Church 
even magnified. The Swiss clergy are remarkable for their 
virility and cordiality, so that the French visitors found it 
hard to distinguish them from laymen. Their frankness, 
theological culture, and delicate mixture of patriotism and 
piety, were very noted and remarkable. And this judgment 
of Pressens6 is gratifying and encouraging; for these men 
have to struggle with a disease that seems almost incurable. 

The system of union of Church and State is fraught with 
peril for conscientious and ardent Christians. The radical rule 
seems to lead to violent results obtained more through policy 
than religion. The political platform rules the Church more 
and more ; and all religious guarantees disappear in the presence 
of universal suffrage concerning spiritual things. The vox pop- 
vli is no longer the vox Dei when it commands the suppression 
of the Apostles' Creed in public worship. And the proposition 
to make baptism optional before entrance into the Church is 
very likely to be adopted by the Synod. The evangelical ele- 
ment in the Church is alarmed at this situation, and feels that 
it must soon renounce the connection between Church and 
State if matters go on thus. As yet the two parties meet in the 
same Synod, but this cannot last when their tendencies are so 
diametrically opposite. The most practical debate of the session 
was a grave indication of this ; it was nothing less than the 
confirmation of all children at a fixed age, and their introduc- 
tion as Church members nofons vohens. The scruples of the 
evangelical wing of the Church are very strong in this matter, 
and the same trouble came up in the recent official Synod 
of the French Reformed Church. This gathering in of the 
multitude in flocks is so distasteful to many of the Swiss 
pastors that they have rebelled against it, and are likely to get 
into trouble on that account, as the State has the political right 
to order them to carry out the ordinances according to State 
law, and the ungodly find quite a pleasure in forcing them so 
to do. All the. Swiss assemblies have agitated this question, 
turn by turn, and it now reaches the grand Synod. The very 

Foubth Sekies, Vol. XXXV.— 10 

150 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [January, 

fact that these men needed defense was humiliating, but they 
received it in full measure from the French pastors of Basel 
and Neufchatel, who threw a flood of light on the evil and 
demoralizing results of this custom. It is very clear that 
Christian conscience will not much longer tolerate a custom 
that puts all religion in periL These same suffering Churches 
are also discussing the best means of retaining the benefit of 
Bible-reading in the Churches. Mark! in the Churches, not 
the schools. Where such a discussion is necessary, it is high 
time to say to the State, Hands off of the Churches 1 



The Waldenses have of late displayed an unusual amount of activity, 
apparently spurred on by the presence and labors in Italy of the various 
missionaries from other lands. For years there has been no such signifi- 
cant synod as that recently held in Torre Pelioe, the seat of their most 
important ecclesiastical institutions, at the entrance to their valleys. 
This vigor seemed to be anticipated by their friends and sympathizers 
from without, as they were favored by the visits of fraternal delegates 
from other Ohurch bodies in larger numbers than ever before. 

England and Scotland, their old friends, were well represented; 
France sent some members of the Reformed Church, and from Switzer- 
land came a greeting from the Society for the Observance of the Sab- 
bath. The German Evangelical Association of Gustavus Adolphus, the 
Protestants of Austria, the Moravians from Herrnhut, and the Presbyte- 
rians on the Cape of Good Hope, were all there by proxy. The ** Wal- 
denses of the North, 9 ' the suffering Christians from Livonia on the 
Baltic, sent also their greeting -to the " Waldenses of the South." Some 
of these brought also very substantial aid, namely, the delegate from the 
Cape $2,500, and their 8cotch friends raised their gift for the year to 
nbout $100,000. All this kindness so delighted the Waldenses that they 
devoted three days to the hearing of messages of sympathy and fraternity 
from abroad. 

When they finally reached their regular routine business it appeared 
that every congregation had an encouraging report to make of their re- 
ligious condition, and some were peculiarly gratifying. The Church in 
Naples reported a collection of two dollars and fifty cents per member 
for the year, and hopes by next year to be able to assemble in its own 
chapel. There are now sixty-six pastors engaged in active work, and 
five are on the emeritus list. In their theological school at Florence 

1883.] Foreign Rdigioua Intelligence. 151 

eleven students are now pursuing their studies, and eleven others are 
engaged in advanced studies in Scotland, England, France, and Ger- 
many. The pastor from Milan reported a grant of three thousand francs 
from the Minister of Instruction to his congregation for the purpose of 
finishing the fagade of their church. But the most significant move of 
the synod for this year was the resolve to enter on the work of missions 
to the heathen. The delegate of the French Missionary Society to the 
Bassutos, in South Africa, had made a tour in the valleys of the Wal- 
denses and awakened their interest in the mission cause. In conse- 
quence of this the pastor of the Waldensian chapel in Nice had resolved 
to devote himself to the work, and appeared before the synod to obtain 
permission to enter the field. His simple and fervent words, as he ex- 
plained the importance of missionary effort, were received with great 
enthusiasm, and by a unanimous vote he was granted a leave of absence 
for said purpose. The Waldensian Synod placed him, for the beginning, 
at the disposition of the Parisian Missionary Society, to become thus in- 
itiated into the methods, and be sustained in the incipiency of the 
work. He will go with his wife to the already established mission to 
the Bassutos, while the French missionary at that post will go on further, 
and establish a new post on the Zambesi. The foreign delegates present 
gave a hearty Amen to this resolution, and bade the Waldenses God 
speed, and a blessing in this new Christian enterprise. 


The French seem quite inclined to rule or ruin in Madagascar, and have 
for some time been nourishing a dangerous conflict with the govern- 
ment that may interfere very much with the important Protestant mis- 
sionary work on that island. The claims of France on Madagascar are 
quite old. Louis XUL, in 1642, placed the island under his own pro- 
tection, first with the name of lie Dauphine, and later as Oriental 
France. Cardinal Richelieu fitted out a French trading company with 
rich privileges, and took possession of the island as a central point for 
French rule in India. They established forts and factories on the coast, 
but could not penetrate into the interior. Under the guidance of the 
famous minister, Colbert, the plantations founded on the coast were very 
flourishing. But a general rebellion among the natives against this for- 
eign invasion and usurpation rooted out the French intruders from the 
entire island except the single Fort Dauphin on the southern point. 
This uprising of the natives brought things to a standstill for a long 
time. In the eighteenth century renewed efforts were made at coloniza- 
tion, but they all failed. In the year 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, 
the English took possession of Madagascar as a dependence of the 
island of Mauritius, and it required long negotiations before France 
again acquired a foothold there. In the meanwhile English merchants 
had taken possession, and exerted great influence there. In 1829 the 
French tried to drive them out by a military expedition, which was a 
total failure* Since that time the French have endeavored to undermine 

152 Metlhodist Quarterly Review. t January, 

the English, by obtaining influence over the Hovas rulers, but the pres- 
ent queen seems to wish to have nothing to do with them, since she has 
accepted the good offices of the English missionaries, and introduced 
some astonishing reforms, and virtually adopted Christianity as the be- 
lief of her people. In order to counteract this work, the French have 
sent the Jesuit missionaries out there in great force, and it is these who 
are making all the present trouble. The people and the princes are dis- 
pleased with their methods, and wish them away, and they in turn 
appeal to their government for support. Five French vessels are hover- 
ing around the coast threatening the capital, and landing at certain 
ports and running up their flag. The queen is appealing to England for 
protection, as are the English missionaries, and it is likely that the visit 
of an embassador to both these courts will result in measures of relief to 
the queen and people of the island. 


The Germans are renewing their interest in Chinese missions, which 
were formerly so popular among them, under the influence of the won- 
derful travels of Gutzlaff and his thrilling accounts of his experiences 
among that people. Wangemann, one of their missionary magnates, 
calls their attention to the fact that so much has been done there since 
1850, and that, in many respects, the land is now ripe for earnest work. 
He asserts that the prospects are so good for a plentiful harvest that 
German Christians can no longer trent the fact with indifference; they 
have now no choice. If they fall back and leave the entire work to 
others, they will be guilty of willful neglect of duty. In 1872 the 
German Missionary Society of Barmen, the headquarters of a certain 
phase of Protestant work, established a mission among the Hakkas, and 
they now need means to carry it on further. They bought a house in 
Canton from the Rhenish Missionary Society, and sent assistants. The 
sum needed for the support of this station the present year will be about 
$20,000, and not the tenth part of this has yet been raised. Two asso- 
ciations for Chinese missions in Berlin and Stettin, which had nearly 
suspended their labors, are now resuming their activity, and, among 
other measures to stir up the people, arc publishing a journal entitled 
"The Gospel in China." Thus far the success of this project has not 
corresponded to the importance of the undertaking, but still its friends 
hope on, and will not give up the cause. A new impetus will doubtless 
be given to it by the late increase of German trade in China and Japan. 
During the last few years the Germans have increased their commercial 
interest in the eastern seas, and are now sending their war vessels thither 
to protect the many Germans flocking there in various capacities. And 
Germany is even supplying war vessels to the Chinese from her own 
shipyards on the Baltic. This commercial activity will naturally reflect 
on the religious community, and be an inducement for renewed effort. 
The adoption of the Hakka mission by a North German society may 
produce the effect desired, and create an enthusiasm among the people 

1883 J Foreign Religious Intelligence. 153 

of Christian circles to rise to the level of their duty. They certainly 
have every thing ready for them. The clearing of the forest is over, and 
the tilling of the fields has began; if they now cannot come forward 
and at least keep pace with their commerce they will be lukewarm 


This is the peculiar title of a very interesting work being carried on in 
Rome, and likely to be extended to other points in Italy, among the sol- 
diers of the Italian standing army. It began ten years ago, soon after the 
occupation of the new government with Rome as the capital, and in 
ninny respects it has been blessed above other Christian work among 
Italian Protestants. An Italian soldier, by name Capellini, was brought 
to see the beauty of the Gospel by fortunately tin ding an old, half-de- 
stroyed Bible. He soon after began to call his fellow-soldiers to relig- 
ious meetings for the purpose of Bible reading and prayer, and in a little 
while he succeeded in organizing an independent military congregation, 
which has gone on growing from year to year, until it has now become 
quite an institution among the soldiers of the regiments garrisoned at 
Rome. As fast as the discharged soldiers leave, new recruits come in, 
ami thus he has always a new community on which to operate, while his 
former men go to their respective homes all over the land, and thus 
carry the seeds of the Gospel with them. It is this fact which makes 
the work a missionary effort of the most effective kind. The growth of 
his congregation induced Capellini to accept for his work the chapel of 
the Wesleyan Mission Church, where it has received aid and encourage- 
ment from the workers in that enterprise. But the erection of new gar- 
risons far from the center of the city has made it less convenient for the 
soldiers to gather there, and it has been found necessary to construct a 
new chapel in the neighborhood of the soldiers' homes, Capellini has 
undertaken this with a courageous heart, and decided on a site and the 
size of his church. The entire expense will be about forty thousand dol- 
lars, and to obtain this he is making a call on the Protestant Churches 
of Europe generally, besides what he may obtain in Rome proper. The 
soldiers themselves can do but little because of the meugerness of their 
pay, but they will certainly do their share. The army chaplains of 
Protestant Germany have undertaken the work of collecting funds in 
their territory, and will, without doubt, do something good; and Switz- 
erland and the Protestants of France are expected to take part in the 
work. The most aid will probably come from England and Scotland, 
especially the latter country, which has so distinguished itself for its 
generous aid to mission work in Italy since the whole country has been 
open to the Bible. That the work will pay is certain, for each soldier 
who has learned to read the Bible will go home to read it to bis little 

154 Methodist QyuiHerly Review. [January, 

Abt. x.— foreign literary intelligence. 

Decidedly the finest Missionary Magazine published in Europe is that 
under the control of Dr. Waraeck as editor-in-chief, assisted by Drs. 
Grundemann and Christlieb. It is a monthly, begun in 1872, and is 
distinguished from other magazines of Germany in taking a broad and 
scientific ground, and being the special organ of no body or work. It 
therefore bears the title of rt Universal Missionary Journal," and is fully 
meeting the measure of its promise given at the outset. It occupies a 
sort of neutral ground, but is pervaded with a living Christian spirit, so 
that the dozen regular contributors to its pages all seem to work together 
as one man. In its historical articles it leads us to the origin of Missions 
throughout the world, and gives a quarterly report of statistics and work. 
There are, then, treatises on so-called missionary geography, on the prog- 
ress made in the various languages, giving them form and worth for 
religious efforts, and on the characteristics and traits of the various na- 
tionalities among which the missionaries are laboring. Quite an impor- 
tant section is devoted to the criticism of new works that appear in the 
mission cause. It has thus gained so high a scientific reputation that 
the theologians cannot afford to do without it, and some of the univer- 
sities, such as Berlin, Bonn, and Halle, have been by it induced to make 
the investigation of missions and the study of missionary procedure a 
special branch of labor. Thus, missionary workers in Germany cannot 
afford to do without it, and the friends of missions throughout the world 
always find something to nttract their special attention. 

The question about the ten lost tril>es docs not yet seem to be exhausted. 
The latest work on this subject has recently appeared in Madrid, from 
the hands of Santiago Perez Junquera, who bases his work on an old 
publication of the year 1650. The author of this book was Menassah 
Ben Israel, a Jew of Amsterdam, who gives the story of a co-religionist 
in the following terms: In 1641, a Spanish Jew, named Levy, journeyed 
in that part of South America known as Ecuador. In crossing the 
Cordilleras, his attendant Indians complained of the severity of the 
Spaniards, and expressed the confident hope that a people hidden in the 
forests would break the cruel yoke. Levy followed the hint given him 
by his guides, and, after a while, found this isolated folk, and was con- 
vinced that they were Jews. He made himself known as such when 
there. Indians greeted him as a brother, and led him to a great river, 
where he found a settlement of people repeating Hebrew Bible verses, 
and bearing the names of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Reuben, etc., and they 
finally confided to him the principal events of their history. God had 
led them, through signs and wonders, into the land, where they were at 
first cruelly treated by the Indians, but over these tbey gained such sig- 
nal victories in battle that the natives looked upon them as protected 
by a higher power, and at last awarded them a retired province, where 

1883.] Foreign Literary Intelligence. 155 

they might live unmolested until the time when they would come forth 
as the rulers of the world. This strange stdry seemed to interest the 
curious in this matter, for the book has quite a sale among those who 
would still pursue the fate of the lost tribes, and find them in this ap- 
parent remnant of a nation that has, in its turn, also disappeared. 

The recent census in the German Empire confirms the rapid growth 
of the Protestant Church and the comparatively slow increase of the 
Catholics. In Prussia proper, however, and some of the minor States, 
the contrary is the fact. In the whole imperial domain there were, in 
1866, of Protestants, about 24,000,000; in 1871, 25,000,000, and in 1880, 
28,000,000. The increase of the Protestants would have been very much 
larger, however, in various provinces of North Germany, were it not for 
the massive emigration that has taken place from those lands. In 
Prussia, in 1880, there were, of Protestants, 17,645,848; of Catholics, 
9,265,283, and of Jews, 863,790. The Protestants in the Rhine Prov- 
inces are increasing faster than the Catholics, while in the pure Protest- 
ant districts the Catholics are on the increase. Thus, the minority, 
wherever it may be, seems to be gaining ground. The number of 
Catholics is increasing somewhat in Saxony — a Protestant country with 
a Catholic king and court This may be caused by the influx of laborers 
on the railroads and iu the mines. 

The Moravians have had quite a jubilee over the one hundred and fif- 
tieth anniversary of their mission work, and have, among other things, 
been looking over the statistics of their extensive labors. Since the day 
when the first missionaries, Dober and Nitschmann, left their homes in 
Hernnhut to carry the gospel to the negro slaves of St. Thomas, over 
two thousaud brothers and sisters have gone forth to carry the banner 
of the Cross and the Gospel to all quarters of the world, and some of 
the most remote and desolate. With some failures and misfortunes, the 
Moravians may look back on. their wonderful work as under the special 
care of an over-ruling Providence, to whom they returned heartfelt 
thanks amid their rejoicings. These were also shared by the entire 
Protestant Church, because many of its branches had been ready in 
their assistance to the Moravian missions, and therefore many representa- 
tives were present in Hernnhut at their jubilee. It was a very happy 
thought to resolve to build, in the same island of St. Thomas, where 
their work began, a native church as a thank-offering for their great suc- 
cess. The collections for this purpose made good progress during the 
festive days, and bid fair to be ample. The Moravians will ever be of 
blessed memory in modern Gospel history for what they have accom- 
plished in the cause of missions, and the true Christian example which 
they set to the Christian world. 

Gerhard Rohlfs, the famous German traveler in Africa, has just pub- 
lished in Weimar, in his official capacity as authorized agent of King 
John, of Abyssinia, an appeal to the British and Foreign Anti- Slavery 
Society of London. He pleads for an early settlement of all differences 

156 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

between Egypt and Abyssinia through English intervention. He claims 
that Eg\pt is still a land where slavery flourishes through the activity 
of war and the native dealers, while Abyssinia is a Christian land in 
which slavery is not tolerated, but where it is very difficult to extinguish 
it entirely until all differences can be settled between the two countries. 
He claims that some man of the energy and magnanimity of Gordon 
must again be placed at the head of affairs in Soudan ; and, in conjunc- 
tion with civil order along the Nile, he appeals to the British government 
to grant to Abyssinia what she has clear natural right to, namely, a 
port on the Red Sea, from whose coast she is now strangely cut off. A 
glance at the map will show that this quite considerable land borders on 
the sea for a long distance, within a few miles, with the sea almost in 
sight, but with no national light on its banks. The justice of such a 
petition is the more clear when we reflect that, but a short time ago, the 
Powers granted this same request to Montenegro on the Adriatic, and 
maintained it by military intervention. King John would get along 
better with Egypt and with England were he less inclined to be exact- 
ing and tyrannical toward any foreigners who may happen to cross his 
path. He has not been any too just toward the missionaries, except 
those who are engaged in evangelical work among the many Jews of 
his realm. 

The Protestant French litterateurs in the theological field are quite 
active in bringing out new works, as may be seen from the latest an- 
nouncement of the book firm of Fischbacher, No. 88 Rue de Seine, Paris, 
where all the works of the Reformed Church may be found, and quite 
easily obtained by mail, if ordered by letter, with postal money-order ' 
inclosed, at the rate of five francs to the dollar. Among these we notice: 
4 Etude HomiUtique sur Adolphe Monod et Lacordaire^ by Louis Comte; 
"Vldee de DieuJ y by Chastand; "LAnnee Pastorale," by Bonneton; 
"VEgli&e sous la Croix, 1 ' by Benoit; "UEglise Vaudoise des Vallees du 
Piemont." treating of this Church from its origin down to our day— a 
very valuable and interesting book, price 2} francs. Among the smaller 
books or brochures we would name "La Tache Missianaire de VEglise," 
(The Missionary Task of the Church,) by Boegner, Director of the Mis- 
sion House of Paris; and another missionary help is the Manual of Prot- 
estant Missions for 1883, published by the Mission House of Basel, 
showing the growing interest that the Protestant Church is taking in 

A German firm is now publishing an illustrated edition of the "Imita- 
tion of Christ," by Thomas a* Kempis. The work of this humble monk is 
now read throughout the world more than other religious books, except the 
Bible itself, ami it i* still being published in new and attractive forms. 
There is scarcely a language of Christendom into which it has not been 
translated. There are said to be two thousand different Latin editions, 
and one thousand French, of which the Library of Paris possesses no less 
than seven hundred ; and new German translations are continually ap- 
pearing, showing that this golden book is dear to all Christian con- 

1883.] Foreign Literary Intelligence. 157 

fessiona, because it speaks the language of the entire undivided Christian 
Church, and the device of this unpretentious Christian man, "Ama 
neseirit" (Remain willingly unknown,) has proved that the meek and 
humble shall be exalted. The authorship was for a long time contested, 
and even now, in the present year, the first journal of Germany, the 
i% Aug»burger Attgemeine Zeitung," has devoted several articles to the in- 
contestable proof that it is from the heart and pen of the humble monk 
of Holland. More than two hundred years ago the French Parliament, 
being drawn into the contest, decreed that the book should only be pub- 
lished with the name of Thomas & Kern pis as author. 

As we look over the curricula of the current semester of the German 
Protestant Theological Schools, now lying before us, we are struck with 
the wealth of Bible teaching in the old Fatherland, and wonder that it 
does not bear more fruit. At Basel, we find Overbeck, on tiie Church 
History of the Middle Ages; in Berlin, Dorner is treating of Systematic 
Theology, Piper on Monumental Church History, and Bruckner on the 
System of Christian Ethics; at Berne, Oetli is reading lectures on Escha- 
tology, and Steck on the Life of Jesus; in Bonn, we recognize with 
pleasure the names of Christlieb and Lange, the former on Practical 
Theology, and the latter on Ethics. The bulletin for Breslau starts off 
with the Encyclopedia of Theology, by Meuss, and that of Dorpat with 
Volk, on the Exegesis of the Prophets; Erlangen presents the names of 
Frank, on Dogmatics ; Giessen, that of Stade, on the Exposition of Gen- 
esis, and Gottingen, that of Ritschl, on Symbolics. At Halle we miss 
the precious name of Tholuck, and find those of KSstlin and Kahler; 
and then the list runs on and on, with subjects and teachers ad infinitum : 
Greifswald, Heidelberg, Jena, Kiel, Konigsberg, Leipsic, with Kahnis, 
Luthard and Delitzsch, Marburg, Rostock, Strasburg, Tubingen, Vienna, 
Zurich, and Upsala. Some of these are not in Germany proper, but they 
are, nevertheless, German schools. 

• ♦• 


HeHgiori) Theology, and Biblical Literature. 

The Life and Letters of James 0. Andrew, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, with Glances at his Contemporaries and at Events in Church History. 
By Rev. Georgb G. Smith, A.M. 12mo. pp. 562. Nashville, Tenn.: Southern 
Methodist Publishing House. John W. Burke & Co.: Macon, Ga. 18S2. 1 

This admirable biography is a fine counterpart to the life of 
Bishop Janes from the pen of Dr. Ridgaway. There were not 
wanting some traits of personal resemblance between the two 
men, and both were worthy the permanent portraiture so well 
furnished by their two biographers. So central a figure was 
Bishop Andrew in one of the most painful passages in our eccle- 

158 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

siastical and national history, that it was due to him, to his friends, 
and to the truth of history, that his personal conduct and charac- 
ter should be fully elucidated. Mr. Smith has well performed 
his work, and the result is that Bishop Andrew is not only cleared 
from the mists of prejudice that to some eyes have hung around 
him, but he appears beyond all doubt to have been a man of emi- 
nent, personal piety, whose heart and soul were consecrated, and 
whose life was hid with Christ in God. The history of such a 
man, as well as the man himself, is a boon to our universal Meth- 
odism and to Christianity itself. 

His biographer tells us, with some piquancy, that his paternal 
ancestry was Puritan, derived from England through New En- 
gland, where Osgood is still a conspicuous name. Born without 
educational advantages, he was never a scholar, and his first at- 
tempts seemed to indicate that he would never become a preacher. 
Yet he had filled but two " hard-scrabble " circuits when he was 
appointed to the city of Charleston. The metropolis was an im- 
portant but trying station. Methodism was a very humble in- 
trusion into a very proud city. More than half his parishioners 
were negroes. His description, written long years afterward, 
of the levee room in his parsonage, is unique and suggestive: 
" Here you met every week either stewards or leaders, white or 
black, and here the preacher had to hear all cases of complaint 
and trial, especially. among the blacks. To this room also came, 
at stated intervals, all who wished to join on trial. For the pur- 
pose of attending to all other matters, one day in the week was 
set apart, and the preachers had to be there all day. Imagine a 
room, dear reader, raised only a few inches from the ground, with 
high fences on all sides, crowded just as full as it could hold on a 
night in July or August, and the preacher sitting there till bell- 
ringing, and tell me, didn't he have a sweet time of it? Then 
when he emerged from this bath-house, and sought to cool him- 
self in the upper story, imagine him, half melting, seeking to re- 
fresh himself on his pillow. He enters a room some twelve feet 
square, with one or two windows, after carefully adjusting his 
mosquito net, and seizing a favorable moment for rushing into 
bed, and carefully stopping every crevice through which the 
serenaders might possibly find access to him, he stretches himself 
to get cool and go to sleep. What think you of his prospects ? 
The parsonage yard, if it had any, was an encroachment on the 
old graveyard. If you walked out tombstones were under your 
feet or all around you; if you seated yourself at your window 

1883 J Quarterly Book -Table. 159 

and looked out to enjoy the beauties of a moonlight prospect, 
tombstones every-where arrested your gaze, so that ours might 
properly have been called the family among the tombs." The 
appointment to Charleston was thus largely and tryingly a mis- 
sion to negroes. 

Our Southern brethren at the present day often largely quote, 
in self -vindication, their heroic devotion to negro-Christianization. 
We have ever recognized gladly their record on that subject. 
One of our first movements, after our appointment to the editorship 
of this Quarterly, years ago, was to procure from a Southern pen 
a full article on the enterprise of Southern Methodism among the 
Negro population. We have ever thought that there was some 
wickedness on the part of our old abolition friends in saying that 
their Negro missions were established purely in the interests of 
slavery. It was a bitter taunt for them to say that the mission- 
ary was simply an agent of the slave-holder to preach to the slave 
the duty of submission to his oppressor, and thus perpetuate the 
system. Some fatal coloring to this sharp logic was given by our 
Southern brethren themselves when they took the ground that 
they must maintain slavery in order to gain access to the slave. 
The abolitionist triumphantly quoted their words with " See, now, 
they themselves declare that their gospel is the gospel of slav- 
ery ! " More than once was, in that day, the Northern defender of 
Southern Methodism shut up by such a quotation. But this mis- 
sionary zeal unquestionably preceded the abolition excitement, 
and was started in the interests of a most earnest Christianity. 
Andrew, no doubt, submitted to his sultry air-bath, perfumed 
with unhealthy odor, for the souls of his Negro parishioners, with 
no thought for the perpetuity of the system that so nearly suffo- 
cated him. Indeed, in after years, so strong was the interest of 
this saintly man for the spiritual interests of the dark race that 
before his election to the episcopacy he seriously contemplated 
becoming a missionary to Africa. We have ever felt that a full 
measure of honor should be accorded to Southern Methodism for 
her missionary labors with the oppressed people. 

After his pastorate in Charleston Mr. Andrew moved through 
the higher order of appointments, distinguished for his eloquence, 
his ability as a writer, his administrative success, and his piety. 
Much to the indignation of some of his official superiors he con- 
tracted an early and happy marriage, and was one of the first to 
break up the customary sequence that a preacher's marriage was 
always followed by a location, a sequence arising from the fact 

160 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

that his salary was inadequate to the support of a family. The 
conference thereby had to be made up mainly of bachelors, young 
and old. We have heard, through oral tradition we believe, that 
Asbury made one of his terse apothegms in these words, namely, 
" I wish the devil and the women would let my preachers alone." 
He was thrice married in the course of his life, and in each case 
was wise in his choice and happy in his marriage relations. He 
was, in his maturer years, very clearly a man of courteous manners 
and of warm and mellow affections. His letters, written to his wife 
during the trying days when his marriage with her would seem 
to be the cause of his trials, are rich with the most assuring ex- 
pressions of love. 

Mr. Smith discusses the dealing of the General Conference 
of 1 844, in the main, with excellent temper. We could wish to 
approach that question at this time with the same calm fairness 
with which we would treat an occurrence of two centuries ago. 
There are two or three points, however, in which we think his 
views historically incorrect. We think he fully shows that 
Bishop Andrew had no desire for the episcopal office; that he ac- 
cepted it with sincere reluctance, from a sense of duty; and that 
he would gladly have resigned it in 1844 to secure the unity of 
the Church. He had no anticipation at the time of his marriage 
that any serious difficulty would arise from his marital connection 
with slavery. His demeanor during the discussions was becom- 
ing, and we do not think it right to affirm that " he divided the 
Church." But the point of issue we must here take with our 
author is this: His connection, even by marriage, with slavery 
was in contrariety to the understanding which had always existed 
between the two sections of the Church, that the episcopal office 
should not be held by a slave-holder. It is of no use for our biogra- 
pher to tell us how men who were slave-holders were appointed to 
office and honors, such as Capers and Olin; neither of those men 
could have been elected to the episcopate for this sole reason. 
The reason was this, that to admit slavery into the episcopate was 
to surrender the last remnant of our historic protest against slav- 
ery, and to admit the supremacy of the slave-power. Hence it 
was not "a few extremists," but old stereotype conservatives 
like Nathan Bangs of New York, and John Collins of Balti- 
more, with almost their entire delegations that took firm position 
for the old understanding. They did this, not in sympathy with 
so-called " modem abolitionism," but, as Dr. Bangs expressed it, 
from "the old antislavery feeling;" that is, on the basis of the 

1883.] Quarterhj Book -Table. 161 

old protest against the supremacy and even the existence of 
slavery, inherited from Wesley, Coke, Asbury, and the Methodist 
fathers, fragmentary traces of which stood still unerased upon 
the pages of our Discipline. According to Dr. Smith's own 
statement Mr. Andrew was aware that he was elected because he 
was a non-slaveholder. His self-depreciatory statement at the 
time of his election was that he was chosen on account of his 
"poverty;" that is, he was elected because he was a non-slave- 
holder, and he was a non -slaveholder, not from conscience, but 
because he was too poor to buy a slave. He understood, there- 
fore, that as Bishop he stood upon a non-slaveholding platform. 
Why ? Because, as the Northern delegates ever claimed, it was 
hitherto understood by both sides that the Episcopacy was to be 
clear from slavery. Bishop Andrew, therefore, appears to have 
stood in the Episcopate in violation of the known understanding 
upon which he was elected. Mr. Smith says, and we fully be- 
lieve his statement, that Bishop Andrew "wished to resign." 
Tradition says that during the early days of the General Confer- 
ence he wore a very despondent air. But a movement among 
the Southern delegations took place that changed the situation, 
and also seems to have changed his demeanor. They, in solid 
body, required him to stand firm. We think their position was, 
in the circumstances, about right. It was truly, as Mr. Seward 
said, " an irrepressible conflict," and the proper time for the issue 
had come. Slavery and freedom must meet face to face. Be- 
hind either party in this General Conference there were irresist- 
ible forces requiring each to firmly meet the inevitable contest. 
Disintegration and ruin threatened the party that shrunk. The 
best result in the case possible took place. The Southern section 
withdrew, and formed a new organization, and the two Churches, 
each, maintained their own entirety. This is not saying that 
both, sides were right; or that they were both equally right or 
wrong. The relative rightness depends upon the previous ques- 
tion whether slavery is right. If slavery is right, then the effort 
to force it into our Episcopacy, and over the Church and nation, 
was right. If slavery is a great moral wrong, the enemy of hu- 
man advancement, then the North was right and the South 
fearfully wrong. On that question there now is in every part of 
Christendom, except our South, a terrible unanimity. The 
great national organic sin itself, in which each party had its 
share, was, in its permanence and power, of too large a magnitude 
for that Conference to undertake to manage. Taking things as 

162 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [January, 

they were, their only problem was, What shall- be done for the 
nonce? And that problem they solved with singular courtesy 
of discussion and wisdom of result. 

There is another point in Mr. Smith's history of these transac- 
tions which of itself qualifies our commendation of his work to 
our readers South and North. It is the injurious attempt to 
perpetuate the historical untruth that the General Conference, 
actually or "virtually" deposed Bishop Andrew from the 
Episcopate. The Conference neither intended nor did any such 
thing. A motion was made asking him to resign, and the Con- 
ference voted it down. That of itself proves that there was no 
purpose that he should vacate the Episcopal office. They wished 
him, not to vacate the Episcopate, but to vacate his connection 
with slavery. They found him involved in an impediment to 
the performance of his Episcopal duties, and they simply said 
to him, Unload and go on. They ordered his name to be con- 
tinued as Bishop in the Discipline. They continued his salary. 
There were Northern laymen standing ready to indemnify him 
for the loss of the slaves, thus making it perfectly easy for him 
to leave the Conference a perfectly unembarrassed, perfectly re- 
spected, Bishop of the undivided Methodist Episcopal Church. 
All the obstruction against this result was interposed by himself 
and his friends. Then we say to all the world, that for him and 
his friends first to interpose a voluntary obstacle, and then 
turn around and charge that he was " deposed, 9 ' is a historical 
untruth not justified by that equivocal "virtual." And the 
worst of it is that in the conversational and even editorial ver- 
sion of the story in the South, circulated by " extreme men " to 
fire the Southern heart, this nice little word "virtual" drops 
out, and the pocket edition of the legend is, "they deposed 
Bishop Andrew." In giving permanence to this untruth, quali- 
fied or unqualified, Mr. Smith wrongs his own people much. more 
than he does us. 

Again we have (p. 378) the following unnecessary misstate- 
ment in regard to the organization of the new Church at Louis- 
ville : " So was the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, organized 
without revolution or schism or secession under consent given by 
the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church." Now 
the " General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church " 
never gave any such " consent." It persistently and positively 
withheld all sanction or permission; and nearly the entire North- 
ern delegation, we believe, held that it had no power to " con- 

1883 J Quarterly Booh -Table. 163 

sent." It threw all the responsibility for the withdrawal itself 
upon the withdrawing body. There is a wide difference between 
6aying : " Yes, I ' consent,' you may go; " and saying, " You say 
you must go : you go, then, on your own responsibility; but we 
shall not fight you for it, or chase after you and contend; we will, 
for peace 9 sake, keep within a particular limit, and let you alone 
after you have performed the unauthorized departure." Permis- 
sion to go is one thing; provision for the unpermitted going, should 
it persistently and willfully take place, is another thing. We be- 
lieve that the Southern Methodists did the best possible thing 
when they organized the new Church. We believe, and have never 
seen it denied by any authority in our own Church, that that 
new Church was from the beginning a legitimate Church of 
Christ. We think it was organized by a justifiable secession and 
revolution ; and we rejoice that the property of the old Church 
was divided to the new organization. Her origin and existence 
need no misconstructions of past facts and documents for their 
vindication. She has done and is still doing a work that none 
else can do ; and in that work our prayers are, aud ever have 
been, all for her peace, prosperity, and power. 

The manifesto from Louisville announcing the severance of 
the Church was duly followed by the gun of Fort Sumter an- 
nouncing the severance of the nation. Bishop Andrew had been 
an old Whig, and he disapproved the opening this war upon 
the national existence, but sustained his section when it assumed 
to his eye the form of an invasion of land and home. As chief 
pastor he labored with heroic persistence for the integrity of the 
flock. He hailed the return of peace with impulses for reunion 
which it was unfortunate that the South did not obey. It was a 
singular and perhaps a providential thing that the man who is 
credited with severing the South from the North was a man of 
Puritan blood, of New England descent, and approaching most 
nearly, perhaps, of any of his compeers, to being " a Southern 
man with Northern principles." 

To the saintliness of his character there is abundant testimony. 
He lived in and breathed an atmosphere of prayer. He was a 
patron of the poor, especially of the colored race. Yet though 
bearing a life of consecration he shrunk from formal profession. 
His third wife made the unique remark, " I know I am by the 
blood of Christ cleansed from sin, and yet I know that he is 
better than I am, and he will not say he is." And of this wife 
we have an account of singular pathos and beauty. She is de- 

164 Methodist Quarterly Review. f January, 

scribed as a woman of rare character, yet, in mature years, she 
was mentally incapacitated by softening of the brain. Yet 
amid the mental ruin her religious powers towered aloft. " She 
spoke of Jesus as sweetly and prayed to him as beautifully as 
she had ever done." But our learned physiologists can explain 
all that. With "victory, victory," on his lips, and leaving a 
sacred radiance on his dead face, the holy Bishop departed to his 
reward. He was entombed among his people at Oxford, Ga., 
close by Emory College, of which lie had long been a trustee. 
His face on the frontispiece of the volume is marked and manly, 
with a tinge of sadness as if of sorrowful recollections, and eyes 
heavy as if their brows were burdened with the weight of many 
cares. Blessed be the memory of the just. 

Tlie Prophets of Israel, and their Place in History at the Close of the Eighth Century 
B. C. Eight Lectures. By W. Robebtson Smith, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 444. 
New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1882. 

We are here furnished by Robertson Smith with the new scheme 
of biblicism according to Evolution. It is the programme of 
the origin, growth, and completion of our religion by natural 
derivation. We are directed to the seminal point where it took 
origin, to its early germination in the ovum, its gradual devel- 
opment into maturity and completion. It brings religious evo- 
lution into accordance with nebular and animal unfolding, so that 
the theory of the universe — planetary, racial, and spiritual — is 
made to keep step to one harmonious music. Science and relig- 
ion are thus triumphantly reconciled, and Darwin fairly is seated 
in Moses' chair. 

In the era of the Hebrew Judges, we are here told, the little 
Shemitic nations of Syria, including Israel as one, worshiped 
each his own god with profound devotion. Each nation admitted 
without doubt the reality of the gods of its neighbor nations, 
but valorously maintained that its own god was strongest, and 
could whip any one if not all of his rivals. Of Israel the god 
was Jehovah, worshiped, not with prayer, but with spontaneous 
and irregular sacrifices and ceremonies. Gradually, however, 
with this worship of Jehovah some moral ideas became associated. 
As in theistic physical evolution a divine force comes in contact 
with the subject, and directs its peculiar development, so Jeho- 
vah came into personal relation with the Israelite clan, and modi- 
fied its unfolding and history. Israel was at first one of those 
hovering hordes that hung on the north-eastern margin of Egypt, 

1883.] Quarterly Booh Table. 165 

having really none but an accidental connection with the king- 
dom, untinctured by any of its civilization, and ready, in due 
time, to float off and take possession by invasion of some of the 
territories of the more north-easterly clans. But the moral de- 
velopment, divinely originating with the Jehovistic wanderers, 
prepared them, after a little monarchy had given firmness to 
their body, under the tuition of their prophets, for a great but 
peculiar historic future. Prophet after prophet arose, announc- 
ing higher and purer views ; and Jehovah grew, in the Hebrew 
mind, from a mere pugnacious patron of a barbarous tribe to a 
supreme ruler in righteousness over the nations of the entire 
world. This development became, then, stiictly a case of " the 
survival of the fittest." When the tribes were dispersed and Ju- 
dah went into captivity, so powerful had this religion of Jeho- 
vah grown that it survived the political power, and the nation 
became a Church. This consummation was finally attained 
under Ezra by the introduction of the Levitical law of compli- 
cated rites concentrated into one locality, the temple at Jerusa- 
lem. Israel thereby became a sacerdotal body, and in due time 
out of its life sprang He who is the true Redeemer of the world. 

In taking this starting-point at the lowest era of Israel's his- 
tory our readers and his will of course perceive that the Penta- 
teuch is. mainly ignored. There could have been no recorded 
Genesis narrating how the whole creation was the work of Elo- 
him, God of Israel. Equally non-existent in Israel must have 
been the story of the fall of the first man of the human race 
under the eye of Jehovah Elolfim. And the wonders performed 
by Moses for the express purpose of showing to mankind Jeho- 
vah's supremacy over even the gods of supreme Egypt must have 
been a romance of a later inventive priesthood. With these 
records really in his possession Israel's monotheism would have 
been primeval, supreme, and sole, admitting no recognition of 
petty tribal gods. The race must have started with a primordial 
Edenic monotheism, and the days of the Judges must have been 
not a germinal but simply an anarchical and degenerate epoch. 
Equally in Professor Smith's way are the legislation of Moses 
and the high-priesthood of Aaron. These ancient worthies are 
unceremoniously stripped of their honors. The large majority 
of the laws are declared to be the invention of Ezekiel and of 
Ezra and his compeers centuries later, and the very histories in 
which the sacrificial laws and the Aaronic priesthood are en- 
shrined is a very extensive series of " lies with circumstances." 

Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 11 

166 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The theory is not merely that laws were honestly added to 
the code permanently headed by the name of Moses ; it is that 
certain extended tracts of false history are spread out before us 
in the record, affirming the ancient Mosaic origination of definite 
institutions, invested with solemn colorings of narrative and 
minute detail of pretended facts. Deuteronomy has indeed the 
honor of being an earlier forgery. It was fabricated by an un- 
known brain and written by an unknown hand. It was profess- 
edly found in the temple while repairs were being made by the 
workmen of good King Josiah. It was brought by the high- 
priest llilkiah, and read in the hearing of the king, who was 
apparently overwhelmed with contrition and dismay at the reve- 
lations of the newly-discovered forgery. The purpose of the 
fabrication was to establish the religion of Jehovah by force of 
the most solemn threatenings and promises, and by centralizing 
all the religious rites of the nation in the Jerusalem temple. 
The smooth apologies offered for such a forgery are unworthy 
a man of Mr. Smith's moral and intellectual standing. The man 
who was competent to forge such a book, however primitive the 
age, well knew the moral nature of the fraud he was perpetrat- 
ing. The book is thereby sunk into the category of ordinary 
priestcraft. Its fraud is more intellectual, but no more honest or 
justifiable, than those of the Indian "medicine-man" or the 
African mumbo-jnmbo. Its claims to inspiration are to be 
scouted, and it deserves no place in sacred literature. 

But it was really in the heart and brain of the prophets that 
the true religion, the religion wliich ultimated in Christianity, 
originated. Prediction was not its prerogative, but when a new 
view in regard to Jehovah and his relations to men sprung up 
within a soul, he was obligated to speak it forth, and so became 
a prophet. Of the recorded prophets Amos and -Hosea were the 
earliest; and the order culminated in the illustrious Jehovistic, 
and, by anticipation, Christian, statesman, Isaiah. Isaiah made 
no infallible predictions of events. Where he foretold special- 
ties he often proved mistaken, and was obliged subsequently to 
correct his programme. He did not specifically predict the birth 
or death of Christ. The passage picturing the virgin to bear a 
son referred only to an unmarried female of his own day. Our 
author goes over the old argument to prove that the " virgin " 
was only a girl yet to be married. And when Matthew's quota- 
tion applying it to Jesus' virgin mother is adduced, he roundly 
tells us that New Testament quotations only tell us what were 

1883J Qwrteiiy Book-Table. 167 

the opinions of the earliest centuries ! What is to be done with 
Jesus' own extended applications of prophetic passages to him- 
self Mr. Smith omits to tell us. But amid his predictive mis- 
takes the prophetic greatness of Isaiah consisted in his seeing in 
Jehovah not merely the God of little Israel, but the God of As- 
syria, of Egypt, and of the whole earth. This idea (really taught 
in the ten plagues of Egypt) grandly maintained for the first 
time at this late date, transformed Israel from a nation to a 
Church, enabled the religion of Israel to survive the polity, and 
afforded the ground from which Christianity could spring. The 
publication of Deuteronomy, made at this time, required all ritual 
to be celebrated at the temple, in order to withdraw all worship 
from the idolatries prevalent in the rural populations. Yet the 
prophets had no sympathy with sacrifice or ritual. Isaiah " was 
practically indifferent to all forms of cultus." It was not until 
Ezekiel foreshadowed Leviticus, and Ezra and his fellows com- 
pleted it, labeling it falsely with the name of Moses, accompa- 
nied with a romance detailing its imaginary construction by 
Moses, that the Levitical system was established. This (as we 
were told in our last Quarterly by Professor Duff) was in 
strict compliance with Hegel's law of development, that "the 
prophet precedes the priest." So was Judaism, and afterward 
Christianity, evolved. And thus both the Old Testament and 
the New, by cutting and carving and turning end for end, is 
beautifully shaped according to Darwin. And now that the 
grand old canon has been duly Hegelized, the next step is to 
have it Haeckelized. This can easily be done. Let us all con- 
spire together to say that Elohim signifies Force, and that Jeho- 
vah signifies Law; and then all the Bible means is that Force 
produces creation and all its evolutions through Law. It must 
be started in Germany ; it must be duly rehearsed at Andover, 
at New Haven, and at Chicago. And then into what a grand 
unity will opposites converge! Spinozism and Hegelism and 
Darwinism and Spencerism and Mosaicism and Evangelicism 
may all together sing a hallelujah chorus to the mighty God 
Force, parabolized in the Bible under the name of God. Schol- 
arly Princeton does indeed seem to dissent from this grand uni- 
son. And our unscholarly Methodism may decline, but doubtless 
in vain. Atheists sometimes, in these days, claim to be pious ; 
why may they not claim to be believers in Moses and the proph- 
ets according to Smith, and even in biblical theism according to 

168 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

Studies in Science and JWiqion. By G. Frederick Wright, Author of 
"Logic of Christian Evidences." 12rao, pp. 390. Andover: Warren F. 
Draper. 1882. 

Mr. Wright's name is familiar to our readers as an Editor of the 
" Bibliotheca Sacra," as a master of both Science and Theology, and 
so an eligible mediator between the two. Some of these chap- 
ters were ar.^cles of the " Bibliotheca." Thanks are due to Mr. 
Wright for the present volume. It presents the evolutionary 
argument very clearly for the popular mind. It undoubtedly 
divests it of some of its repulsive features. By means of a care- 
fully simple style, and a series of very plain cut illustrations, it 
elucidates the subject so that the unscientific or semi-scientific 
reader may get a very fair hold of the question. And it indi- 
cates, if it fails to fully present, a view by which the evolutionist 
need not reject Moses. 

What specially attracts our attention in the present volume is 
its American measurement of the time of man's existence. The 
New Jersey chipped flints date back to the close of the glacial 
period. They are found on the southern margin of the once 
glacial sheet. How far back was that period ? By various meas- 
urements, taken in different sections, it was from eight to ten thou- 
sand years ago. The men, if men they were, who chipped these 
flints, were, by any existing Biblical chronology, Pre-Adamite. 

And yet, as we said in our last Quarterly in regard to Mr. 
Beecher, we do not see how any Christian evolutionist, who be- 
lieves in the immortality of man, can well " get along without 
his Adam." As the line of evolution marches on, the point of 
transition is reached when the perishable brute instanter becomes 
immortal man. Eternity is all at once done up into his nature. 
His being is reorganized by a power unknown to earthly nature 
and taking hold of supernal things. This can hardly be accom- 
plished, in the way Sir Charles Lyell suggested, by single gen- 
iuses rising above the level of the species, as a Milton or a Plato 
rose above their race. The grandeur of the event, whether in- 
cluding one representative individual or a whole race, as noted in 
our last Quarterly, requires a grandeur of inauguration. It is 
placing on our planet a something infinitely more valuable than 
the planet itself with all its contents. And that inaugurated im- 
mortal, or body of immortals, is the biblical Adam, one or more. 

Feebly and faintly our author suggests and authenticates this 
view. He says, (p. 370,) "We may distinguish between the 
physical nature of Adam and his mental and moral nature; and 
the spiritual may, for all science can [the italics are the author's] 



1883.] Quarterly Book-Table. 169 

show, be as direct a gift to the race, in general, as we believe it 
to be to every individual. Also, for our part, we have no objec- 
tion to investing man's creation with miraculous elements.' 9 
But this reorganization of man from anthropoid takes possession 
of not only soul, but body; immortalizing the first and resurrec- 
tionizing the last. It is the whole man that is re-created. And 
if our author's theology is true, this re-creation, or rather comple- 
tion, of immortal man's creation, is accomplished through the 
power of a divine Incarnation. It is the image of Christ com- 
pleted in man. It seems to us, then, that our author would have 
been justified in a far bolder statement than that of a " qp objec- 
tion" to the miraculous nature of man's immortalization and a 
completer enshrinement of the conception into the frame of his 
biblical theology. 

We believe that the Genesis history of the creation of Adam 
implies his threefold nature, body, soul, and spirit: somatic, 
psychic, pneumatic. It narrates the infusion of the divine 
breathing or spirit by which the merely psychic being becomes 
the pneumatic Man. The programme of that consummation is 
given in Gen. i, 26-31 ; its finality in Gen. ii, 7. Before that 
inbreathed spirit that being, like other animals, sprang up 
from terrene nature quickened by the divine fiat. By that in- 
fused (not overlaid) spirit the soul was impregnated with im- 
mortal life and the body rendered exempt from disintegration. 
And so for the first time Man in the image of God was com- 
pletely created. 

Now "can" any science show that the chipper of primeval 
flints was more than a psychic being ? Except that his work was 
in a more manward direction, does it show more intelligence, 
even in kindling a fire, than that of the beaver, or than Sir John 
Lubbock's ants? Was the chipper capable of the thought of the 
Infinite or the truly Ethic? Was he pneumatic Man ? 

And, again, can any historic connection be shown between the 
chippers and the present races of men ? Does not the very term 
pre-hixtoric indicate that the merely psychic races may all have 
perished,? Evolution, as stated by its advocates, abounds with 
cases of the entire destruction of immediately preceding races, 
produced by " environments," or by the destructive power of the 
higher race; why not similar blanks between the "cave man'' 
and the later man ? And, again, evolutionists aflirm that there 
are now races having no idea of God. How know they but those 
are psychic men perhaps incapable of religious conception, or to 


170 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

be rendered capable only by being elevated into the constituency 
of the first representative pneumatic Adam ? 

Again, by what reason or right do our evolutionary friends 
ignore and tacitly deny the truth of the earliest history so unan- 
imously affirmed by the various races of mankind of a primitive 
Eden? Lenormant, in his " Beginnings of Historyj'Mately pub- 
lished, traces with immense erudition the wide-spread traditions 
of the Deluge, and, on the ground that universal tradition must 
be true, he pronounces that tradition to be history. The same 
learned author admits the universality of a traditionary primal 
golden ^e of innocence and felicity; and yet, with more learn- 
ing than logic, he treats it as legend ! He affirms that " the idea 
of the Edenic happiness of the first human beings constitutes 
one of the universal traditions." By his own canon, then, as 
applied to the Deluge, that primal age of innocence and happi- 
ness is historic fact. Similar catholic traditions does he find of 
"a first typical man," (whose very name on the Assyrian tablets, 
Adiuru, he identifies with Adam,) "a first sin," and "a first frat- 
ricide:" all wrapped in exteriors of fable, and finding in the 
Genesis narrative alone their true monotheistic core of history. 
What right has evolutionary science to ignore that history? If 
science and history disagree neither must ignore the other, but 
with mutual respect must seek a reconciliation, so that both shall 
Ktand acknowledged truth. 

Yet, while standing firm to primitive historic truth, we are at 
present more ready than formerly to admit that the genealogies in 
Gen. v and xi may be abridgments; anf. abridgments, like that 
in Matthew, (upon which see our notes,) more or less for a pur- 
pose. The antediluvian pedigree draws a line through centuries 
when writing did not exist, and before the Hebrew language 
was formed. It must have been retained traditionally by mem- 
ory, and the names must be Hebrew substitutes for more primi- 
tive vocables. The Shemite pedigree is very bare of facts; and 
the Cainite pedigree is brief and furnished with fragments of 
isolated facts, as if the Tecorder himself did not quite compre- 
hend their import. What more natural than that the form of 
the pedigree should shorten, yet so as to mark distinctly the true 
line of descent ? Moses might, of course, give the document as 
he received it. And, curiously enough, Wesley (by a stroke of 
rationalism some might say) has furnished by anticipation a jus- 
tification of Moses for giving the pedigree as he found it. Says 
Wesley on Matt, i, 1 : " If there were any difficulties in this gen- 

1883.3 Quarterly Booh- Table. 171 

ealogy, or that given by St. Luke, which could not easily be 
removed, they would rather affect the Jewish tables than the 
credit of the evangelist; for they act only as historians setting 
down these genealogies as they stood in those public and allowed 
records. Therefore they were to take them as they found them. 
Nor was it needful they should correct the mistakes, if there 
were any, for these accounts sufficiently answer the end for which 
they are recited. They unquestionably prove the grand point 
in view, that Jesus was of the family from which the promised 
seed was to come." 

Mr. Wright has abundantly proved that in the Bible tta terms 
begat and son are both often applied to a distant offspring. 
Jesus, was the son of David at generations of distance. But the 
main difficulty with these two pedigrees, as Mr. Wright notices, is 
that they give the age of the father at the birth of his son. Yet, 
as it happens, we have an instance in which even such a pedi- 
gree is either lengthened or abridged. In " the generations of 
Shem" (Gen. xi, 10-24) the name of Cat nan is either interpolated 
by the Septuagint or exscinded by the Hebrew; Lenormant thinks 
the latter, and in fact Luke iii, 37 agrees with the Septuagint. 


" And Arphaxad lived five and thirty "And Arpliaxad lived one hundred 
years and begat Salah. And Arphaxad and thirty-five years and begat Cainan. 
lived after he begat Salah four hundred And Arphaxad lived after he begat 
and three years, and begat sons and Cainan four hundred years, and begat 
daughters." sons and daughters. And he died. And 

Cainan lived one hundred and thirty 
years, and begat Salnh. And Cainan 
lived after he begat Salah three hundred 
and thirty year?, and begat sous aud 
daughters. Aud he died." 

It will be seen that the Hebrew, by ignoring Cainan, abridges 
the Septuagint chronologically by two hundred and thirty years. 
We see also by this instance how the work can be done. And 
the purpose in both genealogies seems to be to attain the number 
ten as Matthew aims at the number fourteen. 

This purpose of selecting this final number ten is confirmed by 
Lenormant's showing that ten is the favorite number for ancient 
genealogical figures among various ancient nations. Lenormant 
bases this number on the number of the digits of the human hands, 
no that each patriarch's name could be popularly counted on finger 
and thumb. If, then, these pedigrees are abridgments, we may 
not a little lengthen the line so as to make our Jersey flint chip- 
pers sons of Adam, which is not an intensely important result. 

172 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The Greatness of Christy and other Sermons. By Alex. Crummell, Rector of St 
Luke's Church, Washin^tou, D. C, Author of "The Future of Africa." 12mo, 
pp. 352. New York: Thomas Whiitaker. 1882. 

The dignified expression of features appearing in the engraved 
likeness of Dr. Crummell in the frontispiece of this fine volume 
renders quite credible the statement, in the brief biography, that 
he is the grandson of an African king. His father was kid- 
napped in his boyhood, and brought to New York dateless 
years ago, and well remembered the scenes of his African life 
and the pompous circumstance of his princely style. He became 
rich enough here to pay for the education of his son, the author 
of these sermonsf but he experienced the difficulties arising from 
the then brutal hostility, even in the North, to negro education. 
He was sent to a negro school of higher education in New Hamp- 
shire; but the farmers of the section, indignant at the bold atroc- 
ity of a Negro academy in their midst, assembled ninety yoke 
of oxen, drew the academic edifice into a swamp, and bid a for- 
cible good-bye to the departing scholars with a salute from an 
old field-piece. Crummell then went to the Oneida Institute for 
some years, but afterward was refused admittance to the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Seminary solely on account of complexion. 
Such was the measure of our Christian civilization toward the 
colored race here in the North some forty years ago. Let us 
have patience with our Southern brethren who are passing 
through the same revolution of thought, amid greater difficulties, 
to arrive at the same conclusions as ourselves in the end. None 
are doing more effective work toward amicably forwarding this 
desirable revolution than men like Dr. Crummell. After a few 
years of theological study under Dr. Vinton he went, to complete 
his studies, to the University of Cambridge, England, " where he 
was kindly received and enabled to fit himself more thoroughly 
for his important work." So did monarchical England put to 
shame our Republican America ! Whether or not this Cambridge 
scholar would in this country be, like Bishop Payne, excluded by 
his color from a first-class car, we are very sure that the country 
possesses no palace car which would not be honored by his pres- 
ence. After spending some years in Liberia, Dr. Crummell is 
pastor of a church in our national metropolis. 

We do not believe in bestowing honor of office on a man be- 
cause he is a Negro. But it is a matter of pleasant surprise to 
note how many men have arisen since emancipation has given 
the negro a chance, to render the word negro respected. Men 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 173 

like Douglass, Langstou, Blyden, Crummell, Brace, and Tanner 
can scarce be thrust, perhaps by men who are their own inferiors, 
into an inferior race. And this volume of sermons neither 
asks or needs any special critical tenderness because the pedi- 
gree of the author runs far back into Africa. They can stand 
upon their own merits among the best pulpit productions of our 
day. In style they are pure, flowing, chaste, and elevated. In 
thought they are truly, as Bishop Clarke, the introductory biog- 
rapher, says, "fresh and original." Without eccentricity or 
sensationalism they abound in fresh views of old subjects, and a 
vein of originality and individualism pervades the whole series. 
We are especially impressed with the closing sermon, bearing the 
bold title, " The Destined Superiority of the Negro." He is no 
way afraid or ashamed of the word Negro, being assured that it 
is as well entitled to a capital initial letter as Hindoo, or Cau- 
casian, and determined to make it in due time as respectable. 
And we should certainly advise all parties to disuse the epithet 
"colored," for in fact it is more truly the Caucasian that is " the 
colored race." In this sermon he retraces history past and pres- 
ent to find the races that decay and perish, and notes the traits 
that mark their character. He demonstrates that the negro race 
has, on the contrary, all those qualities that constitute true per- 
sistence and future ascendency. In the permanent and aspiring 
races he finds such qualities as "vitality, plasticity, receptivity, 
imitation, family feeling, veracity, and the sentiment of devo- 
tion.*' All these, he calmly maintains, exist pre-eminently in the 
Negro race. Let, then, no cynic smile at his u destined superior- 
ity of the negro; " the eloquent preacher is serious, and has not 
the slightest apparent notion that he is blending sermon and 

jeu <T esprit. 

• ■■ 

Tfie Ttttological and Philosophical Works of Herma TrismcgvttuSj Christian Platonist 
Translated from the Original Greek, with Preface, Notes, and Indices. By 
John David Chambers. M.A., F.S.A., of Oriel College, Oxford. 8vo, pp. 170. 
Kdiubiirgh: T. & T. Clark. 1882. 

Trismegistus is a decidedly mysterious and almost cabalistic 
name to the large majority of even scholarly Americans. It 
here designates the unknown author of a very interesting pro- 
duction at the close of the first or opening of the second Chris- 
tian century. He was a reader of Plato, and, apparently, of 
Paul and John, and blends the doctrines and even language of 
alt these writers in stating his system of religion and nature. 
As a probable late contemporary of the last of the apostles, he 

174 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

not only fills a blank place in ancient literature, but has no little 
significance in Christian evidences. He is quoted with approval 
by Justin Martyr, and must, therefore, have written about the 
time the New Testament canon was completed, and supplies al- 
most a missing link in the continuity of documentary proof of 
the existence and high authority of some of the apostolic writings.' 

The name Trismegistus was primevally an epithet for the Thoth 
of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, who was celebrated as the 
original and supreme teacher in the three great departments of 
philosophy, theology, and government. He was thence styled 
great, great, great. /^y a C> V&YW* /^T a ?» though the grand com- 
pound term, Trismegistus, thrice-greatest, did not appear until 
the second Christian century. Not only the ancient fathers of 
the Church identified the author of this book with the ancient 
Thoth, and held the book to be earlier than the writings of 
Moses, but, what is more, some of his earlier modern editors 
have committed the same mistake. 

The theology is Christian, with the personal earthly history of 
Jesus omitted. It is intensely, reverently, and sublimely theis- 
tic. It fully unfolds a doctrine of the Father, the Word, and 
the Holy Spirit. It is full and explicit on the topics of baptism, 
regeneration, probation, and retribution. The sensual among 
men " attain not unto the Good or to immortality, but, becom- 
ing more and more wicked, are given over to the evil daemon, 
tormented by the wicked daemons and fire ; retrograding to rep- 
tilism, they are given over to be tormented by evil passions and 
lusts ; and, condemned to misery, are whirled about the universe 
— are converted into devils." We are inclined to view the book 
as a doctrinal statement of Christianity designed to introduce the 
thinkers of that day to an acceptance of the Gospel history of Jesus. 

Mr. Chambers here furnishes, besides a valuable preface, a 
very literal translation of the book, of ninety pages; a series of 
excerpts from the same author, found in Stobaeus, a writer of 
the fifth or sixth century, twenty-seven pages ; and fifteen pages 
of notices of the author from the early Christian writers, closing 
with a copious index of the entire volume. Mr. Chambers' 
translation is very close and conscientious, furnishing the Greek 
original in foot-note of every difficult term or phrase, and a 
large number of parallel passages from Plato, the Septuagint, 
the New Testament, and other writers. A peculiarity is his, in 
all cases, retaining a translation of the Greek article, producing 
such terms as " the God," u the man," for God, man, etc. 

1883.] Quarterly Booh -Table. 175 

Biblical Theology of the New Thstamenl. By Dr. Bernhard Weiss, Professor of The- 
ology in Berlin. Translated from the Revised Edition by Rev. David Eaton, 
if. A. Vol. 1, 8vo. 1832. Pp. 439. 

Twenty-seven years ago Dr. Weiss tells us that he announced 
in an inaugural the birth of the "science" — for "science" he 
emphatically and repeatedly names it — of Biblical Theology, the 
antagonist and destined successor of old " Dogmatic Theology." 
The fatal fault of the " old " was that it looked upon the New 
Testament as a one book, virtually by one author, teaching a 
one doctrine under a uniform inspiration, so that the stereotyp- 
ing a system needed but a classifying of texts. The new " sci- 
ence " has, forsooth, discovered that the New Testament is rather 
a little library than a book, a package of Hebrew-Greek pam- 
phlets, by various and variously thinking authors, whose main 
unity is that they are done up in one bfnding. If these various 
authors are not only defective, but ertoneous and mutually con- 
tradictory, so much the more wondrous is the " science," and so 
much the worse for the authors. And if even Jesus himself is 
found wrapped in illusion, uttering incorrert views — incorrect 
views even within the scope of his mission — after furnishing a thin 
semi-excuse, an apology for an apology, the " science " is still held 
infallible and sure, and Jesus mistaken. Thus was not only Je- 
sus limited in his human knowledge as to the day and hour of 
his own second coming, but he positively averred that it was to 
take place within his own " generation." The excuse for Jesus 
in making this categorical assertion is given as follows : " That 
Jesus, however, represented his return as an event which was to 
be looked for during the current generation is proved undoubt- 
edly by the universal, and, notwithstanding many disappoint- 
ments, firmly cherished, hope of the apostolic age ; and, consider- 
ing his attachment to Old Testament prophecy, we could not 
expect it to be otherwise. Those, however, who speak of an 
* error ' on the part of Jesus, which in that case would have to 
be assumed, altogether misconceive the nature of biblical proph- 
ecy, which, so far as regards its fulfillment, always remains de- 
pendent on the historical development. In this development, 
however, the voluntary behavior of man forms an essential 
factor, in conformity with which the Father, who guides this 
development, alone determines the time and the hour, under 
certain circumstances, even, transcending the limits originally set 
by himself and announced by prophecy, (Mark xiii, 32.)" But if 
Jesus Was misguided by adhering to the prophets in their true 
meaning, how are we secured from the conclusion that the 

176 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

prophets, to whom so frequent appeals are made in the New 
Testament, were false guides ? And if Jesus uttered a positive 
untruth in regard to the time of his second coming, how save us 
from the inference that he had a false view of future history, 
both secular and religious ? And why must we not infer that he 
is insecure authority for any second coming, any future judg- 
ment, or even retribution, at all ? We may here add that we 
have abundantly discussed this question as to the New Testa- 
ment expedition of the immediate second advent throughout our 
"Commentary." Dr. Weiss' "science" excludes him from even 
noticing the explanation of the supposed expectation of an im- 
mediate advent given in 2 Pet. iii, 3-10, where see our notes. It 
shuts out the harmonizing view of the one book, divides it into 
irreconcilable parts, and falls into disastrous heresy and skepticism. 
We have, therefore, no* very profound faith in Dr. Weiss' 
" science." We believe that the New Testament is an organic 
book, with many authors, indeed, and yet with one author ; with 
various gifts and degrees, but with one inspiration ; with indi- 
vidualistic modes of viewing truth, yet with one truth in view ; 
without internal contradiction, and, at any rate, within the scope 
of its message, without error. 

Dimn<> Nescience of Future Contingenciea a Necessity. Being an Introduction to 
!• The Foreknowledge of God, and Cognate Themes." By L. D. M'Cabe, D.D., 
LL.D. 12mo, pp. 306. New York: Published by Phillips A Hunt for the 
Author. 1882. 

As a writer Professor M'Cabe is clear, earnest, and forcible, im- 
pressing his own warm personality into his pages, and so intro- 
ducing the personalities of others as to give interest to his 
current of thought. His views have the sympathy of two or 
three modern leaders of thought, such as Rothe and Dorner, 
and, indeed, Dorner, in his last volume, names his work on 
"Foreknowledge" in his catalogue of authors on the subject. 
Besides this, there are in Methodism a few scattered thinkers, 
perhaps increasing in number, who rather prefer his views, as 
furnishing the best theodicy. 

That, except in a generic sense of the term, his positions are 
not Arminian, Dr. M'CaJbe not only admits, but boldly from his 
pedestal assaults Arminianism. Still less are they specifically 
Methodism. And they are not neio to Methodism. They have 
not been ignored by Methodism from indifference or intellectual 
apathy. On the contrary, Methodism has consciously, repeatedly, 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 177 

and positively reviewed and rejected them. Rather reluctantly 
did English Methodism tolerate Dr. Clarke's unflinching deposit 
of them in his " Commentary," and entirely uninfluencing has 
that deposit been upon the mind of permanent Methodism. Of 
this position of Methodism in regard to the present volume our 
publishing Agents have given due intimation in its title-page, 
that it is " published for the author." At the same time, let it 
be remembered that Dr. M'Cabe is not, like Robertson Smith, 
abusing a theological professorship to insinuate or force his 
specialty into the Church in an underground way ; nor is he, like 
Dr. Thomas, misusing a Methodist pulpit by diatribes adpopu- 
Inm against the doctrines he promised to preach. It is an appeal 
through the press to the select minds of the Church and general 
public ; and, personally, we must say that we have no objection 
to give thorn a tolerant hearing. We think he has furnished the 
fullest, ablest, and most original statement of the theory extant. 
At the sMne time, we doubt whether his trenchant issue with 
Arminianism was wise. He might have wisely and truly claimed 
himself to be, as they used to say, only "Arminio Arminior ;" 
that is, just a little more Arminian than Arminius himself ; la- 
boring, as Arminianism does, in behalf of a clear doctrine of 
freedom and responsibility, and carrying it out on the same line 
to a still clearer elucidation. 

• We do not feel called upon to enter upon the argument of the 
book. We expended nearly thirty pages of our work on the Will 
(pp. 267-293) in an attempt at showing the reconcilability of pre- 
science and freedom ; and we see nothing in either of Dr. M'Cabe's 
books, though others may, to disturb our faith in our arguments or 
conclusions, especially as he takes no notice of them, and so leaves 
untouched what force they have. We answered in order, satis- 
factorily to our own thought, Edwards' several points maintain- 
ing the irreconcilability. Dr. M'Cabe quotes Edwards' points as 
conclusive authority, but omits all notice of our answers, so that 
our positions stand unassailed. Our ground Was, that the theory 
of nescience is not so very heretical as some suppose, but unnec- 
essary ; for to most clear minds there is no difficulty in seeing 
the consistency of the two. That opinion we still retain. Nor 
does Dr. M'Cabe's sanguine anticipation of a great revolution in 
theology from his book appear to us likely to be realized ; for, 
first, there is, we apprehend, no likelihood of a general adoption 
of his theory ; and, second, if it were adopted, it would be no very 
great revolution ; his deluge would be " not much of a shower." 

178 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

ifosps owl tht Prophets. The Old Testament in the Jewish Church, by Professor 
W. Robertson Smith; Tho Prophets and Prophecy in Israel, by Dr. A. Kuenen; 
and The Prophets of Israel, by W. Robertson Smith, LL.D. Reviewed by 
William Hkkry Green, D.D., Professor in Princeton Seminary. 12mo, pp. 
3«;9. New York : Robert Carter & Brothers. 1882. 

Believers in the integrity of the Old Testament Scriptures will 
be greatly gratified that Dr. Green has embodied in a single vol- 
ume his successive papers in its defense. The first of the series 
consists of an opening lecture to his class in September, 183], in 
which he unhesitatingly treats the doctrines of Kuenen and his 
followers as being attacks on the foundations of the Protestant 
faith in line with those of the English deists, and as calling upon 
Christian believers for firmness and boldness in defense. Then 
follow reprints of. articles which have appeared in the " Presby- 
terian Review " and the " Princeton Review," subjecting Robert- 
son Smith's and Kuenen's productions to a masterly discussion. 
I3y all means our readers interested in this important controversy 
— and who of them arc not ? — should be careful not to omit the 
reading of this valuable series. 

Christian Work and Consolation: The Problem of an Effective and Hnppy Life. 
By Abel Stevens, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 206. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1832. 

A manual volume on the vital principles of a living religion will 
doubtless be gladly welcomed by a large body of readers from 
Dr. Stevens' eloquent pen. It treats of " work," the duties of 
life; and of "consolations," the rewards of work done. Nor 
is true work the penalty of primal sin, but a co-operation with 
God in the activities of his system which will not cease with our 
present life. In the chapters of consolations he gives a cheering 
view of Christian consecration and assurance, " the higher life," 
and closes with some consoling views of death. It is written 
often with epigrammatic point, but more generally with the 
author's usual exuberant flow, with which the reader is usually 
borne upon the rapid current of thought and language. 

My Portfolio. A Collection of Essays by Austin Phelps, D.D., late Professor 
Andover Seminary. Author of '* Men and Books," and *• The Theory of Preach- 
ing." 12mo, pp. 280. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

The author of "The Still Hour" may always claim, and will gen- 
erally reward, a hearing. His "Portfolio" is a collection of 
rescued "fugitives" gathered from his furnishings to the "Inde- 
pendent " and other periodicals. It consists mainly of sketches 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 170 

of character and discussions of certain live questions of the day. 
Leading, and most interesting, is the extended life history of his 
father, a typical revivalist and New England pastor in one. He 
was noted in newspapers as having his home visited by the most 
violent spirit-rappings, similar, though far more rackety, to those 
of the Wesley family, both which have defied the solutions of 
science and theology. The reminiscences of Albert Barnes and 
Horace Bushnell are full of interest. In the discussions appears 
the hand of a master explaining the soundness of the Andover 
positions; condemning Negro suffrage aud woman suffrage; con- 
sidering what the pulpit shall do with " spiritualism," etc. These 
chapters are piquant, frank and never tedious. 

♦ ♦• 

Philosophy, Metaphysics, and General Science. 

Wines: Scriptural and Ecclesiastical. By Norman Kkrr, M.D., F.L.S. 12rao, pp. 
133. New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House. 

As secretary to the society for promoting legislation for the con- 
trol and care of habitual drunkards, and to a home for inebri- 
ates, Dr. Kerr has had occasion largely to examine the question 
of " unfermented wine." His book seems to be the substance of 
a course of lectures thrown into chapters and paragraphs with 
headings. His large collection of " unfermented wines " are 
drawn upon for exhibition to his audience to impress the lesson. 
One entire page presents us with a tabulation in columns of some 
thirty "varieties of unfermented grape-juice," with the localities 
whence obtained, and the d.ites of their vintage from 1874-81. 
They come from Asia Minor, Syria, Spain, Portugal, London, 
Germany, Italy, Africa, and America. The unfermented from 
America is noted for its rich color. 

Dr. Kerr maintains, with ample evidence, that the ancients 
used the unfermented grape- juice, and that it was called wine 
He says nothing directly about the testimony of the Jewish 
rabbis that alcoholic wine was used at the Passover, or about the 
testimony of our modern missionaries that at the present day the 
unfermented article has lost the name of wine ; a testimony that 
does not seem to amount to much. It. is certain, as our respected 
contributor, Leon C. Field, conclusively shows, that the very 
word mtcstum, must, is an adjective for which vinum is the 

180 Metlwdist Quarterly Review. [January, 

noun ; and mustum has acquired the nature of a noun by grad- 
ually dropping its noun but absorbing its meaning. Coleridge 
says the history of a word is often more significant than the 
history of an empire. In this discussion the history of mustum 
h of more importance than the hi story of Persia and Babylon. 
It makes it certain that, in popular parlance, must was formerly 

As to the wine at Cana, the simple question is, Was it a formal 
creation such as God alone performs, or was it a manufacture 
such as man does ? Did Christ make the fresh wine 9 or did he 
make alcohol? We have noted the slants of infidels in affirming 
that Jesus made wine, and we should be happy to reply with 
good reason, " Yes, but did he make alcohol? " And we are glad 
that Dr. Kerr has furnished to our hand St. Chrysostom's beau- 
tiful Greek on this subject, as it robs Alcohol of his triumph 
with great conclusiveness: 


Chrysostom : " AeiKvvc brt ahrbc kariv 6 kv Talc &pitiXotc to v6*op perafia'kXuv 

KtU TOV V€TOV did TTjC pl&C «f oU'OV Tp£7T(JV 6lTEp tU T^t (pVTCJ SlU JToAAoV XP° V0V 

yiverai, tovto aOpoov iv tu yapy lipyaGaTu." 

*' Showing that it is He who changes the water in the vines and the rain ab- 
sorbed through the root into wink, who did in an instant at the marriage that 
work which takes a long time in the plant/* (Horn, xxii, in Job.)— P. 21. 

We are glad to 6ee Dr. Kerr also in presenting the follow- 
ing statement of the position of our Church on the communion 

At the General Conference (1880) of the Methodist Episcopal organization, with 
more than 11,000 ministers, about one and three-quarter million members, and be- 
tween four and five million adherents, the following alteration was made in their 
Book of Discipline: "Let none but the pure unfermented juice of the grape be 
used in administering the Lord's Supper." — P. 1 12. 

The American Phonographic Dictionary. Exhibiting the Correct and Actual Short- 
hand Forms for all the Useful Words of the English Language, about Fifty 
Thousand in Number, and, in addition, Mnny Foreign Terras; also the Best 
Shorthand Forms for Two Thousand Geographical Names, and as many Family, 
Pergonal, and Noted Fictitious Names. By Ei.ias Longley, Author of "Eclec- 
tic Manual of Phonography," *• The Reporter's Guide," and other works, and 
for Twenty-five Ye.-irs a Verbatim Reporter and Teacher of Short-hand. 8vo, 
pp.368. Cincinnati : Robert Clarke & Co. 1882. 

This dictionary does not define the meaning of terms, but sim- 
ply presents to the learner the best forms of phonographic words. 
For in this art, with its varied degrees of abbreviation, there are 
various forms between which the writer may choose, each accord- 
ant with the principles of the art, yet not all equally good, and 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 181 

the dictionary shows the learner which is indisputably the best. 
The existence of alternative forms, between which the writer must 
take time to choose, has been urged as 'an objection to phonog- 
raphy. And some claim that it is a failure. But we are in- 
formed by an expert that all our Congressional reporters, with an 
exception or two, use this system. Mr. Longley is a veteran 
expert; his system is that of Pitman, with his latest finali- 
ties and some additional American improvements. The dic- 
tionary is much fuller than Pitman's own, issued years ago, and 
the learner will, doubtless, find it a reliable aid to the most per- 
fect style. 


Philosophic Series, No. 1. Criteria of Divers Kinds of Truth as Opposed to Ag- 
nosticism. Being a Treatise on Applied Logic By James M'Cosh, D.D., 
LL D., D.L. 12mo, pp. 60. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

This is the first installment of a philosophical series projected by 
Dr. M'Cosh for the purpose of counteracting the Agnosticism 
prevailing at the present day. This he proposes to effect not so 
much by direct belligerency as by establishing the proper doc- 
trines of truth and knowing. He proposes five successive period- 
ical publications, of which this is number one. This treats the 
first principles of intuitive and deductive logic, the primary 
grounds of sure knowledge as distinguished from the present 
philosophical knownothingism. The second will discuss the true 
nature of causation in view of the doctrine of correlation of 
forces. The third will show the extent and limitations of devel- 
opment. The fourth will be a critique upon Kant, showing his 
defects and true value. The fifth discusses Herbert Spencer. 
Of all the philosophies we personally hold that maintained by Dr. 
M'Cosh to be most accordant with right reason. Subscriptions 
for the entire series should be sent to Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Empirical and Rational Psychology: Embracing Emotions, Cognitions, Feelings, 
and Volitions. By A. Schuyler. LL.D., President of Baldwin University, Au- 
thor of " Principles of Logic " and a series of mathematical works. 12mo, pp. 
484. Cincinnati, New York : Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co. 

President Schuyler has acquired a fine reputation as author of a 
series of works on the intellectual and mathematical sciences. 
The present, like his other volumes, is a well-executed manual for 
the private reader or for academic classes. Its style is clear, 
concise without being obscure, and animated without any mere- 
tricious attempts at fine writing. It is divided into the three 
Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 12 

189 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

established departments of Intellect, Sensibilities, and Will. In 
the first department he is full and excellent, especially in his 
treatment of the theory of perception. Perhaps he has marred 
the symmetry of his work by treating the section on elaboration 
too extensively, bringing another treatise on logic into the center 
of his psychology. Thereby he leaves far too small a room for 
the treatment of the sensibilities, and especially that most im- 
portant topic, the will. He allows himself scarce space for even 
an allusion to man's moral sentiments, and his account of the will 
we esteem as true in doctrine but meager in extent. We should 
certainly advise in a new edition some reconstruction by a great 
abridgment of Division Third and enlargement of Parts Second 
and Third. 

History, Biography, and Topography. 

Methodism and the Temperance Reformation. By Rev. Henry "Wheeler. 12mo, 
pp. 241. Cincinnati: Wulden & Stowe. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1882. 

This volume is a valuable and permanent contribution to the 
history both of Methodism and the Temperance Reformation. 
It comprehends the action of the Methodist Episcopal, the 
Methodist Episcopal, South, and the English Wesleyans, in that 
movement. We could wish that, at least in a chapter, a survey 
of all the other existing Methodist bodies, great and small, on 
the globe, had been added. But as it is we have a curious his- 
toric picture, appealing alternately to our pride and shame, show- 
ing how we have in the general led in the battle, while we have 
wavered and faltered, breaking our own good resolutions, yet 
coming up to the standard again when aroused by the spiiit of the 

Here, as on some other reforms, we have Wesley taking 
high and true position at start, uncompromising and accurate, 
like an infallibility. His followers apostatized from his proud 
platform, and after a century none of the great Methodisms 
now stand on his high basis save our own Methodist Episcopal 

We give Mr. Wesley's original rule, with the variations it 
underwent by successive legislations, at subsequent periods : 
1743: The original rule, Drunkenness, buying or selling spirit- 
uous liquors, or drinking them, unless in cases of extreme neces- 
sity. 1789: Drunkenness, buying or selling spirituous liquors, or 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 183 

drinking them. 1790: Drunkenness, or drinking spirituous liq- 
uors, unless in cases of necessity. 1791: Drunkenness or drink- 
ing spirituous liquors, unless in cases of necessity. 1848: Mr. 
Wesley's rule restored as in 1743. — Page 46. 

The relaxation of the Rule in America, Mr. Wheeler attributes 
to the demoralization of the Revolutionary War. That may be. 
But we are inclined to suspect that it arose in a great degree from 
the undeveloped character of the evil itself. The business of dis- 
tilling may not have become so overshadowing, and drunkenness 
may not have assumed so alarming a prevalence. It is the stupen- 
dous increase of our population, with the still greater increase of the 
manufacturing, trafficking, and drinking interests, that have com- 
pelled alarm, required higher moral maxims, and awakened more 
eeneral, energetic, and stringent action. These evils stole upon 
the public mind almost imperceptibly, and it was not until they 
became truly menacing in their magnitude that the appeals of 
the reformers could possess any startling effect. We remember 
in our own day a quiet tavern kept by a Methodist of eminently 
conscientious character. He maintained an orderly house, where 
he could dispense to the traveler or townsman a refreshing glass 
with as little suspicion of wrong as a druggist now fills a med- 
ical prescription. "The preacher" was often entertained by 
him gratis in a perfectly legitimate way. Ten years later the 
same man would have about as quickly become a pirate as a 

The period of early silence was broken in 1816 by James 
Axley, a General Conference delegate from the South. He had 
made the South and Southwest ring with his startling denunci- 
ations of the great evil. He brought the agitation into the Gen- 
eral Conference, where he was seconded by the venerable 
Laban Clark of New England, but the movement failed. In 
1828 and 1832 the great names of Wilbur Fisk, Nathan Bangs, 
and Henry B. Bascom appear in the battle-roll, and things begin 
to move. We well remember reading Bascom's eloquent Temper- 
ance Report to the General Conference of 1832 in our quiet 
study during our little tutorship at Hamilton College. But it 
was not until after the separation of the South from the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church that Mr. Wesley's rule was restored, 
namely, in 1848, by an almost unanimity. In the great temper- 
ance revival of the last few years the press and conferences of 
the Church South are taking a noble stand, and the alarming 
increase of the evil, together with the boldness of its advocates* 

184 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

will allow our Southern brethren no repose until the Church be- 
comes unanimous on the highest level. Our own General Con- 
ference of 1880 will be honorably commemorated as having passed 
the following rule: "Let none but the pure unfermented juice 
of the grape be used in administering the Lord's Supper, when- 
ever practicable." This is the true rule to which all Church 
communion must come. Infidelity must no longer triumph over 
our concession that Jesus was an olvon&nfc, nor Mohammedanism 
boast a soberer communion than Christianity. 

It must be frankly confessed that the apostacy of our English 
brethren from the Wesleyan rule was even more signal than our 
own. One is amazed to find the British Conference recording 
itself, so late as 1841, so flagrantly as the following resolutions 
show : 

"Resolved, 1. That unfermented wine be not used in the admin- 
istration of the Sacrament. 

"Resolved, 2. That no chapel be used for total abstinence 

" Resolved, 3. That no preacher go into another circuit to advo- 
cate total abstinence without first obtaining the consent of the 
Superintendent of the circuit to which he may have been in- 
vited." P. 168. 

Mr. Wheeler seems doubtful as to the cause of a movement so 
clearly designed to check the advance of reformation. We 
doubt not that it was largely the adverse pressure of the En- 
glish Church and aristocracy who held the pledge of abstinence in 
contempt. But the personal tastes and preferences of the Meth- 
odist ministry itself must nevertheless bear a decided share of 
the responsibility. Bishop Simpson once said, "The most dis- 
tinguished [Wesleyan] ministers are in the habit of using them, 
[wine and brandy;! and I regret to say that in many churches 
there both wine and brandy are kept in the vestry for the use of 
the minister both before and after preaching. On my first visit 
to the old countries the kind sextons seemed to be as much as- 
tonished that I would not accept them as I was amazed at their 
being offered." But the terribly growing magnitude and au- 
dacity of the evil itself would not allow such a body of earnest 
Christian men to retain this position in permanence. Intemper- 
ance icself was the great propagandist of Christian abstinence. 
Eminent names of British ministers appeared upon the side of 
reform. The great name of William Arthur of course leads the 
van. Romilly Hall speaks out in words worthy a true son of 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 185 

Wesley. George Maunder and Luke H. Wiseman give their 
burning testimony. The year 1877 is memorable from the for- 
mation of a Conference temperance organization ; and in 1880 
was established their " Temperance Sunday," in which the prin- 
ciples of temperance were to be publicly proclaimed in every 
Methodist charge in England, the exercises being previously 
published in the public newspapers to announce to the world that 
Methodism is alive on this subject. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, Mr. Wheeler well shows, is a 
great, and ought to be an aggressive, total-abstinence society. It 
has organized an exterminating war on the manufacture, the 
traffic, and the appetitive consumption of all intoxicants. It so 
applies its General Rule, by disciplinary enactment, as to pro- 
hibit " the buying, selling, or using intoxicating liquors as a bever- 
age, signing petitions in favor of granting license for the sale of 
intoxicating liquors, becoming bondsmen for persons engaging 
in such traffic, renting property as the place in or on which to 
manufacture intoxicating liquors.'* 

And what is the Christian citizen's duty as the possessor of an 
elective franchise ? Does he cease to be a Christian on the elec- 
tion grounds ? Is the government of a righteous God to be nul- 
lified at the polls ? A revival of a sense of Christian responsi- 
bilities in civil franchise has already commenced, and it augurs 
propitiously for our future. If the Christian Church in all its 
branches and in all sections will firmly and inflexibly exert its 
civic powers it can put down bad measures and bad men, and in- 
augurate every beneficent reform to a degree hitherto unreal- 
ized. The twin movements of civil service reform and tem- 
perance will remove an immense amount of the evils of our pres- 
ent politics. And politics is the government of the country. 
Purify our politics and you regenerate our governmental system 
and attain that " righteousness " which " exalteth a nation." Nor 
must we be frightened at the bluster of politicians-by-trade who 
would silence the voice of moral rebuke that they may monop- 
olize political power and emolument. Politicians are at the 
present day mightily menacing when they think they can fright- 
en, but perfect cowards when our persistence tells them that 
their craft is in danger. 

186 Meihodut Quarterly Review. [January, 

CorecK (he Hermit Nation. I. Ancient and Mediaeval History. IL Political and 
Social Corea. III. Modern and Receut History. By William Elliott Grip- 
fis, late of the Imperial University of Tokio, Japan. Author of "The Mikado's 
Empire." 8vo, pp. 462. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. Price 
$3 50. 

Mr. Griffis won reputation with the reading public, both of Eu- 
rope and America, by the patient research, sound judgment, and 
literary ability apparent in his " Mikado's Empire." What he 
did for Japan and its history in that production he has done in 
this volume for Corea, or Ch5-sen, " the land of the morning 
calm," as that hitherto little-known peninsula is named by the 
Coreans themselves. The curiosity of general readers, of Chris- 
tian philanthropists, and especially of men of commerce, respect- 
ing a country which until recently has been little else than a 
terra incoynita to Europeans and Americans, will lead many to 
consult the present volume. And the value and interest of the 
information it contains are such that its intelligent and thought- 
ful readers will be both gratified and made acquainted with a 
very ancient people who have hitherto succeeded in making 
themselves impregnable to the approaches of modern civilization. 
Xhis is not a book of personal travel or adventure, Mr. Griffis 
never having been nearer to Corea than the coast of Echizen, 
a Japanese province which lies on the sea that separates Japan 
from Corea. This coast for ages had been the landing-place of 
rovers, immigrants, adventurers, and envoys from the opposite 
Corean shore. Here, therefore, he found families who were 
proud of their descent from Cho-sen, and " outcasts " who were 
descendants of Corean prisoners of war. The traditions of these 
people, their religion, the names they had given to places and 
things of art, their implements, their animals, birds, vegetables, 
and trees, were all eloquent of their kinship to the nation on the 
opposite shore. He saw distinctly that his studies in Japanese 
history and antiquities reflected much light upon the neighbor- 
ing hermit nation, and began to search for materials out of which 
to weave its then almost unknown story. This volume is the 
result of his research, which, judging from the ninety-nine books 
and documents in Chinese, Japanese, Russian, Dutch, German, 
French, and American mentioned in the book, and from th« 
other sources of information and living witnesses consulted per- 
sonally and by correspondence, mu*t have been, if not exhaustive, 
yet sufficiently painstaking to justify his claim that his book, 
though less fascinating than one giving the impressions of a 
traveler through the country, is more valuable, because it " views 

1883.1 Quarterly Booh -Table. 187 

the whole subject, and reduces the impressions of many details 
to unity, correcting one by the other." 

The peninsula of Corea, including its almost countless islands, 
is nearly equal in size to the State of Minnesota, having an area 
of between eighty and ninety thousand square miles. Touching 
the Chinese province of Manchuria and the Russian Possessions 
on the north and west, it extends southward between the Sea of 
Japan and the Yellow Sea, from the 43d to the 34th parallel of 
north latitude. Its climate is varied, but the winters are not 
more rigorous in the higher latitudes than in the State of New 
York, while in the most southern they are " as delightful as those 
in the Carolinas." The summers are hot and rainy. The land 
is generally fertile. Mr. Grims thinks that " there are at least 
12,000,000 souls in ChS-sen." 

The ancient and media&val history of Corea, like that of Euro- 
pean countries, is a record of migrations and conquests, of in- 
vasions and counter-invasions, of fierce wars of succession and 
usurpation. It is, of course, a tangled web of legend and tradition 
interwoven with more or less of historic truth. Our author, by 
a process somewhat tedious to his readers, has industriously la- 
bored to separate authentic from legendary history, reaching the 
conclusion that the present race of Coreans are not the aborig- 
ines of the peninsula, but descendants of a hardy race, the Fuyu, 
whose original home" was in Manchuria, a thousand miles away 
from the seats of Chinese culture. This people were among the 
first of their race to emerge from barbarism, to form themselves 
into, a political organization based on the same principle of feu- 
dalism as once existed in Europe. After sundry migrations they 
entered the Corean peninsula and subjugated its barbarous abo- 
rigines, together with the emigrants from China whom they found 
within its borders. Hence the Coreans are neither Chinese nor 
Japanese, though more allied to the latter than to the former. 
In disentangling the thread of their history from its myths Mr. 
Griffis appears to have incorporated every important accessible 
fact into his excellent work. 

To the general reader the most interesting portions of this 
work are in the second and third parts, which treat of the present 
political structure of its government, of the social life and char- 
acter of its people, of its religion, which is a compound of Sha- 
manism, Confucianism, and Buddhism; of the efforts of the French 
Jesuits to introduce Romanism, with the terrible persecutions 
which prevented their success ; and of the various methods by 

18S Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

which the Japanese, the European, and American nations finally 
secured the opening of the ports of Corea for commercial pur- 
poses. Hereafter Corea promises to be the theater of struggles 
which will have a world-wide interest. Russia, on its northern 
border, is fortifying herself, as if intending to create a base 
for its invasion, since she is hankering for the possession of its 
southern harbors. The Buddhists of Japan are preparing agen- 
cies for an effort to revive their decaying superstitions within its 
borders ; and the Christian Churches both of England and Amer- 
ica will now feel compelled to make it the field of fresh mission- 
ary conquests. 

Professor Griffis' book is, on the whole, a well-written volume. 
We notice that here and there, when the author attempts to throw 
a dash of humor into a paragraph, he utterly fails, as when, in 
stating that Corea, warned by impending dangers, became will- 
ing to listen to proposals for opening her ports, he expresses 
that disposition by citing from Dickens the phrase, "Barkis was 
willin'," which in that connection was not witty but silly. So, 
also, after observing that in worshiping the " god of the hills " 
the Coreans make their pious trip to the hills a pic-nic, he 
adds, "Thus they combine piety and pleasure, very much as 
Americans unite sea-bathing and sanctification, croquet and 
camp-meeting holiness by the ocean and in the groves." Mr. Grif- 
fis apparently belongs to that class who se6 no inconsistency in 
consecrating the summer sea-shore to drinking, gambling, horse- 
racing, and carousing, but see something wonderfully ridiculons 
in carrying your religion into your vacation, and even providing 
the means of worship and self -consecration in the sublime pres- 
ence of the ocean. He seems to think that religion must be kept 
apart from our business, or at least our recreation ; and that a 
broad chasm should separate our devotion from our every-day 
life. That is not Christianity, but superstition; or, more likely, 
it is infidelity playing superstition. The divine founder of our 
religion, with his twelve apostles, frequented the sea of Gennes- 
aret, and carried on there their blended business, religion, and 
pleasure. A boat was once the pulpit of Jesus, and the beach 
the. church where the congregation listened. At that sea they 
sailed, preached, fished, and held great camp-meetings, at one of 
which five thousand were fed, the great Master himself having 
preached and supplied the provisions which were distributed by 
his disciples, in " pic-nio " fashion, to the vast multitudes seated 
on the giassy shore. 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 189 

Political History of Recent Times, 181G-18Y5, with special reference to Germany. 
By Wilhllm Mullek, Professor ia Tubingen. Revised and Enlarged by the 
Author. Translated, with an Appendix covering the period from 1876 to 1881, 
by the Rev. John P. Petkbs, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 696. New York: Harper & 
Brothers. 1882. 

The last sixty-five years have been marked by great events; 
by great changes in the relations of the leading nations of 
Europe to each other and to other parts of the world, and 
by the growth of liberal ideas tending to the transference of 
political power from the aristocratic few to the democratic 
multitude. To treat all these events intelligently, yet with- 
out wearisome dullness, in one volume, demanded of the writer 
a thoroughness in his knowledge and a power of philosoph- 
ical analysis and of skill in composition such as few can justly 
claim. But Mr. Mailer has fully met this great demand, and 
given to his readers a comprehensive clew by which they can 
seize on the links which connected the formation of the Holy 
Alliance with the fall of Napoleon; the rise of revolutions in 
Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain, and Portugal, and especially in 
France, with the usurpations of the kings in that Alliance. The 
vast consequences which followed the expulsion of the Bourbons 
and the ascendency of the Second . Empire in France ; the usurpa- 
tions of Prussia in Germany ; the creation of a united Italy ; the 
establishment of the German Empire ; the overthrow of Napo- 
leon III. ; the conflicts of Russia with Turkey ; and the relations 
of England to these great political events and to India, are also 
all treated with judicial fairness and in the spirit of a man thor- 
oughly possessed of liberal ideas. To students already versed 
in history Mr. Mttller's book will be exceedingly valuable for 
occasional reference ; to the general reader it will furnish as 
much information of recent events as he may care to know ; and 
it will prove particularly desirable for use in academies and 
colleges by students of modern European history. President 
White, of Cornell University, heartily commends it to this last- 
named class. 

Heroic Methodists of the Olden Time; or. Anecdotal Sketches of some of the Noble 
Men and Women whose Beautiful Lives Adorned, and whose Faithful Labors 
Built ihe Walls of Early Methodism. Intended to Please and Profit Boys and 
Girls. Illustrated. 16mo, pp. 307. New York : Phillips & Hunt. 1882. 

The fluent and graphic pen of Dr. Wise, so well known and ap- 
preciated in the literature of our Church, has here given us a 
few leaves from what has been esteemed our heroic age, and 

190 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

certainly was our primeval period. The world now acknowl- 
edges the profound world-wide interest of its history. Dr. Wise 
has given sketches of Wesley, Fletcher, Lady Huntingdon, Adam 
Clarke, down to Jackson and Dawson. We adopt Dr. Wise's 
motto: " Let the deeds of our Methodist fathers and mothers be 
never forgotten — let your children remember them forever. " 

Building the Nation. Events in the History of the United States: from the Rev- 
olution to the Beginning of the War between the States. By Charles Carle- 
ton Coffin. Author of " The Boys of '76/' " The Story of Liberty," •• Old Times 
in the Colonies," etc. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. 485. New York: Harper & 
Brothers. 1883. 


In this volume, one of the Harpers' illustrated, Mr. Coffin has 
given us a portion of our American history in a style and 
method of eminent fascination. His diction is popular and col- 
loquial; he selects in historical order the most striking scenes 
and characters, and shows great skill in reproducing the popular 
feeling of that day. The cuts are plentiful and often piquant, 
so that every boy, young and old, may be easily seduced into a 
knowledge of the history of his country. He ends at the begin- 
ning of our late civil war, and all will be ready for his next vol- 
ume next year. 

• ♦ •- 


Report of the President of Liberia College to the Board of Trustees. December, 1881. 
8vo. pp. 26. Cambridge, U. S. A.. John Wilson & Son. 1882. 

fht Aims and Methods of a Liberal Education for Africans. Inaugural Address 
delivered by Edward Wilmot Blydex, LL.D.. President of Liberia College. 
January 6," 1881. 8vo, pp. 30. Cambridge, U. S. A., John Wilson & Son. 

Dr. Blyden's two pamphlets are written in the graceful En- 
glish of which he is so tine a master. They show an earnest inter- 
est in behalf of his people. We take occasion to express our 
hearty sympathy for his self-consecration to his work and the 
general wisdom of his counsels. 

As an exposition of his views of the methods of constructing 
an African civilization these publications remove some misun- 
derstandings. We find a report, even in the periodicals of his 
race in America, that he had prohibited the use of the English 
language in Liberia College. The truth seems to be that he repro- 
bates a great share of English literature because it is so deprecia- 

1883.] Quat-terly Book-Table. 191 

tory toward the colored race as to depress the feelings and de- 
grade the character of its present Negro readers. In the literary 
course of the college he will so plan the studies as to fling in the 
background this period of modern literature. 

Dr. Blyden takes a very strong view of the debasing effect of 
slavery on the immigrants from America. It unfits the Ameri- 
can Negro missionary for the work in Africa. He has gone so 
far as to say that Mohammedism produces a nobler manhood in 
its converts than the Christianity of our missionaries. He would 
cherish a high respect for the Moslemism of Africa, and has a 
theory of making it "a stepping-stone to Christianity." He 
would have the Negro Christian missionary educated in Africa, 
in schools under Negro faculties. In short, though founded in 
Caucasian Christian philanthropy^ there must bo as complete a 
withdrawal from Caucasian Christian civilization as may be. 
The liberalities of the founders of the schools, and of the Repub- 
lic itself, cannot obliterate the bitter memories of African wrongs, 
nor the traces of slavery. In both the Report and the Address 
there are severe replies to Caucasian attacks ; and criticisms are 
passed upon even the defenses and eulogies of the friends of the 
Negro. On the whole, while recognizing the wisdom of much he 
says, we cannot help fearing that many of his words are tending 
to cultivate an oversensitiveness among his countrymen which 
may react unfavorably upon the American public mind. It is 
hard for people who would work and sacrifice for Africa to find 
themselves subjected to a severe criticism for not doing it better. 
Perhaps it might be well, also, to suggest whether the Negro 
himself is all right. Unless the Negro character and conduct can 
respond in a due degree to the efforts made for his advantage, 
discouragement must ensue. Wiser, apparently, it would be, 
for Dr. Blyden to impress upon his audiences the immense im- 
portance for the Negro to show himself susceptible of civiliza- 
tion, and alert and enterprising to its calls. It is he, and not the 
Caucasian, who is on trial. With Dr. Blyden the Negro seems 
all right, and the Caucasian the sole object of criticism. 

That Dr. Blyden well understands the character of the needed 
missionary is well indicated in the following ideal picture : 

For the frost work to be done in this vast country we must have men trained 
amid the scenes of their future labors — men who can enter at once upon their 
work knowing what is to be done; who need neither mental nor physical accli- 
mation; who know the specific methods in this country for performing industrial, 
commercial, educational, and religious work; who will know how to live in the 
country and in the towns; who. if necessary, like the mtivpid Anderson — edu- 
cated in Liberia — can walk two hundred miles on their bare feet, doing exploring 

192 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

and scientific work ; who can take the surveyor's chain and compass through 
swamps and over mountains, without the accessories or hammocks and beasts of 
burden, umbrellas and waterproofs; who as missionaries can walk from village 
to village, proclaiming the Gospel of Christ to the natives in a language they can 
understand, and can sit down on mats and skins in native huts, reading their 
Greek Testament and Hebrew Bible, or discussing the Arabic Koran with Moham- 
medans — and then at meal time can enjoy with their hosts palm oil and rice, pal- 
aver sauce and dumboy ; who will not long and piue for bacon and greens, peaches 
and pears, broadcloth coats and beaver hats. — Page 19. 

That such missionaries, plentiful, it would seem, among the Mo- 
hammedans of Africa, should not yet appear among the Christians, 
is the real complaint uttered in America. How can this coming 
band of new-life Christian missionaries be made to come imme- 
diately ? The Mohammedan school of Cairo is, we understand, 
sending out its flaming missionaries by hundreds through the con- 
tinent. But there appears in Liberia neither flame nor fire. All 
seems cold, dark, charcoal. Conspicuously is this evident in the 
fact that after more than half a century of work our Methodist 
conference counts but fourteen members, with a goodly propor- 
tion of places "to be supplied." The difficulty 6eems to lie in 
the lifelessness of the material there. And yet Dr. Blyden does 
make it tolerably clear that the true method with Africa is to 
train the missionary in a school under Negro teachers, and fire 
them, if possible, with an apostolic zeal. 

• ♦• 

Literature and Fiction. 

Development of English Literature and Language. By Alfred H. "Welsh, A.M. 
2 vols. Chicago : S. C. Griggs A. Co. London : Triibner & Co. 

The purpose of these two handsome volumes is to give a broad 
account of the causes that have produced our literature, and a 
critical estimate of its character. To do this well would be to 
accomplish a most important and difficult task, in which no one 
has yet succeeded. We have as yet no satisfactory history of 
English literature. Taine's work, brilliant as it is, is inaccurate 
in details and written entirely in the service of a pet theory. 
Henry Morley's "English Writers" was suspended fifteen years 
ago when it had been carried only as far as the fifteenth century, 
and has never since been resumed. Professor Ten Brink, of 
Strasburg, is now engaged on what promises to be by far the best 
history of our literature; but only the first volume has yet been 
published, and of this there is no English translation. There is, 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 193 

therefore, abundant room and need for such a book as Mr. Welsh 
has attempted. 

To write such a work calls not only for wide and accurate 
knowledge, but also for rare philosophical and critical ability. 
It must be said for the author of the volumes before us that he 
has an intelligent conception of the breadth and difficulties of 
his theme, and a carefully-considered method of treatment. In 
his introduction he lays down the general proposition that the 
character of a national literature is decided by the hereditary of 
race disposition of the writers ; by their surroundings, physical, 
social, political; and by their individuality or personal character. 
To these three causes he, indeed, adds a fourth, the " Epoch, or 
Spirit of the Age ; " but it seems plain enough that this is resolv- 
able into the other three, being only that condition of the gen- 
eral environment which obtains at any given time. A literature, 
then, being the product of these three factors — the Race, the En- 
vironment, the Person — it becomes necessary to show their com- 
bined action in literary growth, and, at the same time, to estimate 
their relative importance. In pursuance of such a plan, Mr. Welsh, 
after devoting two opening chapters to the formation of the En- 
glish character in its earliest history, begins every subsequent 
chapter with a somewhat detailed account of the religion, poli- 
tics, morals, and manners of the period covered by the chapter, 
with such reference to the writings of the period as may serve 
to show how the social peculiarities described found expression 
in literature. He then selects a few of the more important and 
typical writers of the time and gives to their life and work a 
fuller discussion, under the several headings, Biography, Writ- 
ing 8 * Style, Rank, Character, and Influence. 

The opening sections of each chapter, which describe the state 
of society at various epochs, are the most interesting and import- 
ant parts of the book. They evince wide reading and often con- 
tain much curious and valuable information. But they do not al- 
ways show a firm grasp of general causes. The author often fails 
to make clear the laws of which the social facts he has collected are 
the expression, or to show the bearing of those facts upon litera- 
ture. Sometimes, too, his collection of facts, though interesting 
as a picture of society, omits just those details most pertinent to 
his subject. In the discussion of the first half of the eighteenth 
century, for instance, we find nothing said of the decay of 
the sentiment of authority in politics which followed the revo- 
lution of '88 ; nothing of the rise of that shrewd middle class 

194 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

to whom political power was surely passing ; nothing of the por- 
tentous growth of the city of London and the forms of social life 
that accompanied that growth ; nothing of the secrecy of Parlia- 
mentary debates which made necessary some other means of 
reaching the public ear ; and nothing of the specific influence of 
French literary models. Yet these are just the causes which had 
most to do in determining the form and spirit of our literature 
under Anne and the first Georges. But after all deductions 
have been' made, these sections form a useful contribution to the 
history of English society. 

The remaining or critical sections seem to us not so valuable. 
The relation which the authors selected for detailed discussion 
bore to their age is often very imperfectly shown, even when, as 
in the case of Edmund Spenser, that relation is all-important. 
Nor does Mr. Welsh always succeed in giving a clear conception 
of the personality of his author. The copious citations from 
other critics are usually well chosen and valuable ; but his own 
criticism is vague, diffuse, and declamatory. It is never terse 
and incisive. It lacks originality and insight. The purely 
rhetorical criticism, in particular, is weak, the epithets grouped 
under the heading " Style " rarely having much descriptive 
value. It is, indeed, impossible to consider with any profit the 
"style" of a writer apart from those mental peculiarities of 
which it is the expression. That Longfellow's style is " simple, 
choice, musical, sincere, vitalized by sympathy," is true enough ; 
but, then, so is that of Whittier, Goldsmith, Burns, and half a 
hundred other English poets. In fact, these remarks upon style 
seem sometimes to have been written pretty nearly at random ; 
when the style of Cowper is characterized as " animated, vigor- 
ous, pointed," it would seem impossible that the epithets could 
have been deliberately chosen ; the style of Sidney is character- 
ized as " always flexible," but " sometimes cramped." 

Mr. Welsh seems sometimes to fall into mistakes from unac- 
quaintance with the latest authorities upon his subject. In 
the biographical sketch of Chaucer, for instance, there are in 
the first twenty-five lines seven different statements given as 
unquestioned matters of fact, every one of which has been 
shown, by recent study of Chaucer, to be either positively erro- 
neous or at best merely conjectural. Mr. Welsh seems to have 
read nothing on Chaucer later than the book of Harris Nicolas* 
Indeed, his reading in general, though wide, would seem to have 
been very indiscriminate. The rather pretentious list of nearly 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 195 

three hundred authorities which is placed at the beginning of his 
book is remarkable, indeed, for the omission of many of the ablest 
and best-known books on his subject in English, and the entire 
absence of all authorities in French and German. Elsewhere the 
errors of the author seem to be due to an indifference to details 
and an aim at fine writing. Thus we are told in one place that 
Sidney wrote the Area«lia "in the shelter of the forest oaks," 
and in another place that the Arcadia was written " in an old 
castle," as it certainly was not ; the careful student would be 
willing to exchange the rhetoric for a simple statement of the 
fact that the Arcadia was written at Wilton. Mr. Welsh makes 
Esther Johnson fifteen years old when Swift first met her; she 
was six or seven. He calls the other woman of Swift's romance 
Esther Vanhomrigh; her name was Hester. He says that De 
Foe, after having lost his ears in the pillory, retired from poli- 
tics in 1716, bankrupt, to devote his energies to fiction. Had he 
remembered any thing written on De Foe since 1869, he would 
have known that De Foe in 1716 was in politics deeper than 
ever, that he was far from bankrupt, and that he never lost his 
ears at all. These are minor errors, perhaps ; but they are just 
the kind of errors that a well-informed and careful writer would 
successfully avoid. 

The style of the book throughout is not eminently chaste. 
It is vague, diffuse, florid. Mr. Welsh does not say a plain thing 
in a plain way. His labored efforts after animation of manner 
lead him now into turgid declamation, now into ludicrous flip- 
pancy. This is the way by which the tedium of a discussion upon 
Hume is enlivened : " And now, Mr. Hume, we cannot refrain 
from wishing that along with your incisive intellect you possessed 
more heart and soul ; along with your self-reliant majesty more 
reverence and trust. . . . You carry in your bosom no sheaves 
of sunbeams, no carols of birds, no plaintive cadence of ^Eolian 
harp." Which is, doubtless, true. Perhaps, however, the most 
amusing of Mr. Welsh's rhetorical peculiarities is the habit he 
has of dropping now and then into exhortation rather odd than 
edifying. This is the way in which the life of good Joseph 
Addison is "improved": "You and I may not have much in- 
tellectual power, our thought may never fill the world's soul ; 
but if we have stimulated a generous wish or a noble aspiration, 
if we have even furnished a medium in which handsome things 
may be projected and performed ; if we have added one leaf to 
the tree of humanity, one blossom to its wealth of bloom, or aught 

196 Metlwflhi Quarterly Review. [January, 

to its harvest of fruit, we may rely upon the eternal law that 
neither things present nor things to come can deprive these out- 
going particles of their immortality." „ c. t. w. 

Alexander Pope. By Leslie Stephen. (Morley's series.) 16mo, pp. 207. New 
York: Harper & Brothers. 1880. 

It was said of Mr. Lincoln that he seemed to have a lower and a 
higher self; that in contemplating the former you could scarcely 
realize the latter; and the historic world has preferred, in the 
contemplation of the higher, to largely dismiss the reminiscences 
of the lower. The same double self close research finds, in some 
degree, in Pope; but Mr. Stephen, from some peculiarity of his 
nature, prefers to dwell mainly in the lower story, we might say 
in the down-cellar, of Pope's character and history. He never 
tires, however thoroughly his readers may, of vituperative epi- 
thets, (among which " liar " and " thief " are average specimens,) 
of depreciatory clauses, and of intentionally damning the great 
poet "with faint praise." And. all this, though patently Pope's 
errors were largely based in his physiological make, in his dwarfed 
frame, his sickly habit, and his tremulous nervous system. He 
is charged, and apparently proved, as being abundantly guilty of 
multiplied prevarications and dissimulations in his literary deal- 
ings. Within his professional line he garbled documents, denied 
the truth, and practiced frauds. And yet, as Mr. Stephens ad- 
mits, these under-cover practices so little affected his ordinary 
character or reputation that " he was the welcome companion of 
all the most eminent men of his time." Pope himself seemed to 
view these peccadilloes as mere parentheses in his moral charac- 
ter, of which he could easily absolve himself, and which left him 
free for the full feeling and expression of the loftiest sentiments 
and purest moralities of our nature. 

Pope had a desire to have his correspondence published without 
seeming to have done it himself. For the purpose of concealing 
from the public his own agency in the publication, he started a 
deceptive scheme. As the devil will often have it, one deception 
had to be covered with another, until a whole snarl of prevarica- 
tions had come into existence. Pope measurably succeeds, and 
finally enamels the whole over with a varnish of pseudo-morality. 
Over these effeminate hypocrisies for an effeminate purpose, Mr. 
Stephen parades a most magniloquent morality hardly less hypo- 
critical. "The most audacious hypocrite of fiction turns pale 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. ' 197 

at this." It " is altogether a picture to set fiction at defiance." 
That is, Iago inveigling his master to the murder of his own wife, 
Guy Falk conspiring to blow up Parliament, are white lambs 
compared to Pope intriguing to conceal his hand in the publica- 
tion of his own over-elegant epistles, and making believe they 
were purloined for the purpose ! 

Mr. Stephen does scant justice to the gr^at. genius of Pope, 
and that under the form, usually, of reluctant and piecemeal 
admissions. The poet's unsurpassed ability to clothe thought 
in lines of most perfect finish has made it seem easy to be 
done by any body ; and we have known versifiers of fifth-rate 
ability cherishing the idiocy that they " could write as good po- 
etry as Pope's." And yet, perhaps, Shakspeare alone has left so 
many masterstrokes of condensed thought, stereotyped by our 
constant quotation into proverbs, as Pope. 

Mr. Stephen's philosophy and theology are more inverted even 
than his literary and ethical criticism. The following great 
passage of Pope's he styles " frankly pantheistic " : 

All are but parts of one stupendous whole 
Whoso body nature is, and God the soul ; 
That changed through all and yet in all the same, 
Great in the earth as in the ethereal frame, 
Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, 
Glows in the star.-", and blossoms in the trees; 
Lives through all life, extends through all extent, 
Spreads undivided, operates unspent; 
Breathes in our soul, in forms our mortal part, 
As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart; 
As full, as perfect, in vile man that mourns 
As the rapt seraph that adores and burns; 
To Him, no high, no low, no great, no small, 
He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all 

Mr. Stephen's statement that this magnificent passage is "hardly 
orthodox" and "pantheistic" sadly exposes his incapacity for 
such subjects. The passage describes, in terms of wonderful 
truth and sublimity, the pervasive omnipotence of a personal 
Deity throughout all the objects and operations of nature ; and 
every line might be repeated from any orthodox pulpit in full 
accordance with sacred truth. Pope has left two lines in his 
poetry which, putting self -conceit for "pride," admirably describe 
the peculiarities of his biographer's case : 

Pride, where wit fails, steps in to our defense, 
And fills up ail the mighty void of sense. 

Fourth Sebibs, Vol. XXXV.— IS 

198 Methodist Quarterly lieview. [January, 

Preparatory Greek Course in English By "William Cleaver Wilkinson. 12m^ 
pp. 294. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Walden & Stowo. 1882. 

The writer gives frank credit to Dr. Vincent for the origination 
of the idea of this volume, as well as ample suggestions in its 
production; and the compliment might be reciprocated that he 
has filled out, and more than filled out, the programme with emi- 
nent ability and success. Its " aim " is to furnish to the popular 
reader a clear and full idea of what is going on in the " college 
course." But it well succeeds in accomplishing the further aim 
of furnishing to the young student, for himself, a clear idea of 
what he is going about. In former days, and we suspect down 
to the present day, the unfortunate candidate is obliged, very 
much, to go it blind. In the olden time his Latin grammar was 
put into his hands, then his manual of selections with dictionary, 
then his Virgil, and he plodded like a miner cutting a tunnel 
through a rock. A book like this would have thrown an illumi- 
nation around his path, revealing to him where he was, and what 
the surroundings of the route he was obliged to pursue. Mr. 
Wilkinson has done his work in the best manner, varying his style 
through a variety of changes, now cheerily colloquial, now run- 
ning an even level, and anon rising with graceful ease into a strain 
of lofty eloquence. The volume is first of a series. 

Character Sketches. Amaud — Macaulay — Klopstock and His Meta — Mary Som- 
erville — Madame De Slael— Voltaire — Channing— Wesley. By Abel Steveks, 
LL.D. 12mo, pp. 397. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1882. 

Several of these admirable sketches have already been published 
in our Quarterly. The remaining three have for their subject 
Voltaire, Channing, and Wesley. In some respects the Voltaire, 
whose life and character Dr. Stevens has evidently made a study, 
will be found not the least interesting. Upon Channing he is 
fresh, liberal, and graphic, blending general criticisms with per- 
sonal recollections. We need not say that upon Wesley he is at 
home; and no pen has done more to revolutionize public opinion 
to its present high estimate of him than this same Dr. Stevens. 

PoerAs. By Rev. Dwight Williams. 8vo, pp. 397. New York: Phillips & 
Hunt 1882. 

Readers who have been accustomed now and then to see a spir- 
ited poem peering out in the columns of our papers, by Mr. Will- 

1883 J Quarterly Book -Table. 199 

iams, will be glad to welcome them in complete volume. They 
will find a collection of the productions of a true poet on a rich 
variety of subjects, and in a brilliant variety of styles. 

TJie Power of the Invisible, and other Lectures and Addresses chiefly Educational 
and Baccalaureate. By Rev. H. A. Thompson, D.D., President of Otterbeiu 
University. 12mo, pp. 400. Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. 

The President of Otterbein has collected a volume of publio 
performances of his own before the students of his college, before 
various institutions, literary and religious, and one before the 
Ecumenical Assembly of Methodism! They are marked by the 
traits of high culture, elevated religious tone, and a large share 
of independent remark. The reader finds himself in communion 
with an elevated style of thought; and the volume will exert an 
efficient and beneficent influence on the public mind 


Final Causes. By Paul Janet. Member of the Institute, Professor at the Faculte" 
des Lettres of Paris. Translated from the Second Edition of the French by 
William Affleck, B.D. With Preface by Robert Flint, D.D., LL.D., Profes- 
sor of Divinity, University of Edinburgh. 8econd Edition. 8vo, pp. 520. 
Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1883. 

It is gratifying to know that a new issue of this able treatise is 
required. We have already given our opinion, which we here 
repeat, that it is a very effective refutation of the Agnosticism, 
alias Atheism, of the hour. 

The Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament Considered in Eiarht Lectures De- 
livered before the University of Oxford on the Bampton Foundation. By 
Thomas Dehany Bernard, M.A., of Exeter Collie, and Rector of Walcot 
12rao, pp. 258. New York: Robert Carter k Brothers. 1883. 

This fine volume we have noticed years ago, and are glad to wel- 
come its fresh issue. In a small compass it brings together a 
serie#of fresh views of the unity and progressive un foldings of 
the New Testament, expressed in a style of beautiful clearness 
and simplicity. It is timely as correcting the errors of an over- 
done method of so-called Biblical Theology which virtually de- 
nies that the New Testament is an organic book, and reduces it to 
a chance series of pamphlets floated together. 

200 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

Webster. An Ode. By William Ole vvbr Wilkinson. 1782-1852. Super-royal 
8 vo, pp. 122. Now York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

Daniel Webster was, with the single exception of Jonathan Ed- 
wards, the greatest intellect known in American history, a great 
statesman, and a great orator. But neither poetry or prose can 
undo the. fact that in the greatest moral battle of the century he 
was untrue in the most trying crisis to the cause of freedom and 
righteousness. Nothing, alas, can erase Whittier's " Ichabod." 

Harper's Young People 1882. Imperial 8vo, pp. 848. New York: Harper A 
Brothers. 1882. 

Mr. Stubbs 9 Brother. A Sequel to "Toby Tyler." By James Otis, Author of 
"Toby Tyler, " "Tim and Tip." etc. Illustrated by W. A. Rogers. 16rao, pp. 
283. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1883. 

Moravian Mvtsions. Twelve Lectures by Augustus C. Thompson, Author of " The 
Better Land," "Morning Hours in Paimos," "The Mercy 8eat > " etc Wmo, 
pp. 516. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

Harper's Illustrated Books this season are unsurpassed for splen- 
dor and value. Coffin's "Building of a Nation" we have else- 
where noticed. The following are sumptuous: 

Harpers' Christmas. Pictures and Papers done by the Tile Club and its Literary 
Friends. 32 pages, (page double the size of "Harpor's Weekly" page.) with 
Supplement presenting a two-page Engraving of Vcdder's powerful drawing — 
the head of the Youthful Samson. Price 75 cents. 

Travels in South Kensington. With Notes on Decorative Art and Architecture in 
Kn^land. By Moncure Daniel Conway, Author of "The Sacred Anthology," 
"The Wandering Jew," *• Thomas Carlyle," etc. Illustrated. 8vo f pp. 234. 
New York: Harper A Brothers. 1882. 

The Story of Vie Volunteer Fire Department of the City of New York. By George 
W. Sheldon. With 145 Illustrations. 8vo, pp. 575. New York: Harper* 
Brothers. 1882. 

Highways and Byways ; or Saunterings in New England. By William Hamilton 
Gibson, Author of "Pastoral Days." Illustrated. 4to, pp. 157. New York: 
Harper & Brothers. 1883. 

Selections from the Poetry of Robert Herrick. With Drawings. By Edwin A Ab- 
bey. 4to, pp. 188. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1882. 

The Land and the Book; or, Biblical Illustrations Drawn from the Manners and Cus- 
toms, the Scenes and Scenery, of the Holy Land, Ontral Palestine, and Phe- 
nicia. By William M. Thomson, D.D., Forty-five Years a Missionary in Syria 
aud Palestine. 130 Illustrations and Maps. 8vo, pp. 689. New York: Har- 
per & Brothers. 18S2. 

History of Annent Art. By Dr. Franz von Reber, Director of the Bavarian 
Royal and State Galleries of Paintings, Professor in the University and Poly- 
technic of Munich. Revised by the Author. Translated and Augtne^ed by 
Joseph Thacher Clarke. With 310 Illustrations, and a Glossary of Techni- 
cal Terms. Svo, pp. 482. New York: Harper A Brothers. 1882. 

The Boy Trnrelers in the Far Fast. Part Fourth. Adventures of Two Youths 
in a Journey to Egypt and the Holy Land. By Thomas W. Knox, Author of 
"The Young Ximr'ods," u Camp-Fire and Cotton -Field," "Overland Through 
Asia," "Underground," "John," "How to Travel," eta Illustrated. 8vo, 
pp.438. New York: Harper &, Brothers. 1883. 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 201 

A History of Wood Engraving. By George E. Woodberrt. Illustrated. 8vo, 
pp.221. New York : Harper & Brothers. 1883. 

The Friendships of Mary Russel Mitford, as Recorded in Letters from Her Liter- 
ary Correspondents. Edited by the Rev. A. G. L'Estrangb, Editor of "The 
Life of Mary Russel Mitford," and Author of "The Life of the Rev. W. Har- 
ness/' "The Village of Palaces," etc. 12mo, pp. 460. New York: Harper A 
Brothers. 1882. 

Knocking Round the Rockies. By Ernest Ingersoll. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. 218. 
New York: Harper & Brothers. 1883. 

A Compendious Dictionary of the ^French Language. (French-English, English- 
French-) Adapted from the Dictionaries of Prof. Alfred Elwall, followed by a 
List of the Principal Diverging Derivations. By Gustave Masson. Small 8 vo, 
pp.411. New York: Maomillan & Co. 1882. 

A Transplanted Rose. A Story of New York Society. 12rao, pp. 307. New 
York : Harper & Brothers. 1882. 

The Gospel According to Luke. Explained by Matthew B. Riddle, D.D., Profes- 
sor of New Testament Exegesis in the Theological Seminary at Hartford. Conu n 
Member of the New Testament Company of American Revisers. 12mo, pp. 
369. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

Shakespeare's History of King Henry the Sixtii. Part I. Edited, with Notes, by 
William J. Rolfe, A.M., Formerly Head Master of the High School, Cam- 
bridge, Mass, With Engravings. Small 8vo, pp. 161. New York: Harper k 
Brothers. 1882. 

Shakespeare's History of King Henry the Sixth. Part IL Edited, with Notes, by 
William J. Rolfe, A.M., Formerly Head Master of the High School, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. With Engravings. Small 8vo, pp. 183. New York: Harper & 
Brothers. 1882. 

Shakespeare's History of King ienrythe Sixth. Part III. Edited, with Notes, by 
William J. Rolfe. A.M., Formerly Head Master of the High School, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. With Engravings. Small 8vo, pp. 172. New York: Harper & 
Brothers. 1882. 

The Epistle to the Hebrews. With Introduction and Notes, by A. B. Davidson, 
M. A., LL.D., Professor of Hebrew, etc., in the New College, Edinburgh. 12mo, 
pp. 2G0. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1882. (Scribners.) 

The Westminster Confession of Faith. With Introduction and Notes by Rev. John 
Macpherson, M.A., Findhorn. 12mo, pp. 171. Edinburgh; T. & T. Clark. 
1881. (Scribnors.) 

Ttie Church By William Binnie, D.D m Professor of Church History, Free 
Church College, Aberdeen, Author of "Treatise on the Psalms, their History, 
Teachings, and Use." 12mo, pp. 152. Ediuburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1882. 

The Work of the Holy Spirit in Man. Discourses by G. Topiiel, Pastor of the 
, Evangelical Church, Geneva. Translated from the French, (Third Edition.) by 
Permission of the Author. By Rev. Thomas J. Despres. 12rao, pp. 118. Edin- 
burgh : T. A T. Chirk. 1882. (Scribners.) 

Love for Sv>th. By Rev. William Scribner, Author of "Pray for the Holy 
Spirit," "The Saviour's Converts," etc 12mo, pp. 103. Now York: Charles 
Scribners Sons. 1882. 

The Reformation. By T. M. Lindsay, M.A., D.D., Professor of Divir ity and 
Church H story. Free Church College, Glasgow. 12mo, pp. 214. Edinburgh: 
T. & T. Clark. 1882. (Scribners.) 

The Book of Genesis. With Introduction and Notes, by Marcus Dods, D.D. 
12mo, pp. 202. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1882. (Scribnors.) 

202 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

The Acts of the Apostles. Explained by J. S. Howson, D.D., Dean of Chester, and 
H. D. M. JSpence, M. A., Vicar aud Rural Dean of St Paucras, London. 12mo, 
pp. 420. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

Critical and Exegetical Commentary on (he New Testament By Heinrich August 
Wllhelm Meyer, Tn.D., ObercouBistorialrath, Hannover. From the German, 
with the sauctiou of the Author. The Epistles of James and John. By Dr. 
J. E. Hunter. 8vo. pp. 528. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1882. (Scribners.) 

Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Neto Testament By Heinrich August 
Wilhelm Meyer, Th.D., Oberconsistorialrath, Hannover. From the German, 
witli the sauction of the Author. The Episilo to the Hebrews. By Dr. Gott- 
lieb Luxemann. 8vo, pp. 495. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1882. (Scribners.) 

Biblical scholars will welcome these two volumes in continuation 
of Meyer by Hunter and Lunemann. We doubt they would 
generally desire the completion of the great work with Duster* 
dieck's Apocalypse. 

Christian Etliics. SpecM Part Second Division: Social Ethic*. By Dr. H. 
Marteksen, Bishop of Seeland. Translated from the Author's German Edition 
by Sophia Taylor. 8vo, pp. 384. Edinburgh : T. A T. Clark. 1882. (Scribners.) 

We note in this volume the same characteristics as in the for- 
mer: a great skill in applying the principles of ethics to practi- 
cal life. 

Franklin Square Library: Lcrna Doone, a Romance of Exmoor. By R. D. 
Blackmore, Author of "Crndock Nowell," "Maid of Sker," u Alice Lorraine/' 
etc. 8vo. pp. 280. Heaps of Money. A Novel. By W. E. Norris. Price 15 
cents. Cicil StiTice in Great Britain. A History of Abuses and Reforms and 
their Bearing upon American Politics. By Dorm an B. Eaton. Price 25 cents. 
Egypt Under it* Khedives; or, the Old House of Bondage under New Masters. 
By Kdwin De Leon. With Illustrations. Price 20 cents. The Constitutional 
History of England from 1760 to 1860. By Charles D. Yonge. Price 25 cents. 
The Making of England. By John Richard Green, M.A., LL.D. With Maps. 
Price 20 cents. Quits at Last An Account in Seven Items. By R. E. Fran- 
OTLLON, Author of "Earl's Dene," etc. Pp. 39. No Proof. A Novel. By 
Miss Altcb O'Hanlan. Pp. 70. Daisies and Buttercups. By Mrs. J. H. Rid- 
dell. Pp. 95. The Great Diamonds of the World, their History and Romance. 
By Edwin W. Streeter. Edited and Annotated by Joseph Hatton and A. H. 
Keank. Pp. 46. Flovjer and Weed. By Miss M. E. Braddon. Pp. 28. Of 
High Degree. A Story. By Charles Gibbon. Pp. 68. The Friendships of 
Mary Russtl Mitford, as Recorded in Letters from Her Literary Correspondents. 
Edited by the Rev. A. G. L'Kstrange. Pp. 119. Vol Strange. A Story of 
the Primrose Way. By David Christie Murray, Author of *• A Life's Atone- 
ment," etc. Pp. 75. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1882. 

The Senior Lesson Book, (Berean Series No. 1,) on the International Lessons for 
1883. 16mo, pp. 208. New York: Phillips & Hunt 1883. 

The Berean Question Book, (Berean Series No. 2,) on the International Lessons for 
1883. 16mo, pp. 204. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1883. 

The Berean Beginners Booh, (Berean Series No. 3,) on the International Lessons 
for 1883. l*6mo, pp. 203. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1883. 

Tlie Lesson Commentary on the International Lessons for 1883. By Rev. John H. 
Vincent, DD., and Rev. J. L. Hurlbut, M.A. 8vo, pp. 312. New York: 
Phillips & Hunt 1883. 

Eras and Characters of History. By William R. Williams. 12mo f pp. 286. 
New York : Harper <fe Brothers. 1882. 

1883.] Quarterly Boole -Table. 203 

Science and Sentiment With other Papers, Chiefly Philosophical. By Noah 
Porter, D.D., LL.D., President of Yale College. 8vo, pp. 506. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

The New Testament in the Original Greek. The Text Revised by Brooke Foss 
Westcott, D.D., Canon of Peterborough and Regius Professor of Divinity, 
Cambridge, and Fenton John Anthony Hort, D.D., Hulsean Professor of 
Divinity, Cambridge American Editon, with an Introduction by Philip 
Schaff, D.D., LL.D.. Professor in ihe Union Theological Seminaiy. New York, 
President of the American Bible Revision Committee. 8vo, pp. 539. New 
York: Harper* Brothers. 1882. " 

The True Story of John Smytii, Vie Se-Baptist, as Told by Himself and His Con- 
temporaries; with an Inquiry Whether Dipping were a New Modo of Baptism 
in England in or about 1641; and Some Consideration of the Historical Value 
of Certain Extracts from the Alleged "Ancient Records" of the Baptist Church 
of Epworth, Crowle, and Bntterwick, (Eng.,) Lately Published aud Claimed to 
Suggest Important Modifications of the History of the Seventeenth Century. 
By Henry Martyn Dexter. Super-royal 8vo, pp. 106. Boston: Lee & Shep- 
ard. 1881. 

Three Successful Lives. Two Illustrations. 16mo, pp. 180. New York : Phillips 
6 Hunt 1882. 

Life of Captain John Smith, First Planter of Virginia. By Charles K. True, 
D.D., Author of "John Wiuthrop and the Great Colony," "Elements of Logic," 
eic Two Illustrations. 16mo, pp. 267. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1882. 

Boys and Girls. Two Illustrations. 16mo, pp. 190. New York: Phillips & 
Hunt 1882. 

The School at Berehwood Two Illustrations. By the Author of " Agnes Mor- 
ton's Trial," " Our Western Home," "Twenty-five Cents," etc. 16mo, pp. 156. 
New York: Phillips k Hunt. 1882. 

New Games for Parlor and Lawn, with a Few Old Friends in a New Dress. 16mo, 
pp.227. Now York : Harper & Brothers. 1882. 

Diddie, Dumps, and Tot; or, Plantation Child- life. By Louise Clarke Pyrnellb- 
Illustrated. Small 8 vo, pp. 217. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1882. 

Macaulay. By J. Cotter Morison. 12mo, pp. 183. New York: Harper A 
Brothers. 1883. 

Charles Lamb. By Alfred Ainger. 12mo, pp. 182. New York: Harper & 
Brothers. 1882. 

Sterne. By H. D. Traill. 12mo, pp. 173. New York: Harper & Brothers. 

Gray. By Edmund W. Gosse. 12mo, pp. 223. New York: Harper & Brothers. 

SunfL By Leslie Stephen. 12mo, pp. 205. New York: Harper A Brothers. 

Mildred's Bargain and Other Stories. By Lucy 0. Lillie, Author of " Prudence." 
Illustrated. 16mo, pp. 231. New York: Harper and Brothers. 1883. 

Amusements in the Light of Reason, History, and Revelation. By Rev. S. M. Ver- 
non, D.D. 16mo, pp. 153. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1882. 

The Faiths of the World St. Giles 1 Lectures. 12mo, pp. 364. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. 

204 Methodist Quarterly Review. [January, 

Ten Years of Self- Supporting Missions in Indict. By William Taylor. Printed 
for tho Author. 12mo, pp. 480. New York: Phil ips & Hunt. 1882. 

A Short History of Vie Kingdom of Ireland, from the Earliest Times to the Union 
of Great Britain, with live Maps and Appendixes. By Charles Geokge Wal- 
pole, M.A. 12mo, pp. 423. New York: Harper A Brothers. 1882. 

A New, Easy, and Complete Hebrew Course, Containing a Hebrew Grammar, with 
Copious Hebrew and English Exercises, Strictly Graduated; also a Hebrew- 
English and an English- Hebrew Lexicon, Designed for the Purpose of Self-In- 
struction, as well as for Use in Schools and Colleges. By the late Rev. T. Bow- 
man, M.A., Cli(\#, Bristol. In Two Parts. Part II. Irregular Verbs, etc. 
8vo, pp. 423. Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark. 1882. 

A Popular Commentary on the New Testament By English and American Scholars 
of Various Evangelical Denominations. With Illustrations and Maps. Edited 
by Philip Scuaff, D.D., LL.P., Professor of Sacred Literature in the Union 
Theological Seminary, New York. Vol. III. The Epistles of St. Paul. 8vo, 
pp. G28. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Edinburgh: T. A T. Clark. 



Of this sumptuous work the Maps and Plans are furnished by 
Prof. Guyot, of Princeton; the Illustrations by Thomson, author 
of " The Land and the Book." Among the commentators the 
three Epistles of John are to be annotated by Dr. William B. 
Pope and Prof. Moulton, of Cambridge; and the Apocalypse by 
Prof. Milligan and Prof. Moulton, 

* ■ 

Notices of the following books postponed to the next Quar- 

The Human Mind. By Hamilton. Prom the Carters. 

Dr. IM y s Geometry and Faith. Lee & Shepard. 
Lenormant 's Beginnings of History. Scribners. 



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Quarterly Review. 

APRIL, 1883. 


At about eight o'clock on a Sunday morning, in May, 1832, 
I stood in a huddled group of impatient men and women 
in front of the old St. George's Methodist Church, on 
Fourth-street, below .New, in Philadelphia, waiting for the 
doors of the quaint edifice to be opened. By nine o'clock the 
crowd was numbered by hundreds, and thronged the street, 
and when at last the doors were opened the rush that followed 
was fearful. Within a few minutes every seat in the house 
was taken ; the passages, and even windows, were filled by 
people of all sorts and conditions, who sat or stood two hours 
longer, awaiting the beginning of the service at eleven o'clock. 
The preacher had to enter the church through a window at 
the back by the help of a ladder, and found no small trouble 
in edging his way through the chancel and up the pulpit steps, 
so dense was the throng. As he stood to give out the hymn, 
the breathless multitude looked upon one of the handsomest 
men that ever trod this continent. Had he lived in Greece, 
Phidias might have wrought hi B form, face, and head into 
marble, and called it Apollo. That preacher was Henry Bidle- 
man Bascom, then thirty-six years of age, in the prime of his 
manly beauty, intellectual vigor, and extraordinary eloquence, 
the most conspicuous preacher in the General Conference of 
the Methodist Church, at that time sitting in Philadelphia, and 
Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 14 

206 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

filling a larger space in the public eye than any other in the 
country. I was only in my ninth year, yet cannot forget, after 
half a century, the impression made by his supreme beauty 
and transcendent power. 

He was the son of Alpheus and Hannah Houk Bascom, born 
on the 27th of May, 1796, in the town of Hancock, Delaware 
County, N. Y., two miles from what is now the village of Che- 
hocton, on the New York and Erie Railway. On the father's 
side his blood was Huguenot French, intermixed with the Puri- 
tan of England and New England ; on his mother's it was Ger- 
man. The wilderness was his school-house, poverty and hard- 
ship his course of study, and adversity the head-master, whose 
lessons he had to con and floggings to endure for most of his 
life. He learned to read and write, and had a little instruction 
in the beginning of an English education, before his twelfth 
year, but the next time he stepped into an academy was as a 

Although sober, industrious, and virtuous, his father never 
was beforehand with the world, except in matter of wives, of 
whom three fell to his lot, and of children, in which species 
of wealth he was equal of the patriarch Jacob, for twelve were 
bom in his house, of whom Henry was the secondT From the 
picturesque banks of the Delaware, where his boyhood was 
passed, he removed, with his father's family, to Little Valley, 
in southwestern New York, in 1808, and had a yet sharper ex- 
perience of the frontier of civilization, for the Seneca Indians 
were still the lords of the soil and there were few whites in 
the district. When fourteen years old he was converted to 
the faith of Christ, in the next year joined the Methodist 
Church, and soon after began to take part in religious meet- 
ings, exhorting the people to flee from the wrath to come and 
to lay hold on eternal life. Soon after this the family made 
another move toward the setting sun, and at last found a resting- 
place five miles north of Maysville, Ky. — then called Lime- 
stone — in the State of Ohio. He had worked upon the farm, 
bored logs, made pumps, was a drayman, & hewer of wood, a 
rail splitter, in short, had turned his hand, with his whole 
might, to whatever kind of labor offered, meanwhile snatch- 
ing the brief hours of rest he could get to be used, with still 
greater energy, in committing to the unrelaxing grasp of his 

1883,] Henry B. Baseom. 207 

memory the contents of what few books fell in his way, and 
in using his gift to warn and counsel his fellow men. He be- 
lieved himself called to be an embassador for God, in Christ's 
stead, to beseech men to be reconciled to him, and burned 
with a quenchless ardor to be • about his Master's work. 
When sixteen years old he felled the trees and made rails for 
twenty-five cents per hundred, and thus earned the money to 
equip himself as a recruit in the forlorn hope of backwoods 
preachers, and set out from his father's house, in September, 
1812, for the session of the Ohio Conference, held at Chillicothe. 
He there saw and heard the venerable and sagacious Bishop As- 
btfry, and also the great and wise Bishop M'Kendree, then in 
the flower of his age and the meridian of his power, whose 
weighty and burning words, reinforced, .as they were, by the sin- 
gleness and loftiness of their aims and motives, wrought might- 
ily in his sensitive spirit, and gave an unchanging form to his 
character. A first attendance at the session of an Annual Con- 
ference, to a young candidate for holy orders, is a memorable 
experience. The order of business ; the grave and dignified 
presidency of the Bishops ; the striking individuality, physiog- 
nomy, and impressive voices of the men who take the principal 
parts in the proceedings; the sermons; the prayers; the singing; 
the experiences given in the " love-feast ; " the meetings around 
hospitable boards ; the stories of adventure, perils, humor, and 
fun ; the intimate fellowship ; the esprit du corps, such as reigns 
in no other body of men I have known, give it a power to sub- 
due and discipline, yet to kindle and inspire, that can hardly 
elsewhere be found. The consummation is reached when the 
parliamentary business is completed, the journal read, and one 
of the oldest members gives out the hymn beginning — 

And let our bodies part, 

To different climes repair; 
Inseparably joined in heart 

The friends of Jesus 

that hymn sung by a hundred and fifty men or more, whose 
homes and those of their families, their spheres of labor, with 
circumstances of privation, exposure, toil, poverty, perhaps of 
suffering and death, are unknown to them, but are presently 
to be announced by the venerable Bishop ; then follows the 
tremulous, fervent, pathetic, spiritual prayer of the aged serv- 

208 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

ant of God, during which tears flow freely, sobs and amens 
are heard, and then, in the breathless silence, the Bishop stands, 
and, in a voice betraying deep emotion, tells them that, in the 
exercise of his great power, he has humbly sought the help 
and guidance of Christ; that in the places to which he is 
sending them, they may have many a peril and many a sorrow ; 
that they may be cold and hungry, scoffed'and hissed at, weary 
and heavy laden ; that probably they will not all meet again 
on earth ; that whoever falls must fall at his post with his 
face Zionward ; and then, exhorting them to endure hardness 
as good soldiers, he promises the hidden but sufficient cheer 
and support and eternal blessing of the Great Head of the 
Church — "And now, brethren, I commend you to God and to 
the word of his grace, which is able to build you up and to give 
you an inheritance among them which are sanctified," "an 
inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away." 
His address ended, he slowly reads the name of each District, 
8tation, Circuit, and the men appointed to them. I have wit- 
nessed many a scene of deep dramatic interest, where nerves 
and brain were thrilled and the heart almost stood still, but 
none which, in breathless emotion, intense, almost tragic, feel- 
ing, and high heroic aspect, compare with the closing scenes of 
a Western Conference in the early days, when hundreds of 
men heard their fate from the lips of one man, and took their 
lives in their hands to obey his behest, loyally believing him 
to be, for them and theirs, the mouth of God's great Provi- 
dence. One can easily imagine the effect of such a scene, and 
the influences which led up to it, upon an imaginative, sensi- 
tive, sympathetic nature like Bascom's. That session of the 
Conference, for him, was more than equal in value to a year's 
schooling, and he returned to his father's log cabin with im- 
pulse, courage, zeal, and devotion quickened as by the baptism 
of the Holy Ghost. His unworldliness and purity of spirit 
can scarce be questioned when it is remembered what the 
work was to be and its earthly wages. The salary of the 
Bishops was eighty dollars a year, and their annual journeys 
on horseback took them from the St. Lawrence to the Savan- 
nah and Tallapoosa, from the shores of the Atlantic, over the 
mountains, through cane-brake, forest, prairie, and swamp, to 
the banks of the Mississippi and Missouri; their saddle-bags 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 209 

containing wardrobe and library ; their wearing apparel cop- 
peras or madder dyed homespun; their fare often parched 
corn and jerked venison or baked 'possum ; their bed some- 
times the bare earth or a hollow log, in winter as well as sum- 
mer. If such were the life and labors of the Bishops, what 
had the rank and file to expect but unremunerated toil, penury, 
hardship, suffering, and probably an early death? And to 
what end were this heroic courage and fortitude dedicated, if 
not that they might preach Christ, " warning every man and 
teaching every man in all wisdom, that they might present 
every man perfect in Christ Jesus." " Whereunto they also 
labored, striving according to his working, which wrought in 
them mightily." 

In February, 1813, Bascom received license to preach, and 
was appointed by the presiding elder, the excellent James 
Quinn, of blessed memory, as " helper " on Brush Creek Cir- 
cuit, which lay in several counties up and down and back of 
the Ohio River, and in the following autumn was received on 
trial in the Ohio Conference. At that day a Presiding Elder's 
District in the "West covered as wide a territory as is now in- 
cluded in several Conferences : the larger part of Indiana, the 
whole of Illinois, and the whole of Missouri were in single 
circuits. The last war with Great Britain was raging; the 
Indians on the western border were in arms against our 
people, and preachers had to face the peculiar dangers and en- 
dure the especial hardships of the times. Bascom's zeal and 
devotion were equal to every demand upon them. He de- 
voured whatever books came in his way, mastered and retained 
their contents ; preached once or twice, sometimes thrice, al- 
most every day ; met the classes ; visited the sick ; had long 
rides, sometimes perilous ones, through unbroken forests as 
well as in the open ; fared and slept hard ; " was instant in 
season and out of season," and made full proof of his ministry. 
As Chillicothe, the capital of Ohio, was in his first circuit, it 
offered him rare advantages, better society, and more books 
than he had before seen, and he eagerly appropriated them. 
His yearning for all kinds of knowledge was passionate, insa- 
tiable. Never did a youth more earnestly redeem the time 
from sloth and self-indulgence by the ransom of sleepless vig- 
ilance, shrewd observation, patient and unremitting study, and 

210 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

untiring efforts to improve and educate himself in every part 
and in all directions. He read while in the saddle on his long, 
hard rides, or, seated at the foot of a tree, where a panther 
might be lurking for a deadly spring, (as, indeed, was onee the 
case, when he was saved from the fierce creature's teeth and 
claws by the timely ball of a hunter's rifle, the monster falling 
dead at his feet;) in the cabin homes of his parishioners, 
where the single room served as kitchen, laundry, nursery, 
diningroom, bedroom, for the family and their guests, and 
sometimes, also, as kennel and poultry yard, with the scolding 
wife, grumbling husband, squalling children, growling curs, 
and clucking hens, to furnish a musical accompaniment to his 
studious researches, or when the rest were locked in sleep, he, 
lying on the ample hearth, pursuing his studies far into the 
night by the flickering light of a pine-knot stuck in a corner 
of the chimney. Knowledge thus gained is sure to be valued 
and converted into the reproductive grain by which a man may 
live. Brave as the boldest frontiersman who ever fought 
with crafty savages, he was yet shy, self -distrustf ul, and sensi- 
tive as a timid girl ; and, seeking to hide his quivering sensibili- 
ties and tremulous, almost morbid, modesty from the common 
gaze, he covered himself with a mantle of reserve, which was 
thought, by common observers, to be one of haughty pride. 
Cast in nature's finest mold, " ruddy and well-favored," with 
buoyant step, grace in every motion, erect and dauntless in 
carriage, every feature of the face perfect, his head covered 
by a wealth of curly, dark hair, a study for the artist, the light 
of intense feeling and .fiery genius in his glorious eye, which 
looked straight at and through you, it is not strange that he 
should be misunderstood and misinterpreted by the mass of 
men about him. Silent among strangers; without command 
of the commonplace nothings of ordinary talk ; hating gossip 
and scandal ; wholly free from the spirit of fault-finding and 
backbiting sometimes called criticism ; speaking, when he had 
anything to say, in a prompt, decisive, sometimes impetuous, 
way, the emphasis of his utterance increased by his shrinking 
diffidence, and, withal, an uncompromising adherence to truth 
and a fearless honesty — all these qualities helped to throw 
him out of the pale of instant recognition and easy familiarity. 
Rarely, therefore, has it happened that so sweet, tender, mag- 


1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 211 

nanimous, princely a nature as his has been so generally mis- 
construed, oppressed, and, at times, almost crushed. His 
brilliant genius, too— a genius, which laid under contribution 
the thoughts of other men, assimilated and reproduced theni> 
bearing the impress of his striking individuality, and sent 
them into wide circulation as* glittering yet precious coin, but 
totally different from the mintage of other men — served to in- 
crease the distance betwixt himself and them. 

It was resolved by the authorities to put Bascom's mettle to 
the proof, and he was sent to Guyandotte Circuit, in West 
Virginia, pleasantly styled the Botany Bay of the Conference, 
as rough a part of the country, at that day, as any preacher has 
ever been sent to work in. To (guyandotte he went without 
a murmur, and within nine months preached four hundred 
times, rode through that wild, sometimes trackless, almost im- 
passable mountain district, three thousand miles, battling with 
the elements, sleeping in hollow logs, chased by wolves, fight- 
ing with a bear, swimming mountain torrents, living on " hog 
and hominy ,* " dogger and bear meat," and received for his 
year's work twelve dollars and ten cents. This is what he 
said in a letter to a friend, at the close of that year : 

But none of these things move me. T possess a settled con- 
sciousness that I did not engage in the ministry to accumulate 
wealth, and when I meet with trials and disparagements I am 
not at all disappointed, but meet with firmness what I had an- 
ticipated, not with fear. I can get, as soon as I please, five 
hundred per annum for my services ; but no, I'll travel, and try 
to possess the spirit of goodness and universal benevolence ; and, 
while I feel animating fires in my veins, I'll preach His Gospel 
who gave me power to preach. 

He was now entitled to be admitted into the Conference as a 
member, and to receive deacon's orders. His character was 
blameless, his conduct irreproachable, his industry unremitting 
in eveiy part of his duty, and his devotion to his Master's 
work supreme ; but a vote of the Conference refused to admit 
and grant him orders I 

The Minutes for that year state that Henry B. Bascom 
was continued on trial. The next year he was sent to the Mad 
River Circuit, which was bounded on one side by the Indian 
country. The savages had not yet slaked their thirst for 
blood, and a house in which he stayed for a night was assaulted 

212 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

by them, but was so well built and guarded that their attack 
was fruitless. As he rode off the next day, he found himself 
pursued by the red men, but, as he was on a powerful horse, 
he managed to keep well ahead, but soon came in sight of the 
Great Miami River, full and covered with floating ice. Ajs he 
paused the Indians raised an exulting shout, for their prey 
now seemed within their grasp. He spurred his horse, plunged 
boldly into the rushing torrent, steered as well as he might 
amidst the floating ice, and gained the other shore just as the 
savages reached the one he had left. They dared not venture 
into the roaring flood, contented themselves with impotent 
yells and brandishing their tomahawks. His dripping clothes 
were soon changed into a mail of ice, and he was in danger of 
freezing. Emptying the water from his saddle bags and boots, 
wringing his stockings, he mounted again, and, after a long 
ride, reached a friendly house, where he was soon re-clothed 
and comforted. Going to bed early, after the fatigue and ex- 
citement of the day, his deep, sweet sleep was soon disturbed 
by the information that the accouchement of the lady of the 
house was at hand, and the request that he would go in search 
of a nurse and doctor, and find himself another place to sleep. 
Twenty years later, at the close of a service where he had 
preached, a young lady was introduced to him, who begged his 
pardon for having robbed him of a night's sleep after a trying 
day. Somewhat startled by the statement, he was endeavoring 
to recall where and how, when she laughingly informed him 
that it was her advent in this sphere that made the finale of 
that day's experience. 

Another year's hard work was done, and faithfully done, yet 
his brethren doubted if he were worthy to become a member 
of the Conference and ordained a deacon. Some light may be 
shed on the problem by this incident : An old layman, who was 
really much attached to Bascom, was, nevertheless, grieved to 
the core by what seemed his conformity to the world in the 
matter of dress, and that conformity argued a very low state 
of piety. "Henry, my boy," he said, in a half admonitory 
half pathetic tone, " what makes you such a dandy — why don't 
you try to be and look like a Methodist preacher? You dress 
and carry yourself in such a way that many of your brethren 
think you've got no religion." " My dear brother," answered 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 213 

Bascom, meekly, " my pay is so poor that I am obliged to wear 
what clothes are given me, and if I happen to look well in 
them I can't help it ; God made me what I am." " Yes, you 
can help it," ^d the old man, with some warmth, " and you 
must help it. I'll cure the matter. Will you wear a suit of 
clothes that I'll have made for you ? " " Gladly," said Bas- 
com. " All right," said his old friend, " I'll make you look 
like a Methodist preacher ^ the clothes shall be ready for you 
when you come around the next time to attend the camp-meet- 
ing." A month later, Bascom reached the camp ground, and 
his old friend was ready for him ; taking liim out into the 
woods, he said, exulting, " Strip off those foppish clothes and 
put on these, and, for once in your life, you will look like a 
minister." Bascom stepped aside, arrayed himself in the 
new garments, while the old man rubbed his hands and 
chuckled with glee at the prospect of beholding his protege in 
orthodox parsonic gear. The deformed, transformed Bascom 
stepped forth, his fine person attired in a suit of blue jeans, 
the waistcoat buttoned straight to the throat, the coat a genuine 
Quaker " shad belly," something like an English bishop's. As 
the old man saw him approaching with elastic step, in his 
radiant beauty,* he started up aghast, could scarce trust the 
testimony of his eyes, advanced, turned Bascom round and 
round, retired a few paces, surveyed him from every point of 
view, and, with a discomforted expression and dolorous tone, 
exclaimed, " Henry, there's no doing anything with you ; you're 
a born fop ; you look a hundred times more like a dandy than 
you ever did before." What could be done with a man who 
was so becoming in whatever he wore, who looked like a court- 
ier or prince even in homespun ! 

When Bishop M'Kendree saw that a majority of the Con- 
ference had resolved to keep Bascom still on trial, he said, 
" Give that boy to me, admit and elect him to deacon's orders, 
and I will take care of him." Bascom was transferred to the 
Tennessee Conference, and appointed to the Danville Circuit, 
in Kentucky. Year after year he wrought and studied with 

• So impressive were his presence and bearing, even in bis latest years, that, as 
he walked the streets of Lexington, where he was as well knjown as was Henry Clay, 
it was the habit of those who saw him oftenest, as well as strangers, men, women, 
and children, white and black, to pause as he passed, turn round and gaze upon 
bis receding figure. 

214 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

untiring patience and fidelity, his reputation as a wonderful 
preacher growing apace,' but still distrusted by many of his 
brethren, and this was the case even down to the close of his 
life. He and I happened to stop together at the Planters' 
House, St. Louis, in May, 1850, during the General Conference 
at which he was made a Bishop. I vividly remember the 
nights when we were left alone, how he paced the floor, some- 
times in excitement, sometimes in anguish, and told the puerile 
stories that were repeated to his discredit, whispered to him, 
in strictest confidence of course, by condoling friends of the 
Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar types: how he sported a gold- 
headed cane, (which had been given him ;) how he looked 
proud and vain and worldly ; how he carried himself like a fine 
gentleman, and courted the world's applause by his brilliant 
rhetoric and stagey airs, and how all these things unfitted him 
to be a Methodist Bishop. Gadflies can torture and madden a 
blooded horse ; and these petty persecutions caused the sensi- 
tive Bascom an amount and quality of suffering, throughout 
his whole public career, which it would be difficult to describe or 
measure. Even two of the older Bishops doubted the expedi- 
ency of elevating him to the bench, influenced, without ques- 
tion, in part at least, by the same petty feelings. The man was 
blameless in his walk and conversation ; once only was a rumor 
breathed against him affecting his reputation as a gentleman 
and Christian minister — of that I shall speak later. I have 
rarely known a man so sweet and tender in his feelings, so 
modest, even diffident, in self estimate ; or one more just and 
kind in his recognition and appreciation of others. When his 
fame and influence grew great, he was the fast friend of the 
young and obscure, tolerant of defects, hearty in encourage- 
ment, liberal in every kind of help he could afford to those 
who were struggling toward excellence. Many a young preach- 
er has he striven to shield from the buffets and scorns of which 
he himself had such bitter experience. His judgments of men 
always leaned to mercy's side, and he seldom failed to put the 
best construction possible upon men's motives and conduct, es- 
pecially if they were unfortunate and aspersed. His filial 
piety and deep interest in the welfare of his brothers and sis- 
ters brought him an increase of care and distress. As his 
father advanced in years, although children multiplied under 

1883.1 Henry B. Basoom. 215 

his roof 9 there was no improvement in his financial affairs ; on 
the contrary, they grew more embarrassed. Whithersoever he 
went, and however hard his own lot might be, Bascom's heart 
never forsook his father's home, but was full of brooding con- 
cern for the welfare of its inmates. What spare time he could 
get was spent by him in striving to promote the comfort of the 
family, laboring, as of yore, at the plow handles, with the ax, 
the scythe, or flail, bringing the larger part of his slender sti- 
pend to the family chest, and busying himself, in every possible 
way, to further the education of his brothers and sisters, and, 
in later years, that of their children. When he came to be a 
college professor and th§ most popular preacher in the United 
States, he was accustomed to spend his vacations with his f ather^ 
and' would return from a tour in the Eastern cities, where 
thousands hung enchanted on his lips, and in return offered 
him the Circean cup of applause and flattery, "with many 
murmurs mixed," to assist in the harvest of his father's crops, 
and, with his own hands, to cut and haul the wood for the 
winter's fires. I believe that he never seriously entertained 
the thought of marriage for himself, until his brothers and 
sisters were settled or started in life in the best way his provi- 
dence could compass. When his beloved mother died, he was 
kneeling by her bedside, her hand clasped in his, and her last 
whisper was in his ear. When his father passed away, he was 
again kneeling by that bed, cheering the departing soul with 
God's gracious promises, administering the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, and, as the old man breathed his last, the loyal- 
hearted son laid his head upon the same pillow and gave vent 
to his over-burdened breast in a flood of tears. While he was 
yet a young preacher, traveling the hardest circuit in the Con- 
nection, one of his sisters died and bequeathed to him her two 
children ; he accepted the trust and religiously performed its 
duties, providing for their education and settlement in life. 
The scanty pittance he received, year after year, from the 
Church, was unequal to these demands, and, as the calls upon 
him grew more importunate, to save his family from beggary 
or dishonor he fell into debt: that gulf profound wherein 
he floundered and knew no escape. This misery began as 
early as 1814, and, although he had no gift for making or 
taking care of money, yet the anguish he suffered from the 

216 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

want of it, amounting, at times, almost to the bitterness of 
death, was not caused by extravagance or self-indulgence. 
Here is a sample of the letters he had from home. His father, 
writing in 1825, said, " My corn is light ; what little remained 
of our wheat crop the weevils have destroyed ; my potatoes 
are barely the seed, and poverty crowds on every side." And 
this is what Bascom said in 1827 : " My father is alarmingly in- 
firm this spring. On this subject I tremble between hope and 
fear. I am quite fixed in my purpose to locate this fall. I am 
compelled to do it, and can hesitate no longer. I do not believe 
it is my duty to suffer, even to disgrace, in order to remain in 
the traveling connection. My situation is getting worse every 
day — the interest of the money I owe exceeds my income, and 
my correspondence costs me one hundred and thirty dollars a 
year.* My clothes are worn out, and I have not the means to 
replace them. What better can I do than retire from an un- 
equal contest ? I should like to remain in the traveling con- 
nection, but I am fatally doomed, after fourteen years of toil, 
like Cowper's stricken deer, to seek the shade and try to re- 
cover from my wounds." 

A list of the books he read, if it could be had, would prove of 
great interest, as showing his diet, and what came of it in the 
way of mental fiber. You see him in these early days with 
Beattie on "Truth " and Blair's " Sermons" often in hand, and 
I suppose thoroughly in the memory. There is internal evi- 
dence, too, that the labored antithesis and the verbose efflores- 
cence of Dr. Samuel Johnson's style had a fascination for him. 
Devouring greedily all books that came in his way, and through 
the alchemy of his memory making their contents a part of him- 
self ; earnestly striving to conform to what were recognized as 
the highest standards of style, without competent teachers or 
guides to instruct, suggest, repress, and direct, it is not to be 
wondered at that his taste should be at fault and his style in com- 
position not above criticism. Young's " Night Thoughts " was 
a hand-book to the divines of that day, and Pollok's " Course of 
Time " soon won its way to equal popularity. Pope's labored 
and artificial verses were held to be the perfection both of genius 
and art. Is it strange, then, that this untutored boy, growing 
rapidly to intellectual manhood, should deck himself out in a 

* He was, at the time, President of Madison College. 


1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 217 

wardrobe which will not bear the exacting scrutiny of a later 
taste. Bag-wigs, lace ruffles, trunk hose, silk stockings, and 
shoes with silver buckles, are not now in vogue, but it is prob- 
able that as good men and true have worn them as any now 
arrayed in monkey-jackets, cut-away coats, swallow-tails, and 
trousers. Fashions in rhetoric change as do those in garments. 
Even Milton's magnificent prose would hardly suit a newspaper 
or review to-day; and I suppose Jeremy Taylor would be 
counted a bore by most contemporary fashionable congregations, 
and a pedant by the critics. Lovers and users of the well of 
English undefiled might declare Bascom's style to be sesqui- 
pedalian at times ; but there were few such in the country at 
his day. 

In 1823, after doing thorough work in some of the rough- 
est parts of the frontier for nine years, and winning recognition 
as the most eloquent and powerful preacher of the Gospel in 
the West, through the influence of Henry Clay, Mr. Bascom 
was elected chaplain to Congress. When he stood for the first 
time behind the clerk's desk in the old Hall of Representatives 
at Washington, before an immense congregation, in which were 
the leading public men of the country, their expectation on 
tiptoe by reason of the unbounded praise of Mr. Clay and the 
other western men who had heard him, Bascom's heart failed 
him for fear. Hitherto he had preached in cabins, log school- 
houses, framed meeting-houses, or on camp-grounds, to a motley 
assemblage of men, women, and children, dressed for the most 
part in linsey-woolsey or deer-skin, uncritical and, even if in- 
different or antagonistic, easily roused and moved. But here 
the surroundings were new, strange, oppressive ; the assembly 
was illustrious, cold, satiated with public speaking, and disposed 
to cavil. The atmosphere of the audience froze the genial 
currents of his soul, and, benumbed, almost paralyzed, poor Bas- 
com struggled through his discourse. To Mr. Clay and his other 
f riende it seemed three hours in length, to the rest of the audience 
interminable, and to the preacher himself an age. I have never 
known so nervous and diffident a public speaker. He could 
not stand up to begin a service before the smallest and most 
obscure congregation to which he ever preached without shak- 
ing from head to foot as from a severe ague, while the leaves 
of the hymn book would rattle from the contagion of his quiv- 

218 Methodist Quwrterly Review. [April, 

ering hand. He has often paced the floor in a kind of terrified 
anguish for three days and nights, almost without sleep or food, 
before he was to preach. His sense of the responsibility was 
awful — that he, a frail mortal man, should speak for the Most 
High God to his fellows on the infinite issues of life, on death, 
the judgment, and eternity. He could not recover from the 
chill of his first service in the capitol, and his chaplaincy in the 
halls of Congress was not successful. His morbid shrinking 
and consciousness that he had gravely disappointed the hopes 
and promises of his enthusiastic friends served still more to 
handicap him, and he had few more painful experiences than 
that of his sojourn in $he Federal city. 

The session of Congress at last closed, and Bascom's long 
palsy gave way under the genial influences of a Maryland camp- 
meeting, held not far from Annapolis. The spell of his cap- 
tivity broken, he preached with a degree of unction, brilliancy, 
and force which overwhelmed his hearers. For many months 
he passed from one camp-ground to another, from Baltimore to 
Philadelphia, to New York, to Harrisburg, York, Carlisle, and 
whithersoever he went thousands hurried to hear him and 
were astonished, electrified, by his eloquence. For the next 
fourteen years (from 1824 to 1838) his career as a preacher of 
righteousness was* unexampled in the country since the dayB of 
Whiteficld. He not only charmed and entranced all classes by 
his sermons and lectures, arousing, convincing, persuading, over- 
throwing men's refuges of lies, leading them to penitence, faith, 
and a holier life, setting in splendid array the arguments and 
proofs which vindicate the claims of Christ's truth and Church ; 
shaming men out of the scoffs and jeers and supercilious cant 
of so-called philosophic unbelief ; but, without intending it, he 
gave to hundreds of men and women the scribbling itch, 
(cacwthes scribendi.) Leading editors, writers for magazines,, 
poets and poetasters seized the pen $nd sought to describe this 
phenomenon in the pulpit. Their productions make queer 
reading. They were magnetized by his genius, felt the conta- 
gion of his somewhat grandiose style, and treated that genera- 
tion to an amount of fustian which would now seem incredible 
if his biographer had not given us an overdose of it, and if 
stilts were not even yet dear to many hearts. Take a few spec- 
imen sentences : 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 219 

He is the solitary star that fills with a flood of effulgence the 
skies of his own creation, and gilds with loveliness the forms 
which have arisen at the call of his genius. His mind, like the 
Olympic wrestlers, struggles for mastery wherever it grapples. 
Let him encounter the gnarled and unwedgeable oak of error in 
its century hallowed form, and the contact is like that of the elec- 
tric fluid, rending and illuminating at once, hut not like the fabled 
bolt of Jove, rendering sacred what it scarred. The fortification 
which he demolishes is ever after contemptible and untenable. 
The votary of error under any banner which Bascom may stoop 
to assail ever afterward will disown his flag, and be ashamed of 
his former inconsistency. The subject only, and with an omnip- 
otence of power, has stood before his hearers either as an angel of 
light or a fearful demon; the one to sing "Peace on earth, good- 
will to men," the other to forestall doom and threaten an eternity 
of woe. Let the inflated individual who has, in his boasted re- 
searches into philosophy, never gained sight of the shore of the 
great ocean of trutn, where childlike Newton stood, and only 
picked up pebbles in his own estimation, let this vain boaster but 
come within the action of Bascom's intellectual battery, and a 
faint smoke or the mere ashes of a consumed fabric will only be 
left to tell where once he stood. . . . 

While we were yet in a state of dubiety whether or no his 
audience were not to be treated to a merely nebulous disquisition 
of no particular merit, and asking, mentally, whether this could 
he the man whom Henry Clay had pronounced the greatest 
natural orator he had ever heard, a brilliant thought, wreaked 
upon eloquent and original expression, enchained our attention, 
and thenceforward to the close of the discourse we wist not that 
we were occupying a narrow spot in the middle of a crowded 
aisle — cabined, cribbed, confined, bound in — with the thermom- 
eter at ninety. 

The text was wrought out into a world of thought, of persua- 
sion, of imagery, to which Milton himself might have listened 
with an applauding spirit. To those who cannot retire into that 
realm of the mind which seems to open upon it the domain of 
immortal prophecy, the illimitable stretch of that vastness where 
the Omnipotent sits clothed in light as with a garment— who are 
unaccustomed to entertain those views which stretch beyond 
this visible diurnal sphere, or those rapt thoughts that wander 
through eternity, the sermon in question may have seemed too 
high wrought and sublime to sink at once upon the mind. 

It must be borne in mind that these choice quotations were 
from the pens of men who ranked among the most admired and 
influential writers of that day. Bascom's speaking seems to 
have had the effect of dazing people oftentimes. I have 
known serious, sober men, past middle age, some of them 


220 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

ministers, who, quitting the church after one of his sermons, 
would lose their way home, with which they were perfectly 
familiar, and wander sometimes for hours in an aimless, dis- 
traught manner. 

On his first visit to Philadelphia, in 1824, Mr. Bascom met a 
man who had awakened a degree and quality of interest in the 
eastern cities unknown for three quarters of a century— -a young 
Irishman, John Summerfield by name. Of slight build and 
delicate physique, he was yet able to accomplish prodigious 
labor, preaching constantly to vast congregations, which listened 
as if to the song of a seraph. His flute-like voice, soft, sweet, 
penetrating, touched the finest emotions by its almost unearthly 
music, while the saintly expression of his countenance, his atti- 
tudes and movements of perfect grace completed the irresisti- 
ble charm of his personal presence. His discourses were for 
the most part the outgrowth of his study of Jay's " Morning and 
Evening Exercises," and kindred compositions, but he breathed 
into them the warm life of his own gentle and tender spirit, 
while, set off as they were by the childlike simplicity and per- 
suasive unction of his manner, and delivered with a pleading 
earnestness and tremulous pathos, they melted all hearts, and 
won for him upon all hands the suffrage of affection mingled 
with veneration. Two men could scarce be more unlike than 
the fragile, almost angelic, young stranger from across the sea, 
and the robust, finely developed athlete, schooled in the cane- 
brakes and forests of the "West. 

Another Irishman was just then rising into great popularity, 
the distinguished and unfortunate John Newland Maffit. Be- 
low the middle height because of his 6hort legs, broad-shoul- 
dered and deep-chested — measuring, when I knew him, over 
fifty inches inside the arms — with a well-shaped head, the con- 
tour and impressiveness of which he strove to improve and in- 
crease by shaving the front and sides so as to give a higher and 
broader brow ; a face not remarkable except for a good eye 
and the disfigurement of a hare-lip, and with a voice of rare 
compass and timbre, which was skillfully used in song as well 
as speech, and a very white, well-shaped hand, most dexterously 
employed, he htid for many years a name and following such 
as have been acquired by few men. Stepping, it is said, from 
a tailor's bench in the modern Athens, he began his public min- 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. * 221 

istry in New England, and in the quarter of a century that fol- 
lowed his first appearance in the pulpit there were few cities 
or towns of the United States of that day in which he did not 
awaken the opposite moods of admiration and antagonism. 
Although moving on a far lower plane than either Summerfield 
or Bascom, he divided the popular interest with them, and drew 
as great crowds as either. Without Summerfield's child-like 
centered piety, or Bascom's genius or intense earnestness, he 
had qualities of style, manner, voice, and magnetism which 
gained for him a wider and more clamorous popularity than is 
possessed by almost any preacher of this time. He was never 
a student ; in his sermons there was neither intellectual grasp 
nor depth of feeling ; his rhetoric was meretricious but dazzling 
to the general eye — all the more effective with the masses, 
because offensive to the cultivated few and coupled with a 
fatal facility of speech he seemed to them a man of rare genius. 
He thoroughly understood what, for want of a better word, 
must be called "the business of a modern evangelist," and was 
a consummate master of the details insuring the success of a pro- 
tracted meeting. His voice, not the organ -toned instrument of 
a great or rich nature, was like an accordion deftly played, 
running through a wide range of notes, with many stops and 
variations, delighting and captivating the ears untrained to 
higher music. His faults were the product of his mercurial 
temperament and Celtic blood, brought into prominence by his 
style of work, and were heavily visited ; while his abundant 
labors and great usefulness in the behalf of thousands that 
others could not win to the truth have been forgotten. I 
knew him well at the close of his life ; his sorrowful death 
from a literal breaking of the heart, produced by the relentless 
attacks of his enemies, took place while he was preaching for 
me in Mobile, and I cannot withhold the expression of pity and 
qualified regard and affection for this once celebrated but ill- 
starred man. 

Never was a man more free than Bascom from the pettiness 
of envy and jealousy toward his brethren ; his hospitable heart 
welcomed with glowing warmth the virtues, talents, and useful- 
ness of Summerfield, Maffit, and all other men, great 01 small, 
brought in contact with him, and, by foolish people, into com- 
parison or competition. His sympathetic eye was quick to 

Fourth Sebies, Vol. XXXV.— 15 

222 % Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

perceive every form and phase of goodness and excellence, and 
while the meed of praise he gave them was unstinted, no man 
was more liberal or tolerant toward well-meaning stupidity. 
A warm regard soon arose between Snmmerfield and Bascom, 
interrupted for a moment by a want of tact on one side and 
undue sensitiveness on the other; but a good understanding was 
soon re-established, and their hearty friendship was only ended 
by Suinmerfield's early and deeply lamented death. A little 
before his own death he wrote : " Poor Maffit has at last fallen 
a sacrifice to the demon of persecution." 

In the autumn of 1826 Mr. Bascom was appointed to Union- 
town, Pa., at the western foot of the Alleghanies, where it was 
intended to establish a Methodist college, of which in the fol- 
lowing year he was elected President. He gave the indefati- 
gable labor of three years to the attempted upbuilding of Madi- 
son College, but in vain. He then acted as the western agent for 
the American Colonization Society, traveling widely and speak- 
ing powerfully in its interest. In 1832 he was chosen professor 
of Moral Science and Belles-Lettres in Augusta College, Ky., 
and although offered the presidency with the hearty approba- 
tion of Dr. Martin Ruter, then at its head, steadily declined the 
honor. His father's death occurred in the following year, upon 
which he took his step-mother and all his father's younger 
children under his roof. 

Although his coming to New York, Philadelphia, or Bal- 
timore, was hailed by the acclaim of thousands, the enthusiasm 
attending his ministry was still greater in the West. He 
nowhere appeared, however, to 6uch advantage as at a camp- 
meeting. A beautiful grove of sugar maples, intermixed 
with trees of oak, hickory, and ash, yielding a grateful shade, 
the groups of canvas tents, clap-boarded shanties, and log 
cabins, the rustic stand, altar, and benches, the glancing sun- 
light at play amid the leafy canopy, the motley throng of the 
innumerable multitude, the breath of the woodland breeze 
heard in the pauses of the hymns sung by countless voices, a 
weird accompaniment to the preacher's tones, combined to form 
a picturesque and harmonious environment for his sermons. 
But it was at night that the most magical effects were pro- 
duced. The waving glare from heaped blazing pine-knots on 
the fire-stands at the corners of the tent-surrounded space, the 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 223 

light from many lamps set in the tree branches, the ghostly 
moonshine shimmering through the leaves, a multitude which 
no man could number thronging the vast temple not made 
with hands, a sea of upturned faces, half revealed and half 
concealed by the shifting lights, every form rigid and forward 
bent to catch the faintest whisper, and every eye riveted on the 
preacher standing at the book-board. 

Below him, within the altar, were gathered the venerable 
fathers and mothers in Israel; behind, in the ample stand, 
almost a conference of ministers. At the last sound of the 
horn he entered the stand with a hurried step, knelt for a few 
minutes in silent prayer, and then advanced to the front and 
took the hymn book. The hymn was announced, and those 
nearest could hear the shaking of the book's leaves, so unsteady 
was his hand. The compressed, bloodless lips, the pallid cheeks, 
the sweat upon his brow, his jerky reading, bespoke his great 
but subdued agitation. One of the ministers, probably Brother 
Gunn, for many years called, in Kentucky, the sweet singer in 
Israel, " pitched the tune ; " it was caught up by every voice, 
and broke upon the still night like the sound of many waters. 
The music calmed and cheered him, and the brief prayer that 
followed was simple, direct, earnest. Then came the reading 
of God's Word after the same manner. Another hymn 
followed, during which he sat bowed, his face buried in his 
hands. With forced composure he again stood behind the 
books, and in the breathless silence gave out the text. He was 
still nervous, at times hesitating, embarrassed, but quickly 
gathered headway, and the sentences came leaping from his lips 
at a rate of speed unparalleled. Mr. Calhoun, the most rapid 
of political speakers in my time, would in his fiery deliverances 
to the Senate enunciate at the rate of one hundred and eighty 
words to the minute, by the count of the reporters. Dr. Bas- 
com spoke at the rate of from two hundred and fifty to three 
hundred words to the minute, sometimes rising, in his highest 
energy, to four hundred, yet every syllable distinctly heard.* 

The intense play of every faculty, whether physical or 

* Startling as this statement may appear, it was made to me by Dr. Bascom 
himself. He declared that he frequently read for half an hour at the rate of four 
hundred words a minute, and thai the words had then been counted to verify the 
estimate. The fact sheds light upon his temperament 

224 Methodist QuaHerh/ Review. [April, 

mental, can therefore be only dimly conceived. Arguments, 
illustrations, appeals, warnings, entreaties, rebukes, promises, 
came rushing from his lips with the stupendous speed of a 
cataract. Criticism was disarmed, but the attention so absorbed 
as to be almost painful. The gestures were few but expressive, 
the voice not musical, but singularly distinct and far reaching, 
and in the transport of his excitement his dark eye burned 
with an almost intolerable splendor. His noble figure, above 
the middle height, his air of high command at such a moment, 
gave him a port and presence almost more than human. The 
reasoning and imaginative powers, under the sway of the most 
intense emotions, acted as one, and his torrent-like impetuosity 
carried his hearers along, unresisting, amazed, spell-bound. So 
far as I know, nothing like it has been heard in this country. 
At times the whole congregation would rise to their feet, not 
knowing what they did, nor where they were. Writers may 
decry the spoken word, and sneeringly declare that the mission 
of the pulpit has ended, but until the world's end God's great 
Word will stand, "That by the foolishness of preaching it 
hath pleased Him to save them which believe." 

Bascom's preaching was like the sound of a trumpet, and 
while the sermon lasted men forgot every thing, themselves, 
their surroundings, even the preacher, every thing but the won- 
derful strains, and the unfathomable meaning they suggested. 
The preacher, too, had forgotten himself, and in a kind of 
ecstasy gave his vision voice, unconscious of criticism, applause, 
of aught but the mighty theme and the Master who had given 
him the message. What wonder, then, if, at the close of the 
sermon, which lasted two hours, the people found it hard to re- 
cover the sense that they were in the leafy grove ; many of 
them scarce knew whether they were in the body or out of the 
body, but felt that they had been " caught up into paradise, 
and heard unspeakable words." After the excitement of that 
trance it was long before the silent stars looked down on that 
multitude composed in sleep, and not a few unclosed eyes were 
greeted by the rising sun. The sermon dwelt in many a mem- 
ory like the song which St. John heard, " the chorus of harp- 
ing symphonies and sevenfold alleluias." Once his subject 
led him to describe the manifestations of God's Wrath against 
sin. On the front bench sat a man prominent alike for his 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 226 

wealth, talents, influence, and wickedness. As the vivid pict- 
ures of the flood and of Sodom and Gomorrah passed before 
the congregation, deep horror froze the veins of this man, and 
he fell in a swoon, was carried from the church senseless, and 
when he recovered proved to be a raving maniac, and such he 
lived and died. At another time Bascom was preaching in a 
large country church on a bright Sunday morning. The house 
was crowded to its utmost capacity, the windows were all open, 
one of which was immediately behind the pulpit overlooking 
the rural grave-yard. He was describing the typical forms and 
manifestations of the Holy Spirit. It was the baptism in Jor- 
dan, " and Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway 
out of the water : and lo, the heavens were opened unto him, 
and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and light- 
ing upon him." As these words fell from the preacher's lips, 
suddenly, as an apparition, a snow-white dove flew through the 
open window at the back of the pulpit, and rested on his shoul- 
der. He paused, the bird sat for an instant with folded wings, 
then slowly spreading them, in the breathless silence described 
a circle around his head, and flew back to the summer woods.* 

At Saratoga, in 1838, he preached to a vast concourse in the 
open air, the wind directly in his teeth. The effort was too 
much even for his strength ; his vocal chords were strained ; and 
for the rest of his life he suffered from what was called bron- 
chitis, and was never again the equal of himself in earlier days. 
Up to this time he had never preached from memory nor a 
manuscript, but thenceforth used his notes, depending on them 
more and more to put a curb upon his vehemence, and thus 
save his weakened throat. As he did this, his power as a 
speaker lessened at a corresponding pace. He never again 
wielded the scepter of his regal eloquence. His infirmity made 
him self-conscious ; and self -consciousness denies access to the 
mountain summits of vision and inspiration. 

While Professor at Augusta College he was married, in 
1839, to Miss Van Antwerp of New York, and two years later 
was elected President of Transylvania University, and removed 
to Lexington, Ky., where he resided for the rest of his life. 
In the ever-memorable General Conference of 1844, which sat 

*Tb6M incidents, aa well as many other facte stated in this paper, I bad from 
fciiown lip*. 

226 Methodist Quarierty Review. [April, 

in New York, and in which the Methodist Episcopal Church 
was divided, he was a member, but, as at all other General Con- 
ferences, a silent one, except when, as the chairman of a commit- 
tee, he had to read a report. Almost every other man on the 
floor, whether young or old, made a speech ; but he, the most 
illustrious and powerful speaker of them all, held his peace. 
It was his pen, however, then and afterward, on which the 
Southern branch of the Church relied to state its case to the 
world. When the first General Conference of that Church 
met at Petersburg, Va., in 1846, it was thought, and justly 
thought, by his friends and by himself, that he ought to be 
elected a Bishop. Eminent a9 were his services, and great as 
was the debt of gratitude due to him, both were ignored, and he 
received another deep and painful wound from the hands of his 
brethren. He did not wish the office, nay, would have declined 
it, but felt that he was entitled to an election as a vote of con- 
fidence, and as an indorsement to the world of his conduct in 
their behalf. Instead of a seat upon the bench of Bishops, he 
was re-elected President of the University, made one of the 
Commissioners of the Church South, to settle the matters at 
issue with the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Editor of the 
" Southern Methodist Quarterly Review." 

There was no compunction in placing intolerable burdens up- 
on his shoulders ; it was taken for granted that his strength 
was equal to any weight, that the magic of his name would 
crowd the halls of the university with students, and fill its 
empty exchequer ; that as Commissioner he could collect infor- 
mation from aU quarters, write and publish the Church's doc- 
uments, and at the same time edit and publish a " Quarterly 
Review," without a cent of income provided. 

Take this statement of his remuneration while Professor at 
Augusta College as another specimen of the maimer in which he 
was paid for his services : At first his nominal salary was seven 
hundred dollars a year, afterward raised to a thousand ; but he 
never, in any year, received half his salary in cash, and seldom so 
much ; for the last six sessions of his stay he got only one dollar 
in five of his salary in cash. He paid for the institution several 
hundred dollars in gifts, subscriptions, and traveling expenses ; 
also sixteen hundred dollars, paid by himself for board, tui- 
tion, etc. in behalf of students, without funds, sent to his care. 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 227 

His expenses for eleven years exceeded his income from the col- 
lege by five thousand dollars. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that he was embarrassed by debts ; but one finds it hard to un- 
derstand how the Church could suffer this noble and loyal son 
to struggle thus, and calmly expect him to make bricks with- 
out straw — even without clay. Chameleons are said to live on 
air ; it seems to have been thought that Bascom could do so 
likewise. Of course, many virtuous people when they heard 
of his debts shook their heads, shrugged their shoulders, and 
whispered, " extravagance ; what a pity he's not a good econo- 
mist and content to live as a Methodist preacher ought to." 

I have said that one rumor was put in circulation affecting 
his character and reputation as a gentleman and minister. It 
happened on this wise : During the angry presidential contest 
of 1844, when James Knox Polk and Henry Clay were candi- 
dates for the first office within the gift of the people, a friend 
of Bascom's, living in New York, and knowing that he was on 
terms of close friendship with the Kentucky statesman, wrote 
a confidential letter asking Bascom about Mr. Clay's private 
character. With the understanding that his letter was also to 
be considered confidential, Bascom answered telling what he 
believed and knew to be the truth about Mr. Clay, and in the 
affectionate tone in which one friend would speak of another. 
The seal of confidence was broken, and parts of Bascom's letter 
found their way into print, arousing against him the fierce 
wrath of Mr. Clay's political opponents. The speakers and 
newspapers on that side held him up to public scorn, freely 
ventilating the epithets which seem 60 dear to the hearts of 
many politicians, and which made so large a part of their patri- 
otic stock in trade. Infamous charges were made against him 
in many newspapers, and from not a few "stumps." It was 
claimed that he had written an indecent letter to an old friend, 
and that that letter had been read by other members of the 
Church, who thereupon lost confidence in his Christian charac- 
ter. Here are extracts from Bascom's answer, which prove 
among other things, that he could use vigorous English. 

The article from the paper to which you direct my attention 
is a tissue of the most stupid falsehoods, and, so far as I am con- 
cerned, there is not one word of truth in it. I had been a minis- 
ter of the Methodist Episcopal Church for at least eight years, 

228 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

and as such filled some of the most important stations in 'the 
West, before Mr. Clay had ever seen me. Equally true is it, and 
Mr. Clay will attest it with more pleasure than I affirm it, that I 
never was indebted to Mr. Clay to the amount of a cent in my 
life, and my only obligations to him are on the score of friend- 
ship and good- will, to the utter exclusion of every thing implying 
either bounty or patronage. And the other charges of the paper 
are eaually false and defamatory, besides being too obviously 
absurd and malignant to do me any harm even where I am not 
known. That portion of the political press which has stooped to 
the infamy of lying and misrepresentation to injure a man who 
had not interfered with the rights and functions of the press in 
any form, and had merely exercised the right of private judg- 
ment on a question of social justice between man and man, has de- 
prived itself of the power of injuring me, and, by a resort to such 
means, has superseded the necessity of even a defense on my part. 

The calumny recoiled upon his assailants, and he went on his 
way unscathed. 

In 1850 a volume of his sermons was published, fraught with 
interest for the people who knew and loved him, and had heard 
them from his lips ; but affording to others scarce a hint of his 
power as a preacher. In truth they were not sermons, only 
studies, the notes of material accumulated through nearly forty 
years, written at different times in many places, in blue ink, 
black, and red, as well as pencil ; thoughts, suggestions, associ- 
ations, extracts from favorite writers ; ore of the mind unmolten, 
uncast, not the finished group in alto rilievo* The want of 
organic unity, at times even of coherence and congruity, is 
painfully manifest. When in the pulpit, his mind at white- 
heat, he fused the matter of these discourses, and gave them 
living form, harmonious beauty, almost irresistible power ; but 
in the closet his efforts to do this were fruitless. Justice to his 
reputation demanded that they should not see the light, and he 
shrunk from the publication ; but the stern pressure of his em- 
barrassed finances drove him to it with a merciless force. The 
volume reached a sale of more than twenty thousand copies. 
In May, 1850, he was elected to be one of the Bishops of the 
Church South, and at first thought of declining the office ; but 
the persuasion of friends and his own mature reflection led him 
to accept it, and he was ordained. It seemed as if the new 
position might re-establish him in the brilliant career of useful- 
ness as a preacher which the injury to his throat and his taking 

1883.] Henry B. Bascom. 229 

a professor's chair had obliged him to forego. "What appeared 
to he the necessity of Methodism less than half a century ago, 
to man our new institutions of learning with the best preachers 
in the Connection, has turned out a serious misfortune. The 
teacher and the preacher, like the poet, must be born, cannot 
be made by man's device. The qualities which tit a man to 
attain eminence in the pulpit often unfit him wholly for the 
professor's chair, and while the duties of the class-room may 
prove a capital novitiate for the professor, it is doubtful if 
many who have become illustrious in the sacred desk have 
been able to adapt themselves to the routine of college life ; and 
it is almost certain that a majority of those who tried the ex- 
periment have surrendered a large part of their influence and 
authority as preachers. It must be deeply regretted that Dr. 
Bascom ever became a college don. Had he lived long enough, 
his friends believe that he would, in part at least, have regained 
his old ascendency as the Apollos of American Methodism. 

With his accustomed promptitude he set his affairs in order 
to begin the duties of his new office, and with his old courage 
started to fulfill them. His first appointment was to hold the 
St. Louis Conference, at Independence, Mo., in July. Cholera 
was raging throughout the West, and he who voyaged upon the 
Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri rivers that season (there were 
no railways then) took his life in his hand. Bishop Bascom, 
conscious of the danger, quietly went to his work. The rivers 
were low and he was delayed on the way, and although starting 
in what seemed good time, only reached the Conference on the 
fourth day of its session. He preached to the edification and 
comfort of all who heard him, and presided with an impressive 
dignity and urbane grace which gave assurance of his dis- 
tinguished fitness for the high place. On his way back he 
preached with great effect in a number of Missouri towns, but 
wad ill when he reached St. Louis. It was Sunday morning ; 
he was at once asked to preach, declined on the score of his ill- 
ness, but after a moment said : " If you will get a congregation, 
I will, with God's help, preach this afternoon — it may be my last 
opportunity." That was the last congregation which ever hung 
spell-bound on his lips. He reached Louisville a few days 
later, started for Lexington, his home; but after an hour's 
drive was obliged to return, went to bed, and never left it until, 


230 Methodist Quarterly Heview. TApril, 

a few weeks later, his body was carried to the church, and then 
to the grave. When asked, toward the close, if his faith in 
Christ remained strong and serene, with his old emphasis he 
answered, " Yes, yes, yes." On the morning of Sunday, 
September 8, 1850, about the time at which for so many 
years he had been used to enter the church of God to proclaim 
the truths of Christ crucified, his spirit entered the " general 
assembly and Church of the first-born, which are written in 
heaven." He completed the 54th year of his age in the 
month that he was ordained a Bishop, and in less than four 
months after ceased at once to work and live on earth. 

" Genius, sir ! " said £>r. Johnson, " genius is labor." 
" Genius," said Buffon, " is patience." If these definitions be 
true, or even if a far larger meaning be given to the word, Dr. 
Bascom was a noteworthy man of genius. His temperament, 
narrow opportunities for improvement in early life, imperfect 
direction, adverse influences, prescribed limitations which he, 
which no man, could pass. But what Cecil said of Sir Walter 
Raleigh was equally true of him : " I know that he can toil 
terribly. He wrought, as few other men have done, to make 
himself a workman that needed not to be ashamed." His 
remarkable powers of conception, invention, sympathy, and 
utterance were schooled with unwearied industry, and made 
tributary, not to his own advancement in worldly honor or 
emolument, but to his Master's cause, and the loyal serv- 
ice of that Master's Church. We might almost fancy Bascom 
sitting for both the portraits Clarendon has drawn of Hamp- 
den and Falkland. Of the first, he says : " Who was of an in- 
dustry and vigilance not to be tired out or wearied by the most 
laborious, and of parts not to be improved on by the most 
subtle and sharp, and of a personal courage equal to his best 
parts ; " and of the other : " Who was so severe an adorer of 
truth that he could as easily have given himself leave to steal 
as to dissemble." A loftier word yet gives ns the key to his 
character — " he endured as seeing Him who is invisible." 

The heroic days of Methodism produced few men more 
worthy to be held in remembrance. In his life endless fame 
was predicted for him, so prodigal are we of the crowns with 
which we adorn our heroes. In thirty years his fame has 
shrunk to a tradition ; in half a century more he will be for- 

1883.] Henry B. Baseom. 281 

gotten save by the student of Methodist archives. What mat- 
ter ? " Had he not respect unto the recompense of the re- 
ward i " 

Trusting that, at no distant day, the dust of Henry Bidle- 
man Baseom may be placed in the grounds of the Vanderbilt 
University at Nashville, I turn from his grave in the Louis- 
ville burying-ground and betake me again to my path, growing 
somewhat lonely now because so many of those with whom I 
once took sweet counsel have fallen by the way, he among the 
rest ; and as I muse upon ministers covetous of worldly fame, 
murmur in the darkness Tennyson's lines : 

" We pass, the path that each man trod 
Is dim, or will be dim with weeds. 
What fame is left for human deeds 
In endless age ? It rests with God. 

" O, hollow wraith of dying fame, 
Fade wholly, while the soul exults, 
And self infolds the large results 
Of force that would have forged a name." 

• ♦• 

Abt. il— a glimpse op old testament escha- 


1 Samuel xxy, 29. 

u And the soul of my Lord shall be bound up in the bundle of life (of lives) 
with Jehovah, thy God." 

This passage seems to denote, here, nothing more than a wish 
that David's life might be preserved; but the form of the 
strange expression and its proverbial aspect intimate a higher 
idea : God, the source of life and the ever-flowing fountain 
of life, or lives. Compare Psalm xxxvi, 10, D*n TipD "py *D, 
Quoniam apud te est fons vitae, (fons vitarum.) It is the 
fountain of lives, as here the bundle of lives, fasciculus vita- 
rum, in the plural. This use of the plural (D"n, lives) is so con- 
stant in Hebrew that it ceases to excite our surprise, although 
the idea that must have given rise to such a urns loquendi is 
well worth our study. In such strange expressions as this 
(1 Sam. xxv, 29, and Psalms xxxvi, 10) it becomes quite sig- 
nificant — suggestive of thoughts which, although warranted by 

232 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

the Old Testament, do not show themselves upon the surface, 
or obtrude themselves on the mere surface reader. The Com- 
mentary of Rabbi Tanchum on these words and those that fol- 
low is curious and deeply interesting. He refers it to the 
future state of the soul. This is double, and expressed by two 
remarkably contrasted similes — the famdle and the sling. 
We give the passage as found in Pocock's notes to Maimonidee, 
"Porta MosiB," text 154, note 92, 93 : " To some souls there 
is given a sublime degree, and a secure habitation with their 
Lord — a life immortal and not liable to dissolution. Other 
souls become the sport of the waves of nature ; they find no 
security, no resting-place, but perpetual pains and un intermit- 
ting anguish, forever and forever, like stones cast out of a sling, 
and sent whirling about in the air, according to the strength of 
him who sends them. This is, in truth, the opinion of our 
wisest men as well as of the philosophers." It is Rabbi Tan- 
chum's commentary on this passage, and is all designed to show 
the contrast, which is very strikingly brought out, between the 
rest, security, and blessedness denoted by the safe bundle of life 
to the souls inclosed within, and the unrest, the wandering, the 
everlasting vagrancy denoted by the figure of the sling and the 
souls cast out with its utmost projectile force, as would seem to 
be meant by the words j£pn tp -pra, to f^^ T fc o<pev66vr^, or, as 
the Vulgate has most forcibly rendered it: "porro inimicorum 
tuorum anima rotabitur quasi in impetu et circulo fundae." 

The only question is, Is there any ground for such an imag- 
ination as that of Tanchum in any thing that we know of the 
ancient belief of the Jews respecting a spirit-world ? There 
may be, in the first place, a pure critical objection. Even if 
the Jews believed in a future state or a spirit world, such a 
thought, it might be said, would seem out of place on such a 
purely secular occasion. Instead of coming from a devout 
prophet or psalmist, instead of being the language of exhorta- 
tion or devotion, it is put in the mouth of the garrulous Abi- 
gail, in what seems a mere complimentary or salutatory formu- 
la, having no connection with any thing so serious. That was 
the last thing she was thinking of, even if it were a doctrine 
of the more thoughtful Jewish mind ; she only wishes to rec- 
ommend herself to David, and get him to overlook the doings 
of her foolish husband. This seems plausible, but, after all, 

1883.] A Glimpse of Old Testament Eschatology. 233 

the objection of itself amounts to nothing. We need not sup- 
pose the reapers of Boaz to have been unusually devout or 
spiritual men, or very devout at all, when they returned the 
salutation of their Master with the religious formula, *pr\y rpm, 
" Jehovah bless thee." Still, such formulas show a religious 
nation, at least one that had been religious, or whose national 
life had had a deep religious ground. See Ruth ii, 4. 

The question is not what Abigail meant, exactly, but whence 
came the strange formula she so flippantly, and it may be un- 
thinkingly, uses. It might have lost its serious meaning, and 
come to be used in a mere formal manner, as if one should say, 
" May you live a thousand years," or, as the Jews sometimes 
used that still more solemn and spiritually significant expres- 
sion, " As Jehovah liveth, and as thy soul liveth." It may be 
that Abigail employed it in a mere temporal sense, or as a gen- 
eral prayer for long life and prosperity. But none of these 
suggestions satisfy the inquiry. There are none of them that 
would have given rise to the formula. They are meanings into 
which it might degenerate, but to which it never could have 
owed its birth. The more solemn must have been first. There 
must have been at sometime a power or depth of meaning in 
it corresponding to the strange power and vividness of the lan- 
guage. There must have been a serious reason for these pe- 
culiar words and more peculiar figures. The " binding up in 
the bundle of life," (or lives, im, something firmly bound and 
holding secure,) and the " casting out of the sling," (to denote 
the very opposite,) must have had a strong significance to give 
it currency as a popular formula. The more we look at it in 
this point of view, the more it will be seen that the argument, 
instead of being in the direction of this actual objection, is just 
the other way. 

But did it have any ground in any common belief of the 
Jews ? It may be said that the notion of Tanchum is opposed 
to the silence of the Old Testament, generally, respecting a 
future life, and especially the recognition in it of distinct states 
of happiness and retribution, or of blessedness and reprobation, 
or casting out, such as might seem to be denoted by " the bun- 
dle " and the sling, if we give them this application. There is 
reason, however, to believe that the common popular opinions 
among the Jews respecting a spirit-world were more fixed and 

234 Methodist Quarterly Review [April, 

distinct (not to say more true) than the scanty intimations tliat 
barely appear under the wise reserve of the Old Testament 
Scriptures. For there certainly is a reserve, even what would 
appear to be a studied reserve, on this subject, and reasons may 
be assigned — with all reverence would we say it — why Deity, 
in the training of his peculiar people, did not encourage those 
views of Hades (or Sheol) and its departments which make 
such a figure in the poetry and mythology of the Greeks and 
other ancient nations. The tendency to abuse in that age of 
the world was greater than their moral power. This was not 
owing to any intellectual or spiritual incapacity, then existing, 
and now outgrown, which made them incapable of receiving 
the dogma. We should rather say that it was held back, kept 
in reserve, because that full plan of salvation had not yet been 
revealed, that full ground of faith, without which the doctrine 
of Hades, or the spirit-world, is capable of so much and such 
gross perversion. Such a belief was in the world, had been in 
the world from the earliest times, but the wisdom that gave 
us the Old Testament histories and the Old Testament wor- 
ship thought it better to hold these ideas in check, or, while 
confirming by unmistakable intimations, to throw over them 
the veil of a solemn reserve, instead of giving license to the 
imagination. In that state of the world there was danger of 
more evil thoughts coming out of the doctrine than good ones. 
The pious soul could rest contented with the general belief 
that it would be well, eternally well, with those that feared 
God, while to the unholy and profane a more distinct doctrine 
of Hades might be a fountain of malignity as well as of a false 
theology. In 6uch a state it would be a source of darkness- 
rather than light, or rather, the very light that was in it would 
become darkness — a " darkness visible." It is evident, from 
some strong intimations and prohibitions that we find in the 
Old Testament, that superstition, manes worship, necromancy, 
a spirit and practice of sorcery, real or unreal, were only likely 
to be its products, (if made prominent before the national 
mind, or if not some way held in check,) than a true spiritual 
fear. Thus we find necromantic usages constantly springing up 
among the Jews, and the most severe threatenings required to 
prevent them. See Deut. xviii, 11 : " There shall not be found 
in thee one who practices enchantments, or inquires of the Ob, 

1883.] A Glimpse of Old Testament JEschatology. 235 

(31K,) or familiar spirit, or seeks to the dead, DTion *?& ehn, for 
they Are an abomination to the Lord, even every one that doeth 
these things." There is in all this no denying that the dead 
yet are ; there is rather an affirmation and a confirmation- of it : 
but it is treated as a fearfully sacred region, to which human 
curiosity, or any feeling of worldly interest, or desire of knowl- 
edge for worldly purposes, should not profanely approach. 
Compare Isaiah viii, 19 ; xix, 3 ; 2 Kings xxi, 6 ; 2 Chron. 
xxxiii, 6 ; Leviticus xix, 31 ; xx, 6. As to the manner or me- 
dium of the necromantic communication, see especially Isaiah 
xxix, 4, where it appears that it was not by rapping, but by a 
voice, or a supposed voice, coming out of the earth, aifcO rpm 

l^p pKD. 

The prohibitions prove, at least, the strength and the reality 
of the common belief in a spirit- world. This is especially exhib- 
ited in the story of Saul and the Witch of Endor, who was one 
of those practicers of a forbidden necromancy. Homer is not 
stronger proof for the Greek belief in Hades than this Jewish 
chronicle of a similar and equally vivid notion of a spirit-world 
among the Jews. Their notions were very much the same, in 
the substantial conception, with those of the other ancient na- 
tions; very much the same, in fact, with those that have 
always existed, and still exist, among mankind — we may even 
say, are rife among us at this day. Whatever their locality, it 
was believed that souls might be evoked, and there were per- 
sons who claimed to have the power of holding intercourse 
with them. Now, in connection with this belief, nothing 
would be more natural and consistent than the thought of some 
-distinction among the dead, and this distinction would be 
predicated, in the first place, not on the idea of separate locali- 
ties, but on a difference of state. Taking the thought of what 
is most desirable for the spiritual existence, from the stormy 
experiences of this life, men would sum up its bliss and woe in 
the two ideas of rest and restlessness. They would think of 
the departed as in a condition of blessed repose, or as home- 
less, houseless, cast out,— just as Tanchum and Maimonides 
have given it from the traditions, as we may suppose, of their 

These, then, are the prominent ideas: a spirit-world— rest 
or unrest therein. The first belief undoubtedly existed. The 

236 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

dead still had a being somehow and somewhere. But this idea 
could hardly have been without its accompaniments. . Those 
we have mentioned are the most natural and primitive, and all 
combined might veiy easily form to themselves such a pro- 
verbial kind of expression as that strange one we find 1 Sam. 
xxv, 29. The inspired language per se y or when it is not sim- 
ply giving us the common or current language of the day, 
avoids such descriptions. It does not ignore the idea, or keep 
it wholly back, in order to give to morality the purer sanction 
or the stronger motive of mere temporal interest, as the War- 
burtonians would say; neither does it obtrusively, or even 
prominently, present it. The Old Testament does certainly put 
a reserve upon the awful doctrine of Hades, thereby not only 
preventing abuse, but giving it, in fact, by the very reserve, a 
higher moral power than it could ever have possessed among 
the Greeks with all their pictures of Tartarus and Elysium. 
Whatever allusions are made to any future condition of the 
pious are all summed up in those general ideas of repose, 
blessedness, rest, security, trust in God, and the unreserved 
committing of the spirit into his hands, whatever might be the 
condition of stillness or activity he had determined for it. 
Jacob knew not whither he was going ; but he could say with 
confidence, as life departed : " I have waited for thy salvation, 
O Lord." The patriarchs confessed that they were pilgrims 
and sojourners on earth, but they yielded not their hope of " a 
better country," of " a city which had foundations" — securi- 
ty, permanence, rest. Moses might not enter the temporal 
Canaan, but he felt assured that his name was written in the 
Book of Life. Exod. xxxii, 32.* The Psalmist could say; 
" I shall be satisfied when I awake in Thy likeness," — " Thou 
wilt lead me (here) by Thy counsel, and afterward receive me 
to glory." What was the confidence of any Grecian hero in his 
Elysium, or his Isles of the blest, however distinct or in- 
distinct its topography, compared with such a trust in the un- 
known, yet believed in, as this. 

On the other hand, there are expressions in the Psalms and in 

♦Compare Psalm lxix, 28, cxxxix, 16— 13TD 1 *>X D^pHV DJTI D*n 1BDD UTD* 
May not this sepher chayim, this Book of Lives, (Psa. Lxix, 28,) and the Book " in 
which all our members are written," (Psa. cxxxix, 16,) be the same with the 
D*n 1V)¥, the bundle of lives here mentioned? 

1883.] A Glimpse of Old Testament Eschatology. 237 

the Prophets, which, if interpreted of a future Btate, as may 
readily be done without any forced exegesis, resemble much 
the ideas here found by Rabbi Tanchum in this passage (1 Sam. 
xxv, 29.) See Pro v. xiv, 32: pnv irnoa norn yen nrrr mjro, 
" The wicked is driven away in his wickedness ; the righteous 
hath hope in his death." In its vividness and striking con- 
trasts the language resembles that of this proverbial saying of 
Abigail, nm denotes violent impulsion, and is parallel in this 
respect to " the soul or life sent forth (slung forth) from the 
hand of the sling." i6pn rp nira na6p* t^k ph n«. So nn^ is 
used, (Psa. xxxv, 5) nm mm yfrchj and the Angel of the Lord 
driveth them forth. The other word, non, is just the opposite 
of this. Its primary sense is, to take shelter, or run for shelter 
to any thing. The righteous hath a shelter in his death, in 
contrast with the homelessness, houselessness, of the wicked 
soul, driven forth violently, and cast out naked into the spirit- 
world. There may be supposed, here, an ellipsis of the word 
mm in connection with which non commonly occurs ; or more 
fully, mrr *DJ3 &n, " in the shadow of Jehovah's wings," as Psa. 
xxxvi, 7 ; lvii, 1, or rwa nnn non, " takes shelter under, etc., 
(Psa. xci, 4;) or rsxairiDanDn "in the secret place of his 
wings." It is the same image of security, confidence, on the 
one hand, and of violent expulsion and unrest in the case of 
the other. The one is " bound up in the bundle of life," the 
other is " slung out, as out of the middle of the sling," when 
the projectile force is in its highest intensity. Compare Jer. 
x, 18, and especially the strong language used in Isa. lxvi, 24, 
where the wicked are described as cast out, 1BO W> pirn, " an 
abhorring to all flesh." 

Samuel was in the state of rest when the voice of Saul, not 
the incantations of the witch, disturbed him. It is clear, from 
1 Sam. xxviii, 12, that the sorceress was as much surprised as 
Saul at the appearance of Samuel. She evidently had no faith 
in her power over the holy dead. It was the other class of 
ghosts, the restless, "perturbed" ones, with whom had been 
her professional intercourse, whether we are to regard her as 
having some real necromantic power or as being a juggling 
impostor, deceiving and deceived. 

" Why hast thou disquieted me ? " TIK nbyrb *Jn?m no!), quare 
inquietasti me, says Samuel to Saul, "in bringing me up," 

Foctbth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 16 

338 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

at suscitarer, Wtr\n ro}>, " why hast thou aroused or disturbed 
me ? " The word is inconsistent with the idea of lif elessness, or 
even of torpor. It is a complaint of broken rest. It indicates 
a placid yet conscious state into which the troubles and unrest 
of the earthly life had been painfully intruded. Is not 
Samuel's repose, after his toilsome life in Israel, the same as 
the New Testament sleep i — not torpor, but a condition of con- 
scious blessedness in strongest contrast with the tumult of the 
present world. Certain modern notions have transferred to 
the spirit-world generally all the business and bustle of this. 
Even its happiness is regarded as being essentially a never- 
ceasing activity. Even when there is a discarding of the ex- 
ceedingly gross notion of our modern epirit-rappers, there is still 
cherished the favorite idea of a continual restless " progress," 
which lias taken the place of the primitive Old Testament and 
early Christian conception of the spiritual repose of the just 
It is astonishing how strongly this thought has taken possession 
of the modern mind of the Church. It is assumed as a matter 
of course, but let one examine carefully the grounds of it, and 
he will be surprised to find how utterly silent are the Script- 
ures, Old and New, in respect to this petted idea of our latest 
theology. They are not merely silent; their representations 
are almost directly the reverse of what may be called the active, 
enterprising, progress-making spiritualism. How beautifully is 
this idea of rest set forth, (Isa. lvii, 2,) DnUDPD bv MW D&r KO% 
venit inpacem^ rather, as the Vulgate has it, venit pax, requiem 
eat in cubili suo; LXX, iarcu kv elpfjvy — " he enters into peace ; 
they rest in their beds." The righteous is taken away — " he 
is gathered in (*lD*o) from the evil to come." Compare what 
Christ says about gathering the wheat into his granary. Is all 
this blessed language predicated of no higher idea than that of 
a lifeless sleep in the grave, or even an unconscious torpor? 
For expressions most graphically descriptive of the opposite 
state, see the close of this very chapter. How it describes the 
unrest of the wicked, whether we predicate it of this or any 
other state of existence. Can there be a doubt that a contrast 
was intended between it and those commencing words in which 
the opposite ideas of quietude, security, and blessedness are so 
touchingly set forth : " The wicked are like the surging sea, 
eniD D'3, that cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt ; 

1883.] A Glimpse of Old Testament Eschatology. 239 

there is no rest, saith my God, to the wicked." The solemn 
announcement mnst include their future being even more so 
than their present mundane existence, dark and turbulent as it 
is — sin is everlasting restlessness, opsfi tar t& 

The association of ideas is so natural that we are not sur- 
prised to find the vulgar notion of the bad soul's haunting dis- 
quietude set forth as a philosophic deduction by the wisest 
mind in antiquity. They are so naturalized, says Plato, in 
the Phaedon, 81, 0. D., that they become visible, and these 
are the wandering spirits that haunt the earth in their horror 
of the purely spiritual state, and their longing desire to get 
back into their old bodies. Wherefore they are seen around 
the burying-places, and become shadowy apparitions that 
frighten the living, and from whom arise the stories of ghostly 
apparitions that have prevailed in every age. " It is the slug- 
gish nature, the heavy, the earthly, the visible, (or the palpable 
to sense.) The soul that hath these is weighed down, and 
dragged back to the visible (or the world of sense) in its fear 
of the invisible, that is, of Hades, as it is said ; and so it wal- 
lows around the monuments and burying-grounds, where these 
become visible shadowy apparitions of ghosts, idola, shades, 
or images, such as souls of this nature produce, seeing that 
they are not purely set free from the body, but still partake 
of the visible, (or the sensual,) wherefore they become objects 
of sight" 

The imagery is different, but it is the same awful idea of un- 
rest that is expressed by Peter and Jude. True, indeed, of the 
condition of the wicked in this world, but still more suggestive 
of their doom in the world of spirits, — " clouds are they with- 
out water, carried about by the winds ; wild waves of the sea, 
foaming out their own shame ; wandering stars, for whom* is 
reserved the blackness of darkness forever," or, as Tanchum 
interprets, (1 Sam. xxv, 29 :) " cast out from the sling, sent 
whirling, quasi in impetu et circvlo fundae, the sport of the 
waves and vortices, finding nowhere any place of rest." 

The locality of all this, whether of the rest or the unrest, is 
comparatively of little consequence. There may be blessedness 
in an unterwelt or subterranean world, (the notion that some 
would regard as so gross,) if Christ be there — the good Shep- 
herd or Bishop of souls in the motor, or terra tsmbrarwn — while, 

240 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

an aerial locality may be the abode of beings more evil than 
any upon the earth : see Ephesians ii, 2, rbv dpxovra rtjg kfrwrtas 
'AEPOS, " The prince of the powers (or power, collectively) 
of the air." It is not extravagant to suppose that there are 
allusions to such a state of rest in the spirit-world presented 
in certain favorite expressions of the Psalms, such as, ton nnD, 
the secret place of his tabernacle. Psalms xxvii, 5 ; xxxii, 7, 
fD:3 -itid, " the hiding-place of thy wings," and " thy tabernacle 
of the eternities," mbv li>nK ; Psalm lxi, 4, p^y inD, " the secret 
place of the Most High ; " Psalm xci, 1, ne> 5% " the shadow of 
the Almighty." All these, through similar imagery, present 
the same constant idea. It is protection, security, peace, having 
its significance for this world if any choose to rest there, but 
reaching its full complement of meaning only in a state of 
being to which these conceptions primarily and essentially 
belong. Such is the sense which the devout reader easily 
takes now, and we may rationally believe that it was not 
remote to the feeling and thinking of those who first employed 
this kind of language. It may find its application on earth, 
but it. i6 too higji and holy to rest there. It doubtless has a 
temporal significance, but, like other things in the Old Testa- 
ment diction, it has the eternal shining through it. Among 
others, that remarkable language, Psalm lxi, 5, uxhv I^HK, " thy 
tabernacle of the eternities," seems in direct contrast with the 
transient tabernacle of the Israelitish journeyings. It is the 
" tabernacle which God has pitched," and which never is to be 
taken down or removed. 

Opposed to these delightful expressions of security and rest 
there are others in the Scriptures whose true significance we 
get by regarding them in direct contrast, and as denoting a 
state in all respects the reverse : such, for example, as pw? 113, 
rendered, " the horrible pit," more correctly fovea strefritus, 
" the roaring pit," or " the pit of the awful sounds ; " * the 

♦There is an awful passage in the myth at the end of Plato's " Republic, " 
whether we regard it a popular myth or tradition, or a mythological theoso- 
phism invented by the philosopher, though grounded on the popular idea. Among 
the purgatorial experiences is the passage of a thousand years in the fiery river 
until it comes round to the mouth or pit where the condemned souls meet the 
crises of their destiny, whether to escape their purgatorial pains or to remain in 
them forever. As they near this ar6fuov y or mouth, they wait in awful expecta- 
tion for the pit to sound, uvKrjtjaaOai, to roar, or bellow. This is the signal of 

1883.] A Glimpse of Old Testament Eschatology. 241 

jWi tFO, the miry clay, Psalm xl, 2 ; the TOyo pKl rtfcrao |V, Psalm 
hdx, 2, the miry deep, or the ever-sinking quicksands on 
which there is no stamding, no rest, no security ; an ever going 
down deeper and deeper into perdition. To the same class 
belong the hybz *i>nj, " the rivers of Belial," Psalm xviii, 5. 
Some of these expressions remind us of the Greek notions of 
the rivers in Hades and of the BdpPopog or mire in which lie 
the profane or the uninitiated,* the muddy, fiery torrents, the 
abode of souls condemned to everlasting restlessness and disap- 
pointment. We cannot suppose the Hebrew conception bor- 
rowed from them. May it not be the other way? The 
Oriental mind is content with a primitive conception, and sel- 
dom expands it. Hence the reserve every- where maintained 
in the Old Testament, as though it would hold the thought in 
check, rather than encourage the fancy in respect to it. It pre- 
sents a few grand yet shadowy images of both conditions, such 
as the " gathering to the fathers," the " bundles of life," the 
" casting forth," the " angel driving into darkness," the " wicked 
man driven away in his wickedness;" and then allows no 
shading or retouching of the picture. The Greeks, on the 
other hand, when they get hold of such an idea, set no limits 
to their fancy. Other nations go still further. They make it 
sometimes not only fanciful, but monstrous and grotesque. 
This is the way with the Scandinavian mythology. There was 
a similar tendency, though far short of that extent, among the 
latter Jews. The sacred writers, however, were held in check, 
and this continued until the canon of the older inspiration was 
completed. Then came the Targumists, the Talmudists, and 
the later Rabbinical writers. Here the check seems wholly 
withdrawn, as is shown by the extravagance and abundance of 
their Targumistic paraphrases and their Talmudic fables. 
Tanchum was one of the soberest of the Jewish commenta- 
tors, and he only professes to interpret, instead of * improving 
upon, the ancient text. Thus, this interpretation of 1 Samuel 

their eternal doom. The pains they suffer in the fiery stream are beyond 
conception, but the climax is the hour of suspense they experience as they near 
this fearfnl crisis. This is the crowning misery of the thousand years 1 purgation, 
kvda dq fdfiitv noAXuv yeyovdruv roirov v-rrepfidXXiiv rbv 66fiov y el ftvKJjeaiTo rb 
ot6(uop. Though, during all this time, there are many fears, yet the fear surpasses 
them all lest the pit should bellow. Plato, " Rep.," 616, A. 
* See the Gorgias. 

242 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

xxv, 29, which he gives us, may be regarded as, in the main, 
faithful to the old thought of the text in its concise proverbial 
form ; but we find no such expansions of it in the Scriptures 
themselves. It is not the way of the Bible to give exegesis 
of its own meaning. Yet such modes of expression are most 
significant when regarded as containing a thought so fixed and 
universal as to need no interpreter. Compare Daniel xii, 13, 
" But go thy way, Daniel, and take thy rest, (man,) and stand in 
thy lot at the end of the days." nun is used "hdre as denoting 
something which the prophet well understood, as in accordance 
with the common belief of his nation. It is the same with 
that blessed holy rest of Samuel from which Saul's earthly 
trouble disquieted him, when safely " bound up in the bundle 
of lives with the Lord his God." It is the rest described 
Isaiah lvii, 2, "May he rest in peace:" " Requiescat in pace" 
This formula, too, is but another mode of saying, " Let his soul 
be bound up in the bundle of lives." In the mouth of the 
light and flippant Abigail it may have been a mere formal com- 
plimentary phrase, like the salutations of Boaz and his reapers 
already mentioned, Domvnus vobiscum, or like a modern Eastern 
salaam; but in its origin it must have had a deeper significance. 
Had it denoted any common temporal good, and that alone, it 
would not have taken this highly figurative aspect and this 
succinct proverbial form. 

There is another conclusion that Rabbi Tanchum derives 
from this passage, (1 Samuel xxv, 29,) which is well worthy of 
notice. He takes it as an unquestionable declaration of another 
life, implying even now a community of souls ; not only of 
souls in the past who here had their earthly being, but of souls 
to be born who are yet, somehow, in the fasoievlus vitamin, 
a great " bundle of life ; " and he draws from it this remarka- 
ble inference as to the superiority of the Jewish nation in this 
knowledge (not philosophy) of the future life. " But if this be 
the fair intent of the words of Abigail in the text, namely, to 
convey this idea of another life, then is it a proof that a 
mystery so strange to the intellects of men, so remote from 
their thoughts — to the knowledge of which those most illus- 
trious for wisdom arrive only through much labor and study, 
and through difficult illustrations and argumentations — that 
such a mystery, I say, was known in those times, and made 

1883.1 A Glimpse of Old Testament Eschatology. 243 

familiar even to the women ! Surely this is a most valid argu- 
ment to show that there was, in our nation, a deep and widely 
diffused wisdom, even as is said of them, (Dent, iv, 6,) ' surely 
a people wise and understanding is this great nation.' " 

The expression, trn nro, and the prayer, rrvnv *rw e>w rwrtt 
D*nn TTO3, " May the soul of my Lord be bound up in the bun- 
dle of life," Maimonides regards as the opposite of the Jewish 
form of excommunication on the Cereth (rro) in the formula, 
" Let that soul be cut ofE from the people." This means, says 
Maimonides, (" Porta Mosis," Pocock's edition, page 154,) rron 
ion dmh rron n?n Dinxn. By being exscinded (cut off) in this 
world, it is cut off in the ola*m habba, or world to come, and is 
thus opposed to that other word of Scripture, mm *rm PDJ nnvn, 
" Be the soul of my Lord bound up in the bundle of life." 
QueBre: Did the ideas of binding and loosing in bur world 
what is bound or loosed in the other come from these forms 
into the Jewish, and from thence into the language of the 
Christian Church ? 

Cereth, Kereth, rro, was the excision, the excommunication 
from the Jewish nation, from the Jewish Church, from its 
community of life, its fasciculus vitarum, or D*n to. Like 
.other symbolical words of the Old Testament, it has a sense 
beyond the merest letter. It has a significance deepening and 
expanding, according to the spiritual stand-point of the inter- 
preter, or his view of the Jewish life as merely historical, like 
any other national life, or as symbolical, throughout, of a far 
higher and more spiritual community. 

Maimonides regards Kereth (ma) as denoting annihilation. 
See " Porta Mosis," Pocock's edition, page 154, 10 : " The most 
complete wretchedness is the Kereth or excision of the soul, 
which is its destruction — that it may no longer have continu- 
ance of being. And this is the Kereth or excision mentioned 
in the law.; for the meaning of Kereth is the cutting off of the 
soul, as it (the law) explains and says, ' that soul shall be surely 
cut off ' — and so they say, (our wise men,) by being cut off in 
this world it is cut off in the world to come, and the Script- 
ure saith, 'Let the soul of my Lord be bound up in the 
bundle of life,' etc For whoever continues in mere bodily 
pleasures, pursuing them alone, and rejecting truth, while 
ever embracing the false, is cut off from that high degree, 

244 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

and remains forever mere mass or matter, separated from all 

Some might say that Maimonides attaches too mnch impor- 
tance to the word fiflM, which is used simply to denote person or 
individual. But how came PDJ, or soul, to be thus used ? This 
is a deeper question than the common philology or the ration- 
alizing theology can .answer. We need not argue with Mai- 
monides, in his view of annihilation, but he is right in regard- 
ing the Kereth of the law as affecting the whole being, instead 
of being merely a civil separation, or as having reference only 
to the body and the bodily life. 

And so, just above this, Maimonides interprets the expression, 
Deut. iv, 40 : D^ Y*m\ i? no«, " May well with thee, and 
mayest thou prolong thy days," as the opposite of the Kereth. 
" And there has come to us a tradition which explains this as 
f ollow8 : That thou mayest prolong thy days, and that it may 
be well with thee forever in that world which is all good, and 
that thou mayest prolong thy days in the world which is all 
length ; " that is, infinite in duration. This gives us the idea 
which the Jewish doctors had of the phrase, nw T»K, length 
of the days, as employed in such passages as Psalm xxiii, 6, 
D^ -p*6 mrr rraa tq#i, " and my dwelling (my fixed abode) . 
shall be in the house of the Lord for length of days," rightly 
rendered in our English version, (if this view be correct,) " I 
shall dwell in the house of the Lord forever." 



[second article.] 

" Split hairs as much as you like, refine till you are gray about 
standards, and, unless you take leave of common sense, you 
cannot be absurd enough to teach one thing to the children 
and its opposite to the congregation. It would be infamous to 
cram into the hearts of children a faith which we believe to be 
false. When the Church orders that children be taught this 
and this, it affirms that it believes this and this ; and affirms it 
in relations that make its teachings peculiarly and solemnly 

1883J Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 245 

binding. At present, the Church certainly holds the doctrines 
taught in the Catechism for its children." * 

Such are the conclusions to which the unbiased study of our 
Church history and literature have led. 

We now pass to the second question : 

II. What is the authority of the Methodist doctrinal stand- 
ards over the teaching and denominational standing of Church 
members ? 

1. Of our official members. 

Formal subscription to the doctrinal standards is not required 
of candidates for membership in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In this particular it continues the policy adopted 
when the Methodists were only " Societies " in the Anglican 
Church. " There is only one condition previously required of 
those who desire admission into these 4 Societies,' a desire to flee 
from the wrath to come, and to be saved from their sins." \ 

Wesley frequently spoke with devout gratulation of this lib- 
erality in respect of doctrinal belief. Preaching at Glasgow in 
his eighty-fifth year, he said : 

There is no other religious society under heaven which requires 
nothing of men, in order to their admission into it, but a aesire 
to save their souls. Look all around you : you cannot be admitted 
into the Church or Society of the Presbyterians, Anabaptists, 
Quakers, or any others, unless you hold the same opinions with 
them, and adhere to the same mode of worship. The Methodists 
alone do not insist on your holding this or that opinion. . . . Here 
is our glorying, and a glorying peculiar to us. What Society 
shares it with us ? 

The evangelical denominations in America have learned 
much of this excellent Gamaliel in the matter of doctrinal lib- 
erality since then; and, like the Methodists, rely on pulpit, 
Sunday-school, and literary instruction for the uniform indoc- 
trination of their adherents. 

The American Church, as Wesley intended, is equally lib- 
eral. The General Rules require " only one condition " of 
membership. In relation to that, " are not the Articles to be 
considered rather as an indicatory than an obligatory dog- 
matic symbol, an indication to sincere men, seeking an asylum 
for Christian communion, of what kind of teaching they must 

* " Methodist," Dec. 10, 1881. f " Discipline," If 31. 

246 Methodist Quarterly JReview. [April, 

expect in the new Church, but not of what they would be 
required to avow by subscription ? " * 

Once in the Church, no unofficial member can be expelled 
from it but for faults " sufficient to exclude a person from the 
kingdom of grace and glory." Dissent from the doctrinal 
standards does not warrant extrusion. Inveighing against our 
doctrines or discipline does ; because it sows dissensions, occa- 
sions schisms, gives rise to strife and every evil work ; and is 
all the more unjustifiable in view of the fact that the offender 
had a general knowledge, at least, of the doctrines and disci- 
pline of the Church when he joined it, and that he is at liberty 
to withdraw from it at any time, and to connect himself with 
any branch of the Church of Christ whose tenets and rules 
may meet with his approval. 

" The maintenance of sound doctrine" demands caution of 
the pastor who receives candidates for Church membership into 
full communion, and logically justifies the question which, 
under instructions from the General Conference, he puts to the 
applicant, namely : " Do you believe in the doctrines of Holy 
Scripture, as set forth in the Articles of Religion of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church t " and to which the candidate is ex- 
pected to answer : " I do." 

Whether the " Form for Receiving Persons into the Church 
after Probation " be constitutionally binding, in view of the 
General Rules, and of the fourth restrictive rule, which reads : 
"They (the General Conference) Bhall not revoke or change 
the General Rules of the United Societies," is an inquiry that is 
only indirectly related to the subject of our present paper. 
Whatever the doctrinal opinions of the individuals received, 
coming as they may from under the influence of communions 
characteristically different from the Methodist, — if they " con- 
tinue to evidence their desire of salvation " under the guid- 
ance of the General Rules, they will, in all probability, soon 
find themselves in perfect unison with the theology of the 
Church. " The spiritual life of the Church is the strongest 
guarantee of its orthodoxy, but not its orthodoxy of its spirit- 
ual life." 

2. Of official members. 

(1.) Stewards. These are required to "be persons of solid 

* Stevens' " History of the Methodist Episcopal Church," vol ii, p. 217. 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 247 

piety, who both know and love the Methodist doctrine and 
discipline." * 

(2.) Leaders. " The sub-pastoral oversight made necessary by 
our itinerant economy " f is most effective when all the leaders 
are " of sound judgment, and truly devoted to God," X and 
particularly when they have pursued " such a course of reading 
and study as shall best qualify them for their work." § If the 
pastors recommend to these sub-pastors such books " as will 
tend to increase their knowledge of the Scriptures, and make 
them familiar with the passages best adapted to Christian edifi- 
cation,"! there can be. little or no doubt that the Methodist 
doctripal standards will be found among them. 

(3.) Exhorters. These officials must pass an examination of 
moral and theological qualifications, that must be satisfactory 
to their pastors, before they can be licensed ; and the subse- 
quent renewal of those licenses is conditioned on the doctrinal 
as well as intellectual satisfaction given upon examination to 
church officials or appointed examiners. 

The standards by which the orthodoxy of applicants for this 
species of ministerial license is invariably judged, are those 
common to Methodism, and " preserved in the memories and 
convictions" of the questioners. 

(4.) Local Preachers. Formal acceptance of the acknowl- 
edged symbols of the Church is requisite in the case of all who 
become preachers in it. " Conformity to the doctrines of the 
Church is required by its statute law as a functional qualifica- 
tion for the ministry." T If a member of the Church believe 
that he is moved by the Holy Ghost to preach the Gospel, the 
church of which he is a member must judge from his gifts, 
grace, and usefulness, or the absence of them, of the evangel- 
ical soundness of his persuasion ; or, in other words, whether 
he be really called to preach or not. 

If the Quarterly Conference be satisfied that his convictions 
are from the Holy Spirit, they may license him to preach, pro- 
vided his " general knowledge of the Bible, and of the doc- 
trines and usages of the Methodist Episcopal Church," as de- 
fined " in such course of studies as the Bishops shall prescribe," 
be found, on due examination, satisfactory to the Quarterly and, 

• " Discipline," T 131. \ Ibid., % 58. J Ibid., 1 69. % Ibid, f 62. 
| Ibid., f 62. f Stevens' "History of the M. & Church," voL U, p. 218. 

248 Methodist Quarterly Review [April, 

also, to the District Conference, in case his application should 
come before the latter body. 

All the books belonging to the prescribed course of study 
are, either naturally or by adoption, included in the consensus 
of Methodism on the essential doctrines of Christianity ; and 
these the candidate must have studied sufficiently to enable 
him to declare his enlightened acceptance of those doctrines as 
therein contained. 

(5.) Traveling Preachers. Whenever any local preacher is 
received as a probationer for the itinerant ministry, it is after 
he has given " satisfactory evidence of .his knowledge of those 
particular subjects which have been recommended to his con- 
sideration." * He then repairs to his allotted field of labor, and 
employs a portion of his time in the study of the works pre- 
scribed by the Bishops, under authority of the General Con- 
ference — that is to say, of the Church — and is subjected to ex- 
amination by a duly appointed committee at the next annual 
session of the Conference. The second year's experience is a 
repetition of the first. During these two years he has abun- 
dant opportunity to decide whether his theological beliefs coin- 
cide with the Methodist doctrinal standards or not 

But, say some, he is not questioned on this point. "No- 
where in the curriculum for admission, or orders, is a candi- 
date in our Church asked if he believes in the doctrines taught 
in the standard authors. Such assent is neither asked nor given. 
Nowhere in the Discipline is there any record of such authors, 
as to who they are, or what they teach." f 

These statements were trpe in part at the time they were 
written. But even then the u Discipline " said : " If he give 
us satisfaction ... he may be received into full connection." % 

The full acceptance of Methodist theology has always been 
ascertained or postulated; and had a probationer expressed 
conscientious dissent from any doctrine distinctive of the sys- 
tem, there is but scanty probability, if any, that he would have 
been received into the number of its recognized expounders and 

"Assent" to our doctrinal standards has uniformly been 

♦"Discipline," T 148. 

t Rev. J. Pullman, in the " Methodist Quarterly Review," 1879, p. 344. 

% " Discipline," 1876, 7 150. 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 249 

demanded of the probationer by the common, if not by the 
statute, law of the Church. " All along the course there is an 
unvarying recognition of a system of doctrines, fairly ascer- 
tained and well understood, which the candidate cordially 
accepts as substantially identical with his own honest convic- 
tions, and which, therefore, he proposes to preach as agreeable 
to the Word of God. To this form of doctrine, whatever it 
may be, he is shut up by the conditions of his accepted ecclesi- 
astical relations, and of his ordinations to the ministry ; and so 
long as he continues to hold and occupy these relations with 
their legitimate obligations, he is estopped from departing from 
the system of faith so accepted and believed." * , 

Since the General Conference of 1880, every preacher, before 
being received into full connection with the traveling minis- 
try, is questioned about his belief " in the doctrines taught in 
the standard authors," whose acquaintance he has diligently 
/ cultivated while pursuing the statutory course of study. In 
1 152 of the " Discipline " (1880) are the questions : 

Have you studied the doctrines of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church ? 

After full examination, do you believe that our doctrines are in 
harmony with the Holy Scriptures; and will you preach and 
maintain them ? 

To each question an affirmative reply is indispensable in 
order to admission. Again, in IT 155 (Discipline) we read: 
" Those ministers of other evangelical Churches who may de- 
sire to unite with our Church may be received" if, among 
other conditions, "they shall give satisfaction to an Annual 
Conference ... of their agreement with us in doctrines," etc. 

The promise made by the elder, when ordained, to * be ready 
with all faithful diligence to banish and drive away all errone- 
ous and strange doctrines contrary to God's word," and the 
same promise made by the bishop at the time of his consecra- 
tion to office, together with the injunction of the consecrating 
bishop, to "take heed unto thyself, and to thy doctrine," 
(T 497,) must necessarily be interpreted in the light of authori- 
tative Methodist doctrinal standards. 

The tenth rule for a " preacher's conduct " obliges him to 
a not mend our rules, but keep them ; not for wrath, but 

♦Dr. Curry, in "National Repository," 1879, p. 359. 



250 Methodist Quarterly Review. rApril, 

conscience* sake ; " the eleventh, " to mind every point, great 
and small, in the Methodist Discipline." Were every preacher 
to do so, there would be no occasion to complain of heretical 
/ teaching, and, consequently, no need of prosecution for heresy, 

or the maintenance of doctrines contrary to the Holy Script- 
ures as interpreted by the Methodist standards. 

Although no one will claim for our elastic system of doc- 
trine the iron-bound completeness of creeds like the Westmin- 
ster Confession, it is none the less certain that Methodists have 
more doctrinal harmony than most followers of more clearly 
defined symbols. Their internal conflicts and repeated divis- 
ions have not been the results of doctrinal controversy, but of 
differences on matters of ecclesiastical polity. 

Ecclesiastical history does not, perhaps, present an instance of 
an equal number of ministers brought into contact so close, and 
called so frequently together, for the discussion of various sub- 
jects, among whom so much general unanimity as to doctrines 
. . . has prevailed, joined with so much real good- will and friend- 
ship toward each other, for so great a number of years.* 

Adequate provision is made in the Discipline for the conser- 
vation of Methodist orthodoxy. 

If a member of pur Church shall be accused of endeavoring to 
sow dissension in any of our societies, by inveighing against either 
our doctrines or discipline, the person so 'offending shall first be 
reproved by the preacher in charge, and if he persists in such 
pernicious practice, he shall be brought to trial, and if found 
guilty, expelled, f 

When a minister or preacher disseminates, publicly or private- 
ly, doctrines which are contrary to our Articles of Religion or 
established standards of doctrine, let the same process oe ob- 
served as is directed in T209, § 1; but if the minister or preacher 
so offending do solemnly engage not to disseminate such errone- 
ous doctrines, in public or in private, he shall be borne with till 
his case be laid before the next Annual Conference, which shall 
determine the matter. — % 213. 

When a bishop disseminates, publicly or privately, doctrines 
which are contrary to our Articles of Religion, or established 
standards of doctrines, the same process shall be observed as is 
prescribed in % % 201, 202. — *\ 205. 

Suspension from official functions, and expulsion from the 
ministry and membership of the Church, may follow convic- 
tion of the accused by the court before which he is tried. 

* Watson's " Life of Wesley," Amer. ed., p. 240. f ".Discipline," T 228. 


1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. „.--"" . >^ 

We now come to the third question. 

IIL What does the Word of God require as touching those 
who publicly.dissent from the essential and distinctive doctrines 
of Methodism, as defined by its authoritative standards ? 

They have repeatedly expressed their assent to those doc- 
trines, and pledged themselves to propagate them. But, if 
they have ceased to believe in them as correct representations 
of the teachings of the Holy Scriptures, ought they not to seek 
an honorable release from their obligations, and more congenial 
denominational associations ? To willingly remain under sol- 
emnly covenanted engagements, and yet to preach and teach in 
antagonism to them, is not to " speak every man truth with his 
neighbor." (Eph. iv, 25.) It is to fall into one of the most 
pernicious practices of Romanism, and to profess faith in a sys- 
tem of doctrines, by contriving to sustain the position of its 
professed expositor, while disbelieving and denying it. If this 
be not hypocrisy, what is it ? Practical obedience to Christ's 
command : " Let your light so shine before men, that they may 
see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in 
heaven," (Matt, v, 16,) will cause all such dissentients to sever 
the links which bind them to a public course of procedure op- 
posed to their deliberate and mature convictions. Such separa- 
tion would not be schism, but commendable adherence to the 
truth as they understand it. The Reformers of the sixteenth 
century, and numberless Methodists of the nineteenth, have 
willingly suffered it, and that without waiting for the discipli- 
nary action of the Churches with whom they were formerly in 
fellowship. " It must be remembered," however, " that to be 
adjudged unsound in doctrine, however lawfully in form and 
correctly in purpose, is not the same with exclusion from the 
Kingdom of God. The flock is larger than any fold, and in 
any case the Chief Shepherd will know his own." * 

The "Rock River Conference plainly expressed its opinion 
as to what doctrinal dissentients in the ministry ought to do by 
kindly requesting Dr. H. W. Thomas to withdraw from the 
Methodist ministry. That he should decline to do so and 
" court an investigation, when conscious of his utter divergence 
from the standard of [Methodist] belief, and when sensible of 
his disloyalty to the vows of ordination," said u Zion's Herald " 

• Br. Curry, In the " Independent*" Nov. 8, 1831. 




250 Methodist Quarterly Review 

conscience' sate;" the eleventh, "to mind \ 
and small, in the Methodist Discipline." * *" 
to do bo, there would be no occasion to 
teaching, and, consequently, no need of ' ■» 

or the maintenance of doctrines cont' \.- * 
ores as interpreted by the Methodist 1 

Although no one will claim fo' : i ■. -, ; . 

trine the iron-bound completenee ; V * ^ ;-". , u » >* 

eter Confession, it Is none the 1' ; '. 7 '-.. ':■ i- " 

more doctrinal harmony thaD j ',"j-^>/i. 

defined symbols. Their in' .\ *% 

ions have not been the rep • "i \ 

differences on matters of . '- r, ■> "* 

Ecclesiastical history ^ * , * 

•e of the ablest and most 

.lurch of Scotland, and but lately 

published opinions on the inspiration 

on of the Scriptures that were held to 

.lie authoritative standards of his Church, 

3 his judgment that such dissentients ought 

reported by Dr. J. M. Buckley in the 

i " of October 13, 1881, he said : 

' an organization to exist without a common 
minister preaches contrary to the standards, 
■esaed. If I had been guilty and proved 
i standards of the Church to which I belong, 
have been open to the Assembly, namely, 
he ministry. Ministers, indeed, who do not 
gnized standards which form the bond of 
lain. Honesty requires them not to wait to 
said a few moments ago, while my opinions 
• widely from the opinions held thereon by 
hat upon the doctrines of the Church I have 
rary to the standards. 

r, formerly pastor of a Unitarian Church in 

istor of a Unitarian Church in New Torkj 

ted with the Methodist doctrines, and at 

them as a local preacher. But when he 

V 1 

*/l : . 

'itiwdiat Doctrinal Standards. 255 

j ■» of the Church imperiously demanded the 

.-i* yy measures toward him. Oa July 15, 

-■$■ » id Jewett formally charged him with 

' ' -.* '■■ ' contrary to our Articles of Religion 

doctrine," and specified the offense 

' | i ^ng the inspiration and authority 

■? ~0 ■$ '•' Scriptures in such way as to 

. -^ * £ * ;if Religion, as found in the 

/?• ? 2r if * . "-opal Church." Second, " In 

5 .~ -?■ ¥ .£ W »*• w ne ^ hy the Methodist 

»' w .-? - 3 ^ ' the second and twentieth 

%'||| * i f ortli in the Discipline." 

'eath for those who die 

; -da of the Methodist 

> Diurifihment of the 

^at deal, ai. ■-. .; I 

.illy, or depart in t "^J 

.* it, they lift him very g- 

Dr, Thomas* persistent effort 
a Methodist minister, after he hav. 
accord with some of its most sacreu^ 
such as are considered as essential to 
defended. The question at this point is not . 
of those doctrines, hut whether or not they ai 
the recognized creed of the Church, and of sue 
make their acceptance necessary to ministeria 
essential doctrinal unity of the body. This \ 
is taken by not a few who nre with Dr. Thon 
the faith which he repudiates, among them I 
Professor Swing, who confess the manifest imp 
tinuing in a ministry whose doctrine he repud 
Dr. Thomas' capital blunder, which neither he 
defend, and which must be condemned by all i 
as morally a great mistake. He should have 
ly, and, failing to do this, was righteously dis 

This consensus of opinion, as to the com 
dissenter from the essential doctrines of iris < 
to pursue, is no leBS agreeable to the inst: 
noble manhood than to the spirit of the int 
the grandest examples of Church history. 

But if dissentients of the type under eon 
dissolve their relation to the Church, th 
Word of God authorize the Church to do in 

• " Christian Advocate," Oct 20, 1881. f **■ Curr T> ' 

Fourth Sbeies, Vol. XXXV. — 17 

Metliodist Quarterly Review. 


Paul, in his epistle to the Bomans, xvi, 17, answers the 
inquiry in the words : " I • beseech you, brethren, mark them 
which cause divisions' and offenses contrary to the doctrine 
which ye have learned ; and avoid them." Of like tenor are 
his instructions to Timothy, (1 Epistle vi, 3, 5 :) " If any man 
teach otherwise, and consent not to wholesome words, even 
the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which 
is according to godliness : from such withdraw thyself." Of 
" unruly and vain talkers," the same great organizer and admin- 
istrator declared that their " mouths must be stopped." (Titus 
i, 10, 11.) Interpreted as these and similar instructions must 
be, so as not to conflict with any other injunctions of the New 
Testament, they do not for a moment sanction any inquisitorial 
measures ; but they do impose upon the faithful the duty of 
kindly and justly exscinding the incorrigible derelict from their 
communion, and of stopping their mouths, so far as official 
utterance in the edifices owned and controlled by the Church 
are interested. 

With the injunctions of the apostolic writers the disciplinary 
methods of the Methodist Church are in perfect harmony. 
The possibly injurious results of Methodistic liberality were 
once discussed in the British Conference, Wesley conclusively 
determined the debate by remarking : 

I have no more right to object to a man for holding a different 
opinion from me, than I have to differ with a man because he 
wears a wig, and I wear my own hair ; but if he takes his 
wig off, and begins to shake the powder about my eyes, I shall 
consider it my duty to get quit of him as soon as possible.* 

If Dr. Thomas be correctly reported, and there seems to be 
little or no doubt on this point, he did take off his wig and 
shake the powder about the eyes of his brethren. This they 
naturally resented. Intelligent and cultivated men, whose 
theological convictions are very deep and sincere, do not like 
to be denounced as bigoted, antiquated, erroneous, and al- 
together behind the times; and especially when they are 
convinced that the denouncer himself is the belated individual 
who is justly obnoxious to the same or similar charges. 
Nevertheless they patiently, tenderly, and respectfully bore 
with him until patience ceased to be a virtue, and the peace, 

* Stevens' "History of the Methodist Epteoopal Church," vol ii, jx 217. 

1S83.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 255 

purity, and efficiency of the Church imperiously demanded the 
adoption of disciplinary measures toward him. On July 15, 
1881, Drs. Hatfield and Jewett formally charged him with 
disseminating doctrines " contrary to our Articles of Religion 
or established standards of doctrine," and specified the offense 
as consisting, first, " In denying the inspiration and authority 
of portions of the canonical Scriptures in such way as to 
antagonize the fifth Article of Religion, as found in the 
Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church.'' Second, " In 
denying the doctrine of atonement, as held by the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and embodied in the second and twentieth 
of her Articles of Religion, as set forth in the Discipline." 
Third, " In teaching a probation after death for those who die 
in sin, thereby antagonizing the standards of the Methpdist 
Episcopal Church in relation to the endless punishment of the 
wicked." * 

By the Committee of Investigation convened by his Presid- 
ing Elder, and consisting of nine ministers of the Conference, 
these specifications were thoroughly sifted on the 6th of Sep- 
tember, 1881. Dr. Thomas ably and eloquently defended him- 
self, and was assisted by Drs. Miller; Sneppard, and Axtell, and 
also by learned lawyers as legal consulting counsel. In the issue 
he was pronounced guilty of the first specification by a vote of 
six to three ; of the second, by a vote of five to four ; and of the 
third, by a vote of eight to one. (New York " Independent.") 

Formal trial by a committee of the Conference followed at 
its ensuing annual session. In vindication of himself, the ac- 
cused avowed his belief that Methodism placed its chief empha- 
sis " upon the life, the experience, the heart- work of religion, 
and that in matters of opinion it allowed the largest liberty." 
As it subsequently appeared, the " largest liberty " he had ex- 
ercised was not within the limits of the doctrinal standards, but 
over and beyond them, and in contemptuous indifference to 
their authority. He had felt " at perfect liberty to deal with 
the forms or statements of those doctrines, and as far as possi- 
ble to harmonize them with reason and revelation, and the 
deepest intuitions of the soul." (" Independent.") This confes- 
sion implied, first, that the Methodist Episcopal " forms or state- 
ments " of doctrine are not in harmony with " reason and reve- 

• "Independent," August 25, 188L 

256 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

lation, and the deepest intuitions of the soul ;" and second, that 
he doubted even his own power to effect a satisfactory recon- 

Dr. Miller evinced no little legal and forensic ability in de- 
fense of his client, and argued his case with such success that 
" Dr. Thomas was acquitted, by a vote of ten to five, on the 
specification charging him with denying the inspiration and 
authority of the canonical books of the Old and New Testa- 
ments. On the second and third specifications, respecting the 
doctrine of atonement and eternal punishment, on which he 
was convicted, the jury stood nine to six." * 

Expulsion from the ministry and membership of the Church 
— a species of glorifying martyrdom that the errant preacher 
seems to have coveted — followed this verdict of the court. 
But the language of one popular editor in the Church : " God 
be praised that there is yet energy enough in the denomination 
to expel a minister, though personally popular, whose teachings 
would strip the law of its terrors and the Gospel of its saving 
power," f although it voices the sentiments of the vast majori- 
ty of the ministers and members of the Church, must not be 
construed as implying the existence of any unkind feeling 
toward the exscinded brother. All admired his ability and 
accomplishments; all conceded the purity of his character; 
all rejoiced in whatever good he had been enabled to do ; 
all spoke tenderly and respectfully of him; and all would 
have praised the God of all grace had he seen the error of 
his ways, and conscientiously returned to the faith and meth- 
ods of the Church. None would have blamed him had he 
manfully withdrawn from the Church into another fold, or 
done what he has done since his expulsion, namely, established 
a church of his own. But since he would not or could not be 
convinced ; and because he would not retire, nor submit to the 
authorities he had vowed to obey, there was no alternative left 
but sorrowingly, yet sternly, to expel him from the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

As was to be anticipated, the destructionists of all classes, 
and the Protean theologians, whose marvelously elastic ductility 
endows them with the power to present an orthodox aspect one 
day, a heterodox frontispiece the next, and a hybrid, what-d'ye- 

* "Independent," Oct. 20, 1881. f "Christian Advocate," Oct 20, 1881. 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 257 

call-it, visage the following ; who are all things by turns, and 
nothing long ; thundering Jupiters one Sabbath and " sucking 
doves" on the next, set up a tremendous howl of indignation. 
Their sympathy, like that of the f reebooting fraternity whose 
grief is only for the burglar arrested or shot for his crime, went 
out to the man whom they held to be one with them in the at- 
tempt to rob the Church of " the faith once delivered to the 
saints." To them he is magnanimity, nobleness, heroism, per- 
sonified. No Methodist will wish to deprive them of what 
comfort they can obtain in this way. 

The secular papers, as a rule, held just and temperate lan- 
guage on the trial and its issue. The New York " Sun," one 
of the strong, keen, stern, but not always just and merciful, 
newspapers of the metropolis, in its issue of September 13, 
1881, said of the preliminary investigation : 

The heresy of the Rev. Dr. Thomas related to three of the 
fundamental doctrines of Protestant orthodoxy that are main- 
tained by the Methodist Episcopal Church: the doctrines of 
scriptural inspiration, the atonement, and an eternal hell. There 
was a great deal of testimony, mainly from his own sermons and 
conversations, to show his heterodoxy upon these doctrines. . . . 
It seems to us, that both by his printed sermons, and by the testi- 
mony of witnesses to his language, the charges against him were 
fully proved ; and that, if the Methodist Episcopal Church de- 
sires to be accounted an orthodox Protestant body, his expulsion 
from its ministry is necessary. 

" The New York ' Tribune ' also had a very discriminating 
editorial in the same direction." * 

The deliverances of the secular censors of ecclesiastical morals 
on the action of the Conferential court are of similar quality to 
those on the Committee of preliminary Investigation. 

On the 30th of November, 1881, the Judicial Conference, to 
which Dr. Thomas had appealed from the decision of the Rock 
River Annual Conference, declined, by a vote of fifteen to 
four, to entertain his appeal ; on the ground that he had for- 
feited his right to be heard by willfully continuing to preach 
since his exclusion, and by allying himself to an ecclesiastical 
organization independent of and hostile to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Fearless and not over-friendly critics of 
Methodism justify the decision of the Judicial Conference, 

* "Christian Advocate," Oct 20, 1881. 

258 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

which naturally passes without question in the Church itself. 
While the judicial processes of the Church, in the discipline of 
incorrigible dissentients from its doctrinal standards, is mani- 
festly agreeable to " God's Word written," and are all applaud- 
ed by sound public sentiment, it is also gratifying to know that 
they have been followed by the blessing of the Great Head of 
the Church. The following extracts from the Chicago " Daily 
Inter-Ocean," of November 14, 1881, are full of interest and 
instruction : 

Dr. Thomas was pastor of the Centenary Church for three 
years, and did a great work in the way ^f building up the con- 
gregation. People crowded the church to hear him, and no 
larger congregations were to be found in the city. He did not 
however, it is claimed, add greatly to the spiritual strength of the 
church. He drew to him that class of church goers whose ideas 
on religious subjects do not accord with the strictly orthodox, 
but rather tend to the liberal, or, as some call it, the heretical 
None of these became members of the church, and when he left 
it they followed him. The membership of Centenary was, at the 
beginning of Dr.- Thomas' pastorate, about 700, and it did not get 
above that figure in the three years. Some claim that it even de- 
creased to about 500, but this is not credited by others. The 
class-meeting, the solid foundation upon which Methodism is 
built, decreased under Thomas' pastorate, and ceased to be a 
power in the church. At the close of his pastorate, a year ago, 
there were but three small classes, and they were not regularly 

Dr. George took charge of the church a year ago, under em- 
barrassing circumstances. Thomas had left with the majority of 
the Conference against him, and a heresy trial hanging over his 
head. This created sympathy for him, and the man who followed 
him in the Centenary pulpit was supposed by the unthinking to 
be in some way responsible for this state of affairs. Those who 
were in sympathy with Dr. Thomas arrayed themselves against 
the Methodist Church and its representative in this pulpit. The 
large outside congregation, attracted to Centenary and held for 
three years by Dr. Thomas, left, and Dr. George came from an- 
other Conference and another State to build up a church divided 
against itself. He was no ordinary man, although Chicago people 
had not heard much of him. He was orthodox, in the extreme, 
perhaps, but a man of giant intellect and great powers of attrac- 
tion. He appeared cold and austere when he entered the pulpit, 
and the little congregation at first were repelled. His voice was 
not so cold as his looks, and when, after the sermon, he came down 
from the pulpit to mingle with the people, they found him warm 
and hearty m his welcome. His sermons, too, were as full of 
originality and deep thought as those of his predecessor. His 

1883.] Methodist Doctrinal Standards. 259 

first qongregation was his smallest, and from that time the audi- 
ences have increased in size, until now they fill the church, and 
are as large as those attendant upon Dr. Thomas' preaching. 
The three small classes have increased to sixteen, and the prayer- 
meetings double in attendance, and the whole spiritual growth of 
the church such as never before in its history. The membership 
also has increased, and is more closely associated with the 
church work. The finances of a church are generally an indica- 
tion of the success of a pastor. After the fire in 1871, Centenary 
Church had a debt of (10,000, and this gradually increased until, 
in 1880, the bonded debt was $14,000, and the floating debt 
$2,000, making a total debt of $16,000 to confront the new pas- 
tor ; and part of this debt, it is said, was $500 of Dr. Thomas' 
salary. Dr. George at once went to work, and in less than ten 
months had money subscribed to pay off this entire debt, and 
now, practically, tne church is free from debt — something never 
known in her history before. When he returned [from Europe] a 
week ago, the people did not wait for the trustees to arrange for 
a reception, but took it upon themselves, and gave the pastor Such 
a greeting as could only come from those who loved him as a 
friend and a teacher. 

There is no church in the city to-day doing a greater or better 
work than Centenary, and none more closely united. Dr. George 
is quiet and unostentatious, never catering to the public, and mov- 
ing in the way he considers the path of duty. The "Inter- 
Ocean" believes in justice to all men, aud takes this opportunity 
to set the facts before the public in their true light, that it may 
be known that Centenary Church did not cease to exist when Dr. 
Thomas organized the People's Church. 

Receiving this as a truthful representation of the Centenary 
Church and its recent history, it is conclusively shown : first, 
that the blessing of God rests upon the Church's vindication of 
her doctrinal purity ; second, that the nnscriptural heresies of 
a popular preacher are far more likely " to sink the Church,'' 
than her intelligent fidelity to recognized doctrinal standards as 
the best attainable expositions of revealed truth ; third, that 
contending "earnestly for the faith once delivered to the 
saints," in the spirit and power of our Lord Jesus Christ, is the 
surest means of promoting the Church's prosperity ; fourth, 
that the Church can better spare her most eloquent sons than 
tolerate their violations of solemn ordination vows ; and fifth, 
tliat this exciting instance in a long line of precedents is an ad- 
ditional reason for the zealous and loving preservation of the 
truth as it is in Jesus, and as it is understood by the continuous 
documentary consensus of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

260 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, . 


The phrase, " Beginning of Life " in the world-system, is an 
old and trite one, and presents an unsolved and perplexing 
problem ; yet it seems as fresh and attractive to the men of 
to-day as it did to those of the nineteenth century before our 
era. In fact, it appeals too strongly to our intellectual curi- 
osity ever to be dropped out of the lines of human thought. 
There have been hopes and expressed beliefs that the ad- 
vances in biological science, especially in embryology, would 
soon or later bring us to the threshold of life, so that man 
could understand the initial life-growths, and put them 
into statements of cause and effect, phrase them in formulated 
interactions of matter and force, just as one can state the laws 
of chemical reaction. The aim and the hope have been to 
put the genesis of life in the same scientific status with the 
baking of bread and the formation of water and limestone. 
Agassiz seemed to believe that the now closed gates of life- 
would yet stand ajar under the persistent pressure of scien- 
tific investigation. He says :* " The time has come when sci- 
entific truth must be woven into the common life of the world ; 
for we have reached the point where the results of science 
touch the very problem of existence, and all men listen for the 
solving of that mystery. When it will come, and how, none 
can say ; but this much is certain, that all our researches are 
leading up to that question, and mankind will never rest until 
it is answered." But, both from the nature of the problem and 
from the limits of scientific thought, we are compelled to the 
belief that the mystery of initial life will never be solved ; that 
there will be for us no formulated statement of the interactions 
of the vital and other forces, bringing the fact (for it is a fact, 
a thing done, like other facts in natural processes) of the be- 
ginning of life within scientific limits, .such as we have in the 
tabulated interactions of matter and force in the known methods 
of mechanical equivalents and chemical reactions. And one of 
the purposes of this article is to give some reasons for this belief. 
To help explain the origin of life, some draw analogies be- 
tween the merely chemical and the organic movements ; as when 

♦ " Methods of Study in Natural History," p. 42. 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 261 

they compare the sudden starts of crystallization in a liquid 
with the quick conversion of nutrient matter into living tissue 
by the bioplasts of that tissue, as if an analogy was a solution, 
and as though the marvelous dynamic flow of organic force was 
only the overflow of chemical rills. Others compare the birth 
of the first of a series with the birth of an individual in that 
series ; thus trying to make a derivative birth-life explain the 
mystery of the introduction of life into the world ; as if repro- 
duction in kind was the same thing as primal origination ; as 
if the organic natural links of a genetic connection between the 
individuals of a species was the 6ame thing as the origin of the 
species. And yet others — and notably Bain, and Tyndall also, 
inferentially — have sought for a partial solution of the problem 
of organic existence in a new definition of matter. The pro- 
posed new definition represents matter as a u double-faced," a 
doubly endowed something having a physical and a spiritual 
side, an upper and a lower side — the lower side with its inertia, 
color, gravity, and other physical qualities; the higher with 
its spontaneity and other spiritual qualities. They would thus 
put a spiritual potency and promise into the nebulous mist 
of the primordial world-dust, so as to be able, after a measure- 
less reach of time, to take out of it a planetary surface film of 
vegetable and animal life, even though ages of fiery molten 
matter He between the putting in and the taking out. And they 
do this in the face of the established fact, that no forms of life 
have ever been known to survive a heat much less than that 
which belongs to molten rock. But with the aid of all these 
analogies and suggestions, the method of life's origin is still a 
problem unsolved. Not only the origination, but also the re- 
production of life, presents a like mystery. Even the advances 
of science, which take us from the complex adult organism back- 
ward through the embryonic stages of growth to the structure- 
less ovarian egg, beyond which the microscope has no range of 
vision, and beyond which the scalpel has no point of touch, nor 
the crucible any chemic tests, are no advances toward an ex- 
planation of this mystery of life. Yet in spite of repeated and 
inevitable failures, philosophic thought will brood intensely 
over the life-problem, trying to put the links of causal con- 
nection between the facts and phases of the process by which 
the life principle weaves an organism with perfect functions out 

262 Methodist (faarterly Review. [April, 

of the f unctionless ovarian egg. The problem, ever present since 
the beginning of the race, but never solved, is to-day as fresh 
as ever ; and the scientific imagination will project the known 
modes of motion of physical forces into the changes of living 
matter, so as to picture the tissue-weaving of organic life 
under modes of mechanical and molecular action. But just as 
none of the operations within the range of what we call natural 
can explain the existence and the properties of atoms in chem- 
istry, so nothing within the known range of chemical and 
mechanical actions can explain the beginning of life. The ex- 
istence of atoms, and that of organic life, are both births of 
finite being, are both to be taken as specific outcomes of Divine 
energy ; as breaks of a supernatural intervention, which will 
be forever outside of the imitations of the laboratory, outside of 
the formulas and laws that hold the mathematical and mechan- 
ical interactions of matter and force. Not the most profoundly 
cultivated imagination, playing ever so precisely according to 
the known modes of molecular mechanical action, can ever 
picture how the creative energy of the Supreme Will had its 
outcome in new forms of existence. The beginning of life 
lies outside of the domain of science, out of the reach of the 
swiftest, surest imagination, sa ve under the form of vague 
analogies ; and analogies are not solutions, for the reason that 
the original passage from the inorganic to the organic was 
rather an abrupt than a transitional one by insensible grada- 

But this persistent quest for the origin of life is not irration- 
al, for as soon as the human faculties are sufficiently developed, 
this* topic comes up with an original freshness. It is somo- 
what like the search for perpetual motion, but with this differ- 
ence : that in the search along the lines of causation you are at 
last stopped, not by the impossible, but by the hidden. 

To the question : Whence is the vital force derived, and what 
is its relation to the other forces of nature ? Prof. Le Conte, 
speaking for himself and for many physiologists,* says : " The 
answer of modern science to this question is : It is derived from 
the lower forces of nature ; it is correlated with chemical and 
physical forces ; in all cases vital force is produced by decom- 
position ; animals derive their vital force from the decomposi- 

* « Popular Science Monthly," December, 1873. 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 263 

tion of their food and their tissues." Now, in the name of 
well-established results in science, and in the clear light of that 
insight of reason which demands that every change must have 
an adequate cause, we deny this theory of the origin of life, 
and at the same time deny the correlation of vital and chem- 
ical forces. For correlation is a technical term in science, and 
denotes the mutual convertibility, the interchangeability, of 
forces. Not simply their relationship, but something more ; 
thus, heat may disappear and electricity appear in its place; 
this may disappear in giving rise to chemical action, which in 
its turn generates heat. This mutual convertibility of heat, 
electricity, and chemical affinity, is well understood by the 
phrase, correlation of physical forces. 

Now, closely connected with the persistent efforts to bridge 
the chasm between the living and the not-living by means of 
an interchanging play of chemical and vital forms, that is, to 
substitute a general molecular mechanism for a special life- 
force, is the attempt to reduce all the physical forces to the 
unity of a mutual convertibility. And if all of the seemingly 
diverse physical forces are ultimately reducible to one force, or 
are simply diverse forms of manifestation of one all-energizing 
force, then pre we pretty far on our way toward the identity of 
the chemical and vital forces. But, in fact, rte know of no 
wilder dream in the domain of science than the imaginative be- 
lief that all the forms of physical energy are capable of 
mutual conversion; excepting, of course, that still wilder 
dream, that will-force on the one hand and the attraction of 
gravity on the other, with all the other forces that lie between 
or alongside, are all capable of mutual conversion, both quanti- 
tative and qualitative. 

But diversity of forces, not oneness, is the speech of nature. 
There is no correlation of all the physical forces. The force 
of gravity is transmitted into no other ; it never plays back and 
forth with heat, light, or electricity, as these do with each 
other. A stone falling to the earth has an arrest of motion and 
a development of heat, but gravity suffers no change with that 
increment of heat. When, according to the nebular hypothe- 
sis, the matter of the sun and planets was a condensing nebu- 
lous mist, gravity was there, but distinct from the atomic 
forces ; when the matter had condensed into a cooling surface 

264 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [April, 

crust, gravity was there coactive with other forces, yet distinct 
from them ; when the air was set free as an atmosphere, and 
the rain-drops fell from it, gravity was there, working with 
other forces of chemistry, cohesion and heat, but never inter- 
changing with them. Moreover, the recent attempt to secure 
the correlation of all the physical forces by the hypothetical 
reduction of gravity to a mode of motion of ethereal atoms, 
whereby this force is regarded as a sort of mechanical pressure 
arising from the impact of atoms in their swift and ceaseless 
motion, is simply an audacity of modern thought, is only the 
fallacious shadow of an analogy borrowed from the mathemat- 
ical mechanism of the impact of bodies. The attraction that 
one mass has for another is supposed to be resolved into the 
excess of force which the impact of these whirling, driving 
atoms have in one direction over their impulsive impact in other 
directions. But this ethereal bombardment theory may be safe- 
ly and sanely relegated to the limbo of scientific vagaries ; for 
it is an illegitimate thing in science, and was born of the belief 
in the oneness of all the physical forces, and carefully bred in 
the interests of that evolutionism which seeks to evolve all di- 
verse existing forms from some one primal form. Forces that 
coact, but never interchange in all their points of contact, must 
be held to differ essentially. The nexus of the attraction of 
gravity which lies through the universe lies outside of the cor- 
relation of the physical forces, and it is only a pleasant fiction 
of thought that brings it within. 

Moreover, labor has been industriously expended in trying 
to explain the origin of life by the inherent structural energy 
in the molecules of matter ; that is, by spreading incipient life 
through the whole of inorganic nature, and thus, also, to extend 
the range of the correlation of forces. But decisive against the 
whole theory is the testimony of the chemical forces when they 
are taken in their unbroken, unvaried line of witness reaching 
through the vast geological ages back far beyond the record of 
plant-life ; for the testimony along this vast tract of time is un- 
impeachable, both for the diversity and absolute uninterchange- 
ability of certain forces within the entire range of the opera- 
tion of known causes. Thus, the type of an oxygen atom has 
always held unchanged. Any specimens taken from the old- 
est Azoic rocks, or from the later Trenton limestone, or coal- 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 265 

measures, living plants, rain-drops, or human tissue, present no 
difference of properties whatever. Any one of these will form 
with two hydrogen atoms a molecule of water. So, also, any 
hydrogen atom taken from the water of the Gulf Stream, or 
living plant, or coal, or meteoric iron dropped to us from the 
stellar spaces, will unite with oxygen to form water. These 
two distinct substances, made such by their pecul^r special 
forces, have kept an immutable identity through countless 
interactions and measureless periods of time, and when brought 
into contact under proper conditions, will form water just like 
that which fell in drops on the Laurentian rocks of the Azoic 
Age. There is another test of their specific identity, immuta- 
bility, and non-correlation ; namely, the spectroscopic. By this 
method the wave-lengths of different kinds of light can be 
measured to the one ten-thousandth part. Determined by this 
test, the wave-lengths of hydrogen light in Sirius, Arcturus, and 
remote nebulae have exactly the same length with those of the 
hydrogen generated in the laboratory. Hydrogen and oxygen 
atoms, which are what they are in virtue of the special forces 
in each, are the same the universe over and the ages through, 
with no correlation of their specific forces. They positively de- 
clare for a diversity of forces when nature began, and with no 
mutual interchange into each other since then, so far as our ex- 
periments and our records can reach. We may bind these 
atomic forms into compounds, and then unbind them again and 
again ; but in all their binding and unbinding they never reach 
the line of mutual convertibility. They are the same now, 
have always been, and will be while physical nature endures. 
When nature flung her first shuttles in the creative weaving, 
she had threads for warp and woof that were distinct and un- 
changeable. Within the range of natural causes, and across 
measureless reaches of time and of space, these atomic forces 
have had no mutual crossing. Hence we may affirm that the 
doctrine of a oneness of force, at either nature's beginning or in 
her ongoing, is simply a crookedness of the imagination, a sci- 
entific shadow of the mind's own throwing. 

Professor Maxwell, in his address before the British Associ- 
ation in Bradford, England, says : 

No theory of evolution can be formed to account for the simi- 
larity of atoms, for evolution necessarily implies continuous change, 

266 Methodist Quarterly JSeview. [April, 

and the atom is incapable of growth or decay, of generation or 
destruction. None of the processes of nature, since nature began, 
have produced the slightest difference in the properties of any 
atom. We are therefore unable to ascribe either the existence 
of the atoms or the identity of their properties to the operation 
of the causes we call natural. On the other hand, the exact 
equality of each atom to all the others of the same kind gives it, as 
Sir John Herschel has well said, the essential character of a 
manufactured article, and precludes the idea of its being eternal 
and self -existent. 

The theory of the origin of life from molecular mechanics 
gets no help from the theory of a primal unity of force with 
recent diverse manifestations. Diversity of forces and har- 
mony, not unity, is the fact at the very threshold of nature's 

There are two views of the origin of life, to which we will 
now refer : one refers it to the unknown past by supposing it 
to be present potentially in matter; the other supposes it to 
have come into nature as a special intervention, as a sudden up- 
lift, or a new direction in the processes of nature, under the 
creative energy of a supreme will. One is life potential in 
primordial inorganic matter ; the other is a special life-princi- 
ple " inserted into matter " at a later date. On this topic, for a 
bewildering looseness of scientific ideas, and as illustrating the 
first theory, we refer to an article in the " Popular Science 
Monthly," August, 1874. We refer to it, however, as an ex- 
aggerated specimen of a lack of a precise scientific education, 
but of which many instances meet us in all directions. This, 
and some that are better, are sometimes classed under the term 
popular science ; and if they only had the hues of rhetorical 
brilliancy in addition to their lack of scientific truth and their 
tangled travesties of fact, we might be compelled to think that 
the plastic shaping forms of the mediaeval oriental imagination 
had become occidental and modern. It reads : 

The first appearance of organic life is the easiest step in 
the whole process, because nearest the inorganic kingdom. See, 
then, this drop of colloid matter — this protoplasm — this celL 
When we have a morsel of nitrogen ized colloid matter, we can 
easily comprehend how the attacks of oxygen will cause the evo- 
lution of these forces, which again will cause a difference of 
functions in different parts, which again, .by this very differenti- 
ation, become organs. Without a differentiation there would be 
no relation of the parts, no polarity, no motion, no circulation, no_ 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 267 

increase — the best evidence of organic life. In our most ordi- 
nary notion of a cell there is all of this, and this motion, this 
polarity, this circulation, can be caused by oxygen alone attacking 
a suitable compound. A circulation, which is but a repetition of 
rhythmical motion, once set up, organization is complete. En- 
dow this with the power of inspiring other colloid and crystalloid 
atoms with like vibrations, attracting them into its own mass and 
then ejecting them again, and you have a living creature. 

A little of the fast and loose play with scientific terms and 
phrases may sometimes be allowable, but not among the scien- 
tifically educated, nor in books intended for scientific instruc- 
tion. Clear precision and statements in accord with the well- 
defined results of science are demanded, especially in text- 
books. But when we find analogy made to exactly fill the place 
of exact likeness ; find partial put for exhaustive experiment ; 
the part put for the whole ; find instinct totally dissociated 
from any form of prior intelligence ; find more taken out of a 
process than was put into it at the beginning, or inserted in it 
along the way ; find theoretical beliefs put as final statements 
of science ; it then becomes necessary to attend to definitions, 
and to demand precision and proof in regard to facts and the 
laws holding in the facts. It is with reference to these state- 
ments and as prompting them that we quote first from an ad- 
dress given by Sir John Lubbock, in York, England, 1881. 
He is speaking of the fertilization of flowers by insects. " The 
general result is, that to insects, especially to bees, we owe the 
beauty of our gardens, the sweetness of our fields. To their 
beneficent though unconscious action flowers owe their scent, 
their color, their honey, — nay, in many cases, even their forms. 
Their present 6hape, and varied arrangements, their brilliant 
colors, their honey, their sweet scent, are all due to the selec- 
tion exercised by insects." Also, with a like trend of thought 
toward the exclusion of the supernatural within the range of 
nature, from inorganic molecules up through monads to man, we 
have the following astonishing reading : u The sunbeam comes 
to the earth as simply motion of ether waves, yet it is the only 
source of beauty, life, and power. In the growing plant, the 
burning coal, the flying bird, the glaring lightning, the bloom- 
ing flower, the rushing cataract, the pattering rain, we see only 
varied manifestations of this one all-energizing force." * Such 

* Steele's " Fourteeu Weeks in Natural Philosophy/' 1872. 

268 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

statements are sometimes called popular science; but we can 
more precisely name them as scientific induction run wild. 
And we are sometimes amazed that su»ch interpretations of the 
facts of nature should be set forth as if they were the well- 
established results of science; whereas they are rather rhetor- 
ical travesties of science and beggarly elements of a ragged 
philosophy. We are well aware that insects sometimes act as 
pollen carriers in the fertilization of plants ; we also know that 
bees love apple-blossoms and the honey-glands of the buck- 
wheat flower ; but that the apple-drying industry now growing 
so rapidly, and the winter luxury of buckwheat cakes, and the 
chaste elegance of the fuchsia, are dependent on insect visit- 
ation, is a piece of marvelous information equal only to that 
other one implied in the statement, that clover-seed would be 
barren but for the visits of the bees to the blowing clover. 
Yet still more surprising is the idea that the existence of the 
eight honey-glands, which each buckwheat flower bears, are due 
to the selection exercised by insects. We had supposed that 
the laws of growth and special organic structure were the two 
main facts that had the most to do with the beauty, the fra- 
grance, the oil-glands, of flowers and fertilization ; and that the 
action of insects was in some cases essential, but generally 
either incidental or indifferent ; but here we have this partial 
agency set forth as general. This is not exact science, but in- 
exact confusion. Also, in regard to its wide and varied uses, 
we know that solar force counts for much in plant and animal 
life ; but what shall we say to that confusing looseness of state- 
ment that makes life-force, the laws of growth, gravity, cohe- 
sion, and chemical affinity, only transmuted sunbeams ? The 
clearest, best results of the latest science, both English and 
German, speak of the life-force as the co-ordinating power that 
weaves the varied organic tissues in fish, lion, and man out of 
a nutrient matter which, so far as microscope or crucible can 
apply their tests, is the same ; yet this wondrous co-ordinating 
force that takes the minute ovarian egg, and, with a definite end 
held steadily in view, ultimately fashions the prone fish ; and 
then, taking a similar 6gg, weaves out of it the tissues of erect 
man — this force is spoken of as transmuted sunbeams! We 
know that water is evaporated by solar force from land and 
sea ; but it rises into cloud, condenses into drops, and falls as 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 269 

rain, by the forces of cohesion and gravity ; and these are not 
the modified force of solar heat, and that they should be so 
spoken of is simply amazing. In a branch of the oak a bud is 
started, grows, and then is differentiated into sepals, stamens, 
and pistils ; and the pistil is further differentiated and finally 
integrated with its delicate involucral cup and its interior em- 
bryo, the promise and the potency of the future oak : and all 
this due to the force of sunbeams only! So, too, we have 
the Darwinian, or rather Hackelian, motto for an introduction 
to a text-book in Zoology: "Nature makes transitions; natu- 
ralists make divisions." We need only put this half-truth 
statement in contrast with one from Agassiz : * 

In the Radiate the whole periphery of the egg is transformed 
into the germ, so that it becomes, by the liquefying of the yolk, a 
hollow sphere. In the Mollusk the germ lies above the yolk, ab- 
sorbing its whole substance through the under side, thus forming 
a massive, close body, instead of a hollow one. In the Articulate 
the germ is turned in a position exactly opposite that in the 
Mollusk, and absorbs the yolk upon the back. In the Verte- 
brate the germ divides in two folds, one turning upward the 
other turning downward, above and below the central backbone. 
These four modes of development seem to exhaust the primitive 
sphere which is the foundation of all animal life ; therefore I be- 
lieve that Cuvier and Baer were right in saying that the whole 
animal kingdom is included under these four structural ideas. 

In the presence of nature thus having four different foun- 
dations of animal structure, and holding distinctively to these 
through all the stages of growth with never a line of crossing 
between them, to put an entrance inscription to the study of 
animal life of "Nature makes transitions, naturalists make 
divisions " is not accordant to the facts. In the same extreme 
evolutional trend of thought we are sometimes told that star- 
light falling and disappearing on the human retina reappears 
as a nervous molecular tremor of the brain mass ; this tremor 
disappeared motion to reappear as thought or feeling, or both. 
Starlight and thought, sunshine and seeds, bees and beauty, 
insect hunger and buckwheat-meal, are thus brought into the 
relation of cause and effect, are correlated like heat and elec- 

Now, in the name of science itself, and in the higher name of 

* " Methods of Study," p. 36. 

Foubth Sebies, Vol. XXXV.— 18 

270 Methodist Quarterly Review. TApril, 

philosophy, we protest against these misinterpretations of the 
facts of nature, against these false renderings of the laws hold- 
ing in the facts. It is at least a semi-materialism which puts 
the beginnings, the successions, the utilities and graces of life 
entirely within the sphere of known physical causes and blind- 
brute agencies. It is at its best a bold physical theism, which 
the best science of Europe and America is discarding. It all 
reads like a rhetorical magic trick of trying to make the body 
of truth swim the 6eas with "fins of lead " and tail of cork. 

Professor Le Conte's theory of the beginning of life is notable 
for two things : first, for the abrupt, sudden transitions in the 
life-process ; and secondly, for its inconsistencies. We shall 
briefly refer to this theory. There are four plans of material 
existence, and, correspondingly, of their peculiar forces : (1) The 
elements and the physical forces ; (2) The mineral kingdom and 
the chemical forces ; (3) The vegetable kingdom and the vital 
forces ; (4) The animal kingdom and the will force or volition. 
For plant life we have the following application of his theory : 
Atoms in a nascent state — that is, at the moment of their sepa- 
ration — have a peculiar, powerful affinity, and this nascent 
chemical energy, under peculiar conditions, forms organic mat- 
ter and appears as vital force. Sunlight falling on green leaves 
is destroyed, consumed in doing the work of decomposition ; it 
disappears as sunlight and reappears as chemical energy, and 
this in turn disappears in forming organic matter, to reappear 
as the vital force of the organism. There are two principles 
underlying this theory : (1) In all cases vital force is produced 
by decomposition ; (2) The vital and the physical and the chem- 
ical f orces are mutually convertible. To illustrate : the sunlight 
falling on green leaves disappears as light to reappear as vital 
force lifting matter from the mineral to the organic kingdom. 
Physical force does not become vital except through the chem- 
ical force, and chemical force does not become will except 
through vital force. The organic force of the living bodies of 
plants and animals may be regarded as so much force drawn 
from the common fund of physical and chemical forces, to be 
again all refunded by death and decomposition. At the con- 
clusion of the article from which the above was taken, although 
not quite in the same order of statement, Professor Le Oonte 
adds : " Let no one, from the above views, draw hasty conclu- 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 271 

dons in favor of a pure materialism. Force and matter, or spirit 
and matter, or God and nature, these are the opposite poles of 
philosophy ; they ai*e the opposite poles of thought. The true 
domain of philosophy is to reunite these with each other." 

But this theory, mating will force and vital force only 
transmuted physical and chemical forces, is materialism, and 
no investiture of idealistic phraseology, or denial of conclu- 
sions, can save it from that reproachful category of the scheme 
of things. But it is the nature of error, when passing through 
minds that appreciate truth, to wreck itself on its own contra- 
dictions. So, by the side of the statements that transmute sun- 
beams into chemical force, and chemical force, rising from 
decomposition, into vital, and vital into volitional, we have the 
following : 

Elements brought into contact with each other under certain 
physical conditions unite and rise into the plane of chemical com- 
pounds : so also elements brought into contact with each other 
under certain physical or chemical conditions, such as nascency, 
light, etc., unite and rise into the plane of organic matter. In 
both cases there is chemical union, but in the latter there is 
one unique condition, namely, the previous existence, then and 
there, of organic matter, unaer the guidance of which apparently 
the transformation takes place. So also physical and chemical 
forces are changed into vital force under physical conditions, 
with one altogether unique condition, namely, the previous exist- 
ence then and there of vital force. 


What is the nature of the difference between a living and a 
dead organism! We can detect none, physical or chemical. 
All the physical and chemical forces withdrawn from the com- 
mon f and of nature, and embodied in the living organism, seem 
to be still embodied in the dead, until, little by little, it is 
returned by decomposition. Yet the difference is immense, is 
inconceivably great. What is it that is gone, and whither is it 
gone ? There is something here that science cannot yet under- 
stand. Yet it is just this loss which takes place in death and 
before decomposition, which is, in the highest sense, vital force. 

The resultant of these two sets of differing statements leaves 
the question of the genesis of life unanswered, and as though it 
had not been asked ; but at the same time it brings to view a law 
of nature of which there are no known exceptions, namely : 
Kfe from previous life only; vital foree from previous vital 
force only; bioplasm from previous bioplasm only. This is 

272 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

the unique and universal law of generation and transmutation. 
But whence the previous life, vital force, bioplasm ? Now, in 
answer to this we may say that the doctrine of Spontaneous 
Generation is unproved, and is discredited as well : also that no 
intensity of nascent chemical forces, set free even by the 
swiftest decomposition, can of themselves ever lift matter up to 
the organic plane. But there is another theory, as to the 
origin of the vital force, along which line of ' vision the 
strongest, clearest, best-educated eyes are now looking, and, 
from what they see, are affirming that, not by any known play 
of molecular mechanics, nor in any primordial tendencies, nor 
by any climatic environment co-operative with a capacity for 
variation, nor by nascent forces liberated by decay, has life 
been introduced, but by the specific creative acts of a Supreme 
Will, acting in "breaks of special intervention" in the courses 
of nature. Thus speak Dana, Dawson, Beale, Frey, Lotze, 
and others as eminent as they. And exact science as well as 
latest results in biology are, on the one hand, receding more 
and more from the confusing blunder of putting methods of 
nature for causes ; of putting the order of movements for 
ordaining power, or law of action for directive agency ; and 
from the unscientific theory that all the diverse manifestations 
of the physical forces are modifications of one all-energizing 
force ; and also receding further than ever from the pseudo- 
dogma, that the life-principle is transmuted chemical and 
physical forces. And, on the other hand, the results of science 
are coming closer and closer to the belief in a Creative Mind 
working now and then in acts of specific interventions ; acting 
as harmonious intrusions into nature ; as new directions of its 
processes ; as the introduction of a new force, which comes into 
nature rather like the quick process of crystallization than the 
slow, gradual evolution through long periods of time ; and not- 
ably so in the introduction of plant, animal, and human life. 

It is agreed that life is inconsistent with the nebulous state 
of matter, and equally well agreed that life is not consistent 
with a fiery molten condition of its material matrix ; it is also 
agreed that as yet spontaneous generation has not bridged that 
chasm that lies abrupt and deep between the living and the not- 
living ; therefore, exact science, standing in the clear light of 
these unquestioned facts, and standing on the clear, sharp edge 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 273 

of that deep, abrupt chasm, drops her untold, incomplete story 
of the genesis of life ; and philosophy, holding the clew of 
these denials, and standing in the axiomatic light that every 
effect or change must have an adequate cause, declares life, or 
the vital principle, to be not a developed growth, but a specific 
creation, the product of supernatural action. 

If life is a specific, divine creation, how was it done ? No 
answer to this question can be given. It lies outside of the 
sphere of science, outside of the known mathematical, mechan- 
ical, physical, and chemical formulas ; outside of the correlations 
of the physical forces. We know that mind (human mind) 
acts on matter, and matter, by its forces, acts on mind. Light, 
as an undulation of the ether, falling on the nervous retina, can 
be conceived as passing into, " correlated with," a molecular tre- 
mor of the optic nerve ; that tremor can be conceived as pass- 
ing into the gray nervous matter of the brain, and inducing 
there a local molecular tremor of the mass; for up to this 
point there is a supposed mechanism of motion, not more diffi- 
cult of conception than the passage of vibrations through the 
osseous parts of the middle ear ; but how the mind is affected 
by the tremors of the nervous mass, whether the mind is im- 
pressed by them as a seal impresses the wax, or one force acts 
on another by a sort of catalysis, or whether the mind " reads 
off " the physical motions as a telegraph operator reads off the 
clicks of his instrument, or whether both of these operations, 
or a combination of them, is the fact, no man can tell. Science 
is mute as to the exact relations of physical and mental forces. 
Says Tyndall : " The passage from the physics of the brain to 
the corresponding facts of consciousness is unthinkable." 
" Granted that a definite thought and a definite molecular action 
in the brain occurs simultaneously, we do not possess the intel- 
lectual organ which would enable us to pass by a process of 
reasoning from the one phenomenon to the other. They ap- 
pear together, but we do not know why." The contact and 
combinations of matter with matter and the correlations of 
physical forces may be stated in mechanical and chemical for- 
mulas, hut as spirit, or life-principle, or organic force, or co- 
ordinating agent, are forces of a different order, of a higher 
jdane, they cannot be examined or analyzed by any of the 
physical tests applicable to these lower planes of action. The 

274 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

law of their action most forever be hidden from the tests of 
microscope, scalpel, and crucible. Their interactions, though 
tinder the grasp of law, cannot be formulated chemically, 
mechanically, or mathematically ; nor can they be delineated 
accurately by any physical imagery. Also, the method by 
which the parent gives soul to the infant organism — gives, and 
loses nothing in the gift — adds other existences, each equal to 
itself, to the living world, but is not itself diminished, is a 
mystery for whose solution science has neither materials nor 
tests, but analogies only. This being so* much more is it true 
that it cannot be known how the Creative Will, acting on mat- 
ter and its forces, added the life-force thereto in organic forms 
which were made capable of transmitting their kinds through 
successive generations. Under the microscope we can register 
the order of sequences in the facts of the growth of an indi- 
vidual being ; we can see living bioplasm transmuting nutrient 
and inorganic matter into nerve, muscle, bone, and membrane ; 
can see bioplasm in the very act of bridging the chasm between 
the inorganic and the organic ; yet the how, the law, the sci- 
entific method of that bridging, cannot be translated into 
chemical, mechanical, or mathematical language. The modes 
of motion of the bioplasm can never take the form of tabulated 
equivalents or correlations of force. We bear in mind the dis- 
tinction between the successions of individuals in a derived life- 
series, and the origin of that series, or that between reproduc- 
tion and origination, and therefore must aver that if, from the 
nature of the problem, we cannot understand how individuals 
within the sphere of nature reproduce their kind, much less 
can we understand the method of the beginning of life, which 
is a new form and a new force inserted into nature, and har- 
moniously co-operative with it. Reproduction has less of mys- 
tery than origination, and both belong to modes of action that 
pass through and go beyond the known limits of science. 

The hope has been cherished that observation of the pre-natal 
stages of growth might give a knowledge of the beginning of 
a derived life. How much hope lies in thia direction may be 
gathered from the reading of one of the finest chapters in the 
whole literature of embryology, The Ovarian -Egg, (Agassiz, 
" Methods of Study in Natural History.") It is a wonderful 
word-picture of the evolution of an individual life under the 

18S3.] The Beginning of Life. 275 

directive, co-ordinating life-principle. Agassiz takes the egg of 
a turtle to illustrate life's structural energy, although his descrip- 
tion extends over the period only during which the history of all 
vertebrate eggs is the same ; that is, up to the time when the 
future animal is only a " dim, organless, embryonic disk." We 
condense his remarks, but seek to substantially preserve the 
wonderful, changing pictures of life's pre-natal changes ; for, 
so far as all physical tests can apply, life, like an agent external 
to its work, builds from the 6ame material, so far as known, 
structures differing ultimately as fish, bird, reptile, ape, and man, 
with never a deviation from the organic line after the start in 
the ancestral egg. It is to be noted that it weaves these accord- 
ing to different structural plans, with never an interweaving, 
with never even a border contact, from the first throw of the 
shuttles in those busy, silent looms of life. "Each after its 
kind " is the Mosaic record of the creative act ; and a close ad- 
herence to type — that is, each after its kind — is the accordant 
word from the latest results in biology. 

For keeping the transitional phases of growth in this picture 
of pre-natal growth more distinctly before the mind, we may 
number them. 

In the turtle the ovary is made up of spherical cells that be- 
come hexagonal under mutual pressure. Between these cells 
the ovarian egg originates, at first a mere granule, a minute 
mass of bioplasm, devoid of cell-wall and nucleus, yet a true 
morphological unit. (1) At this stage the egg differs from the 
surrounding clear, transparent cells only in being somewhat 
darker, like a drop of oil, and is composed, apparently, of two 
substances, oil and albumen. This minute, fertilized egg is yet 
so small that its diameter must be magnified a thousand times 
to be plainly visible to the naked eye. For its first microscopic 
change it forms an investing membrane called the cell-wall. 
(2) Some of the albumen now separates from the oily parts, and 
concentrates in a luminous, transparent spot on the upper side 
of the egg near the cell-wall, forming the Furkingean vesicle 
or sac, in the center of which there soon arises a small dot — the 
germinal dot. In this stage differentiation begins, and plan, 
design, purpose, now reveal themselves. The formative, the 
co-ordinating power, which is here connected with organic 
matter, is forming the instrument it will afterward use, and 

276 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

hence must be regarded, in «a high sense, as external to it ; for 
this inner sac, with its germinal dot, arises just where the head 
parts of the little tnrtle will lie. Thus the lighter and more 
delicate substance of the egg collects where the upper cavity of 
the animal inclosing the nervous system and the brain are to 
be ; while the heavy, oily part remains below, where are to be 
the organs of mere animal existence. Thus, when the egg 
seems a mere mixture of oil and albumen, a collection of 
material is made that foreshadows the far-off distinction be- 
tween the organs of sensation and of digestion. Cephalization 
is had in view from the beginning. (3) Next appear numerous 
minute dots in the yelk near the cell-wall on the side opposite 
the vesicle, where they gather into clusters of twos, threes, 
fives, and sevens, interlaced by a net-work of clear albuminous 
matter, constellations, as it were, recalling the star clusters of 
the heavens with their empty interstellar spaces. These in- 
crease in number and size, and always remain on that side of 
the yelk, while on the other side of the egg is seen the trans- 
parent Purkingean vesicle almost brilliant with light. (4) Soon 
in turn the albumen concentrates into clusters, among which 
the dark, oily bodies are distributed, and presently the whole 
becomes redissolved ; the little system of worlds seems to melt 
away, but soon to reform in concentric albuminous rings alter- 
nating with rings of granules around the Purkingean vesicle, 
and now we are reminded of Saturn in his rings. (5) Then 
these rings disappear, and out of the yelk loom up small spher- 
ical dots, spherules — the smaller and clearer now gathering where 
the nervous masses will afterward appear, and the larger and 
darker collecting where the lower organs will lie. Cephalization 
still advances ; the distinction between the location of the organs 
of sensation and of nutrition is still retained. (6) Presently 
another change : the life-force now, instead of working with 
the two kinds of matter, seems to deal with each spherule, 
causing each one to assume the ordinary cell characters of outer 
cell- wall and inner sac ; this inner sac forming on the side like 
the Purkingean vesicle, but, unlike it, soon floats away to the 
center, and in it there arises a brood of oily, crystalline bodies 
that multiply and grow until this inner sac, or mesoblast, is so 
filled with them that the outer sac, or ectoblast, becomes a mere 
investing halo. Then every mesoblast contracts and divide* 

1883.] The Beginning of Life. 277 

across in both directions, separating into four parts, then into 
eight, then into sixteen, and so on until every cell is crowded 
with hundreds of minute mesoblasts, each containing the indi- 
cation of a central dot, or entoblast. At this period every yelk 
cell is itself like a whole yelk; for each cell is as full of 
lesser cells as the yelk bag itself. (7) When the mesoblast has 
thus become subdivided into hundreds of minute spheres, the 
ectoblast bursts, and the new generations of cells thus set free 
collect in that part of the egg where the embryonic disk is to 
arise. This segmentation continues until the whole yelk is 
taken in, and soon there is formed the filmy embryonic disk, 
organic promise of little turtle, about which there soon form 
layers of white, or albumen, the outermost of which harden 
into a shell from the deposit of lime in the albumen. 

Thus, embryological investigations teach us that, though the 
ovarian egg is identical, so far as we can determine by phys- 
ical tests, in material and structure with the surrounding cells, 
yet it differs from them in the principle of life, that immaterial 
something which eludes all analysis, but which may be traced 
by its action in the material forms that express it. For it 
gathers other substances about the physical germ, absorbs them 
into it, makes them serve it until the organs are fashioned ; for 
the first function of an organ is to form itself Before the 
lungs breathe, they make themselves ; before the stomach di- 
gests, it makes itself; before the tongue tastes, or the ear 
hears, or the eye sees, they make themselves ; before the 
nerves are shaken by contact with the external world, they 
fashion themselves for those delicate tremors of contact ; be- 
fore the brain is used for thinking, or for reflex action, it 
weaves itself. Through all these phases and differences of 
growth the vital principle is active, first preparing the material 
and then co-ordinating it, weaving it into blood cells, nerve cells, 
flesh and tendon cells ; each of which after its kind, under the 
directive life agency, makes itself according to type and plan. 
There is no action like this in the chemical and mechanical 
world. The life-force did not come up, as Le Conte says, from 
the lower forces of nature ; it came down into them from a 
higher, and thenceforward was not blended with them in the 
unity of correlation, but in the harmony of a coactive and di- 
rective controlling relation. 

278 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [April, 

Under the microscope we are carried back toward the be- 
ginning of the life of an individual being, but we are no closer 
to the solution of the mystery of existence. We can pass back 
beyond the stage where we see the structural differences of the 
four great branches of the animal kingdom are laid ; yet, of all 
our scientific clews, even though to them the aid of the clearest, 
best-trained imagination is brought to bear, no one can lead us 
across the threshold of life with a measured, solid tread. This 
quest of the genesis of life by science is like the quest of the 
Holy Grail by the knights of King Arthur ; and there will be 
no Sir Galahad to find it ; for above this mystery no u clouds 
are broken in the sky ; " no voice of a " correlated " unity ever 
comes up to us from the chemic molecule and the living cell ; 
no sharpest insight of vision will ever detect the likeness of 
unity between radiance of spirit and radiance of sun and star. 
This intellectual curiosity, " whose odors haunt our dreams of 
the perfect oneness of all that was and is," will never find any 
thing closer than analogy between running streams and flow of 
thought ; will find only analogy between the graceful geometric 
frostings on the window-pane under a December sky and the 
molecular architecture of the living eye formed in an inner 
darkness to match an external light. 

It should be remembered that we cannot make any real ad- 
vance in the quest for the origin either of a derived or a pri- 
mal life unless we can get an intellectual representation of it 
under some of the known methods of physical nature, which 
methods can be reduced to formulas, or stated in some terms of 
equivalence. Simply to note and state co-existences and se- 
quences, as so many differentiations and integrations, is not 
complete science, much less is it philosophy, though it may be 
knowledge. When, therefore, we have the successive stages of 
growth in the ovarian egg, from the minute, structureless bio- 
plast up to the animal in its full functional activities — if then 
we cannot state by what processes each stage has been derived 
from the previous one, we have no scientific solution of the 
problem. And since science fails to give us any intellectual 
representation of the nisus at the beginning, as well as fails to 
put a complete nexus between the changes of growth, we call 
this life-quest an unsolvable problem. 

Speaking, then, according to the truth of facts, we are con- 


1883.] Th* Beginning of Life. 979 

strained to say that the beginning of a reproduced life nnder 
the agency of animal force, and the origin of the first life un- 
der the pressure of the Divine Will, lying, as both do, outside 
of the known mathematical, mechanical, and chemical processes 
of nature, must always remain an unsolved and an unsolvable 

• ♦• 

Art. v.— the religion of babylonia and 


[second article.] 

The Assyrian religion, as may be seen, has become decidedly 
solar and sidereal. The gods of the pantheon have become 
identified with planets and stars, thus assuming a double 
character, mythological and sidereal. The sun has different 
names (as in Egypt) at morning, evening, and midday : " the 
son of life," "the god of death," and u the southern sun." 
The same cuneiform character, whose phonetic value i6 an, 
means both star and deity. Merodach, " the circle of the sun," 
is Mercury as a morning star, and Jupiter as an evening star, 
and is called by different names : " the messenger of the rising 
sun," " the light of the heavenly spark," and so on, in the sev- 
eral months. The moon is " the star of Anunit " and " the star 
of the Tigris." The sun is "the star of the Euphrates." 
Mercury is "the messenger of the rising sun;" Yenus, 
" the proclaimer of the coming sun ; " Ishtar, " lady of the de- 
fenses of heaven ; " Saturn, " the eldest born of the sun-god ; " 
Jupiter is identified with several stars, as " the star of Mero- 
dach " and " the flame of the desert ; " and Mars, " the star <tf 
the seven names." The stars are called "judges," and the 
pole-star " the judge of heaven." The colors of the garments 
of the Chaldean priests are symbolical of the heavenly bodies, 
to whose worship the priests are devoted. Red symbolizes 
Nergal, or Mars ; blue symbolizes Nebo, or Mercury ; and pale 
yellow symbolizes Ishtar, or Venus. Here we see the close 
connection between Assyrian mythology and stellar worship, 
and how the study of the stars became almost a religious duty. 
The Assyrians possessed a regular ritual and rubric. Each 
day of the year was assigned to a special deity or a patron 

280 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

6aint, and special services and ceremonies were observed. In 
the u Babylonian Saints' Calendar," which is of Accadian origin, 
sacred rites are prescribed in honor of twenty gods of the 
pantheon. The Assyrian word for sabbath is Sabattu, "a day 
of rest for the heart." The sabbath was very rigidly observed. 
The flesh of birds and cooked fruits could not be eaten, nor 
garments changed, nor white robes worn. The king could not 
ride in his chariot ; no laws could be made ; no military com- 
mands issued ; no medicine taken. It has been thought, how- 
ever, that these restrictions refer to hebdomadal days of evil 
omen, while the true Assyrian sabbath was a " day of joy." * 
Each month was dedicated to a special god.f 

" Thougli religious uniformity," says Rawlinson, " is certain- 
ly not the law of the empire, yet a religious character appears 
in many of the wars, and attempts seem to be made at least to 
diffuse every- where a knowledge and recognition of the gods of 
Assyria." $ Again he says : " In every way, religion seems to hold 
a marked and prominent place in the thoughts of the people, 
who fight more for the honor of their gods than even of their 
king, and aim at extending their belief as much as their 
dominion." § Kings are set up and thrones cast down by the 
gods. Kings are responsible to the gods, and must rule in 
righteousness. The inscriptions contain many moral as well as 
political precepts, and, almost without exception, begin and end 
with prayer and praise to the principal deities. Assyria is 
" the empire of Bel," and altars are " the footstools of the great 
gods." | Babylonian inscriptions largely concern the erection 
of temples. Proper names frequently contain as elements the 
names of one or more gods. About two thirds of nearly a 
thousand Assyrian names, collected by Sir H. Rawlinson, have 
tlie name of a god for their chief element.!" Nebuchadnezzar 
is high-priest of Merodach. ** Nebo is " bestower of thrones 
in heaven and earth." Sennacherib introduces the Assyrian 
religion in conquered countries.ft Naram-Sin, son of Sargon I., 
is raised by his subjects to the rank of a deity, as is shown on a 
cylinder found by General di Oesnola among the archaeological 

* Lenormant, " Beginnings of History," p. 248, et seq. 

f " Records of the Past," voL vii, pp. 155-170, Sayce. 

j "Herodotus," vol i, p. 398. § "Ancient Monarchies," voL i, p. 241. 

| " Records of the Past," vol. xi, p. 20. T " Ancient Monarchies," vol ii, p. 249. 

** " Records of the Past," vol. v, p. 123. ft Ibid - t vol i, p. 27. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 281 

treasures of the Cyprian Kurium. Amar-agu before him had 
also been worshiped as a god.* People swear by the name 
of the gods and the king. Lawsuits are held in the temples, f 
Assurbanipal causes conquered kings to swear " to worship the 
great gods." % A monarch's success in war or the chase is 
ascribed to the help of his guardian deities. Hazael (?) brings 
his gods to Esarhaddon, who says : " I had pity on him ; those 
gods, I repaired their injuries, the emblem of Ashur, my lord, 
and the writing of my own name I caused to be written upon 
them, and I restored them to him again. ,? § When Esarhaddon 
dedicates a temple, he prays that the "bull of good fortune 
may never cease to watch over it." || Sargon is " the manda- 
tory of Bel, the lieutenant of Ashur." He erects statues and 
altars to the great gods. " The god Sin shone on the top of 
the temples and shadowed the battlements (?)." 1" Nabonidus 
erects a temple to the moon, " king of the stars upon stars," in 
the city of Ur, and prays: "The fear of the great divinity in 
the hearts of their inhabitants fix thou firmly ! that they may 
not transgress against the divinity." " Fix thou firmly in his 
heart that he may never fall into sin." ** Tiglath-Pileser I. 
dedicates twenty-five captured gods " for the honor of the tem- 
ple of the queen of glory." ff Ashur is one of his " guardiaA 
gods." He prays Anu and Bin to support the men of his 
government, establish the authority of his officers, bring rain, 
give victory, reduce hostile kings and keep them in allegiance 
to his descendants.^ He desires to worship " honestly with a 
good heart and pure trust." § § In 2280 B.C. a powerful king 
of Elam, Kudur-Nankhundi, ravaged Erech, and carried off to 
Shushan the image of Ishtar. After 1635 years this image is 
recaptured and restored by Assurbanipal. Sargon sacrifices 
" pure victims, supreme sacrifices, expiatory holocausts ; " and 
offers frankincense vases in glass, chiseled objects in pure sil- 
ver, heavy jewels, " sculptured bulls, winged quadrupeds, rep- 
tiles, fishes, and birds, symbols of abundance of an incompara- 
ble fecundity." II Tablets and cylinders with their sacred 
writings are deposited in the foundation stones of buildings.^^" 

' * "Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch.," vol. v, p. 441. 
t "Records of the Past," vol. v. p. 109. % Ibid., vol. i, p. 96. 
g Ibid., vol. iii, p. 115. ] Ibid., vol. iii, p. 123. f Ibid., vol. xi, p. 33 t et seq. 
** Ibid., vol. v, pp. 146-148. ++ Ibid., vol. v, p. 15. Xt Ibid., vol. v, p. 25. 
§§ Ibid., vol. v, p. 26. || Ibid., vol. iii, p. 55. ft Ibid., vol. i, p. 29. 

282 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

Among the Assyrians and Babylonians we meet with the same 
fundamental religious beliefs which are common to most re- 
ligions — the primal innocency of man, the introduction of sin, 
human responsibility, the efficacy of prayers and sacrifices, a 
future life, and, with less certainty, the distinction of rewards 
and punishments. With these beliefs are others of a super- 
stitious cliaracter, which we have already considered. We 
meet also with temples, altars, libations, sacrificial victims, 
prayers, hymns, pompous ceremonials and processions, gorgeous 
vestments, feasts and fasts, singing and dancing, and learned 
priests. Mingled with all are uncleanness, cruelty, and gross 
idolatry. The images of the gods are more frequently wor- 
shiped than the gods themselves. The king unites the 
priestly with his regal office, and sometimes arrogates to him- 
self the attributes of the gods. The religion has become a 
mighty power, and can be wielded as an instrument of tyranny. 
The Assyrians had their "Book of Worship,'' "Book of 
Magic," "Book of Explanations," "Book of Prayer," and 
"Book of Praise." The collection of hymns Lenormant com- 
pares with the Rig- Veda of the Hindus. We meet, again and 
again, with passages which powerfully confirm and illustrate 
the Holy Scriptures. Agreeing in the main features, yet dif- 
fering in details, we have accounts of the creation, the flood, 
the tower of Babel, and the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah. 
The fall of man is represented on seals. Here we have figures of 
our first parents ; the tempting serpent, the " enemy of the gods," 
and, like the Zoroastrian Angromainyush, " full to the brim with 
death ; " and the fruit of the tree.* We have a curious account 
of the fall of the rebel angels, which we give on a future page. 
The flaming sword in the legend of the fight between Bel and 
the Dragon, and the sacred grove of Anu, guarded by a sword 
turning in all directions, may be compared with the " flaming 
sword " of Genesis iii, 24. f The Alapi, winged human-headed 
bulls, which guard the entrances of palaces and temples, were 
called Kiruhiy Hebrew "cherubim." Another word which 
comes to us from Assyria is important. The name " Shed " is 

* The most ancient Accadian Dame of Babylon, Tln-tir~kt, signifies " the place 
of the tree of life." 

f Lenormant has a profound discussion on The Kerubxm and Revolving Sword 
in his «• Beginnings of History," chap, iii 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 283 

" given to the genii, or demi-gods, who wielded the powers of 
nature, represented by the winged bulls which guarded the por- 
tals, sometimes replaced by winged lions which symbolized a 
similar genius. This is, indeed, both in name and meaning, 
identical with the ' Shedim ' Q devils ' in our version) of Deut- 
eronomy." Dent, xxxii, 17 ; Psa. cvi, 37. Shed may be identi- 
fied with Set, an Egyptian deity, which was also a god of the 
Hyksds. It has been suggested that, if we omit the points, 
" the vale of Siddim " (Gen. xiv, 3, 8, 10) may be read " the 
valley of Shedim," where the Canaanite gods were specially 
worshiped. These " Shedim" were the idols of Canaan.* 
We call attention to another word- Lilit, " the black," was an 
evil spirit. The Arabian Lilith, according to the cabalistic 
rabbis, was said to have been the first wife of Adam, whom she 
deceived by taking the form of a woman. She had seven hun- 
dred and eighty-four children — all devils. She was also the 
goddess of impurity, f Upon the birth of the first child, Ara- 
bian nurses threw stones at the foot of the bed to drive her 
away. Isaiah says, (xxxiv, 14:) " The. wild beasts of the desert 
shall also meet the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall 
cry to his fellow ; the screech-owl shall rest there and find for 
herself a place of rest." The Hebrew original, translated 
" screech-owl," is ZUith, or night-spirit, (rrW). 

The seventh day, as we have seen, is already sacred, and the 
number seven is a most sacred number. The seven spirits 
warring against heaven remind us of the battle of the giants in 
Grecian mythology. The Babylonians believe in augury. 
Ezek. xxi, 21, 23. They have extensive tables of omens, de- 
rived from dreams, births, entrails, the hand, animals, objects 
met, and so on. Their literary remains present fables, in 
which animals, especially the eagle, the serpent, the fox, or 
jackal, the horse, the ox, and the calf possess the gift of speech, 
and play an important part They strive to arrest plagues by 
supplications. The spirit of Heabani is raised from the dead, 
thus reminding us of the story of the Witch of Endor. They 
believe in dreams. A dream is sent to the army of Assurbani- 

• "Times of Abraham," pp. 149, 160, 182. 

f On the "children of God and daughters of men,*' of Gen. vi, 2, Lenormant has 
a learned discussion, full of curious material, in his recent work, "Beginnings of 
History," 1832. 

284 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

pal : Ishtar of Arbela appears to them, and says, " I march in 
front of Assurbanipal, the king whom my hands made ;" and 
they rejoice.* There are a multitude of vindictive passages. 
We meet with the prayer to the gods : " Mightily may they 
injure him, and (with) a grievous curse quickly curse him." 
The literature is full of rhythmic imprecatory charms, transla- 
tions of Accadian originals, made as early as 1600 B.C. Exor- 
cisms are used to avert such enchantments. There were differ- 
ent schools of priests, who " disputed at their learned discussions 
about the pre-eminence of their divinities and the efficacy of 
their sacrifices." f Rich gifts are offered to the gods and per- 
fect sacrifices, as "white lambs," are sacrificed. The gods give 
soundness of heart, soundness of flesh, healthy days, extended 
years, a scepter of justice, a lasting throne.":): The sun-god, " the 
mighty eye," is supplicated to "remove our sin."§ Again we 
meet with the prayer, " May they pardon my sin, my wicked- 
ness, (and) my transgression." || The Accadians believed that 
the gods visited only the highest parts of the earth, hence the 
lofty eminences upon which they worshiped. The seat of the 
. gods was the " Mountain of the East," the " Mountain of the 
World," like the Greek Olympus and the Hindu Meru. 

The Assyrians believe in future rewards. The good man is 
escorted to the home of the gods by the guardian deities. 
That he may better pass through the judgment that awaits 
him, he is permitted to eat from sacred plates and drink celes- 
tial waters from sacred vessels. After having been found with- ' 
out fault before the gods, " the goddess Anat, the great spouse of 
Anu," protects him " with her sacred hands." Then Iau trans- 
ports him into " a place of delights " in " the land of the silver 
sky," where he is provided with delicious food and the water of 
eternal life, and where he sings his song of "thanksgiving."! 
The Assyrians believe in the efficacy of sacred texts or phylac- 
teries, talismans, and amulets. Sanduarri, king of Kundi and 
Sitzu, who contends against Esarhaddon, writes the names of 
the "great gods side by side," and trusts in their power, per- 
haps wearing them upon his person .** Images of the gods are 

* " Records of the Past," vol,i, p. 85. t Ibid., vol. ix, p. 18. 

% Ibid., vol. xi, po. 17, 82. § Ibid., vol. xi, p. 83, Sayce.^ 

| Ibid., vol. ix, p. 161, Sayce. f Ibid., vol. xi, pp. 161, 162, Havely. 

** Ibid., voL iii, p. 112. 

1883.J The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 285 

placed on either side of the door to gnard from disease. Holy 
texts are also used for the same purpose. They are sometimes 
bound about the statues of the gods or the head of the sick 
man.* This may be largely an inheritance from the earlier 
Accadian magic. 

Human sacrifices are offered — sometimes the sacrifice of the 
first-born. Micah vi, 7. " The Sepharvites burnt their children 
in fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sephar- 
vaim." 2 Kings xvii, 31. We have already noticed the recovery 
of the two cities of Sippara, the cities of Sepharvaim. Im- 
portant literary treasures have been recovered by this discovery. 
The Sepharvites and men of Cutha had been transplanted to 
Samaria by Sargon. 2 Kings xvii, 24-31. Adrammelech was 
probably "fire-king," an epithet of the sun-god. The latter 
element of the names is melech, king — the infamous "Mo- 
loch." Anammelech was a name of Anunit, a name so changed 
probably in contempt. Monumental information confirms the 
statement of Herodotus of the annual auction of young girls at 

It is a common punishment to throw the criminals into a 
furnace or den of lions or among wild bulls. This we learn 
from the annals of Assurbanipal. Thus Daniel is powerfully 
confirmed. The following judgment of Lenormant, at least, 
as " regards the foundation of the work," will be appreciated : 

The language of the book of Daniel, interspersed as it is in 
various places with Greek words, proves without doubt that the 
definitive translation, as we possess it, is posterior to the time of 
Alexander. But the foundation of the work dates much farther 
back; it is tinged with a very decided Babylonian tint, and cer- 
tain features of the life at the court of Nebuchadnezzar and his 
successors are there pictured with a truth and exactitude to which 
a writer a few 1 Centuries later could hardly have attained. 

Portions of three books of magic have been discovered cor- 
responding exactly to the three classes of Chaldean doctors which 
Daniel names together with the astrologers and divines, f 

More horrible cruelty is shown in the following inscription : 
"If the son(s) of Sippara, of Nipur, and of Babylon, their chil- 
dren to war-horses offering, (let) war-horses upon their children 
feed, upon the watch the enemy descend, their soldiers are slain, 

• "Records of the Past," vol. lit, p. 142. \ "Chaldean Magic," p. 14. 

Fourth Sebibs, Vol. XXXV.— 19 

286 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

(their) armies and men are slaughtered, the god of famine (de- 
vours) his soldiers for food, the face of his soldiers he dismays, 
and with him goes," * (Diomedes, son of Mars and Gyrene, 
king of the Biscares of Thrace, fed his mares on human flesh. 
He was slain by Hercules, and was devoured by the same mares, 
which then became tame.) 

Assyrian conquests were carried on with all manner of cruel- 
ties. The dead were beheaded and the heads stacked. The 
bodies were thrown in heaps or left scattered upon the field. 
The living were mutilated. Eyes were plucked out ; hands, ears, 
noses, cut off ; many were flayed alive. Their laws were most 
severe. Criminals were cast into furnaces, or thrown to lions 
and mad bulls. Their religion was full of all cruelties. Human 
sacrifices were offered, and women prostituted in their temples. 

The Assyrian religion was not unlike that of other branches 
of the Semitic race. There were the same gods worshiped by 
the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Himyarites, Ara- 
bians, and Edoniites. Wherever our information is sufficiently 
full we meet with the same cruelties. The Phoenician religion 
is defined by Movers as " an apotheosis of the forces and laws 
of nature, an adoration of the objects in which these forces 
were seen, and where they appeared most active." " Terror 
was the inherent principle of this religion," says Creuzer ; " all 
its rites were blood-stained, and all its ceremonies were surrounded 
by gloomy images. When we consider the abstinences, the 
voluntary tortures, and, above all, the horrible sacrifices im- 
posed as a duty on the living, we no longer wonder that they 
envied the repose of the dead. This religion 4 silenced all the 
best feelings of human nature, degraded men^s minds by a su- 
perstition alternately cruel and profligate, and we may seek in 
vain for any influence for good it could have exercised on the 
nation." Lenormant agrees with these writers when he says : 
"Bound this religious system gathered, in the external and 
public worship, a host of frightful debaucheries, orgies, and 
prostitutions. . . . The Canaanites w : ere remarkable for the 
atrocious cruelty that stamped all the ceremonies of their wor- 
ship and the precepts of their religion." f " All the atrocities 
of the Phoenician worship were practiced at Carthage, particu- 

• "Records of the Past." vol. vii, p. 121, Sayee. 
f " Ancient Hist East," vol. ii, pp. 222, 223. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 287 

larly the burning of children. These barbarous sacrifices took 
place every year, and were frightfully multiplied on the occa- 
sion of public calamities, in order to appease the wrath of the 
gods." * 

The Scripture estimate of the character of the Assyrians is 
fully confirmed by the monuments. The Scriptures call them 
"a fierce people," (Isa. xxxiii, 19,) and their city "a bloody 
city, full of lies and robbery." Nah. iii, 1. They are violent 
and treacherous, covenant-breakers, who " despise the cities and 
regard no man." Isa. xxxiii, 1, 8. Their pride calls down upon 
them the divine wrath. Ezek. xxxi, 10, 11; Isa. x, 7-14; 
xxxvii, 24-28 ; Zeph. ii, 15. Their national emblem is a lion 
that " tears in pieces enough for his whelps, and strangles for his 
lioness, and fills his holes with prey, and his dens with raven." 
Nahum ii, 11-13. When Nineveh repented under the preach- 
ing of Jonah, it was by turning from evil and violence. Jonah 
hi, 8. 

The following curse is pronounced against him who removes 
his neighbors' landmarks : 

If a leader, not of low degree, if a citizen shall this plot of 
land injure or destroy the boundary-stone so that it shall not be 
conspicuous, shall remove this stone (here) placed, whether an 
injurious person or a brother, whether as one who would take it 
away, whether as an evil person, whether as an enemy or any 
other person, or the son of the owner of the land, shall act falsely, 
shall tamper with it, into water, into fire shall cast it, with a stone 
shall break it, from the hand of Merodach-zakir-iskur, and from 
his seed shall remove it, whether above or below shall break it in 
pieces, may the gods Anu, Bel, Hea, Ninip, and Gula, the lords 
of this land, and all the gods whose memorials are made known 
on this tablet, violently make his name desolate ; with unspeaka- 
ble curse may they curse him ; with utter desolation may they 
desolate him ; may they gather his posterity together for evil 
and not for good ; until the day of the departure of his life may 
he come to ruin, while the gods Shamas and Marduk rend him 
asunder; and may his name be trodden down.f 

Probably the Assyrians believed that such curses had power 
within themselves, in the very words used, to work out their 
own fulfillment. 

.• " Ancient Hist East," vol. ii, p. 280. 

f In8criptipn of Merodach-Baladan IV., "Records of the Past," vol ix, pp. 35, 
36, RodwelL Cf. Num. xxii, 5, 7. 

288 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

The following prayer the loyal subject offered in behalf of 
hifl sovereign : 

Length of days, 

Long, lasting years, 

A strong sword, 

A long Kf e, 

Extended years of glory, 

Pre-eminence among kings, 

Grant ye to the king, my lord, 

Who has given such gifts 

To his gods. 

The bounds vast and wide of his empire, 

And of his rule, 

May he enlarge and may he complete; 

Holding over all kings supremacy, 

And royalty, and empire, 

May he attain to gray hairs and old age. 

And after the life of these days, 

In the feast of the silver mountains, the heavenly courts, 

The abode of blessedness ; 

And in the light 

Of the Happy Fields, 

May he dwell a life 

Eternal, holy, 

In the presence of the gods 

Who inhabit Assyria.* 

The soul of the departed, like a bird with shining wings, 
soars away to the skies. In heaven the good man is clothed 
in white raiment, and is fed by the gods in the company of the 
blest with celestial food and ambrosial drinks. 

If we cannot deny some beauty to the prayer just given, we 
must allow a spirit of devotion as the inspiration of the rules 
for prayer which we take from an old liturgical collection : 

Pray thou, pray thou ! 

Before the couch pray ! 

Before the throne pray ! 

Before the canopy pray ! 

Before the nadni, the dwelling of lofty head, pray 1 

Before the light of dawn pray 

Before the fire pray ! 

Before the dawn pray ! 

By the tablets and books pray 1 

By the fire and . . . pray ! 

By the hearth pray ! 

* "Records of the Past," vol. iii, pp. 133, 134, Talbot 

1888.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 289 

By the threshold pray ! 

By the side of the foundation pray ! 

By the side of the well (pool) pray ! 

By the side of the river (canal) pray 1 

By the side of the boat pray I 

In riding in the boat pray 1 

In leaving the boat pray ! 

At the rising of the sun pray ! 

At the setting of the son pray ! 

To the gods of heaven through the altars of the earth pray! 

By the altar of god or goddess pray ! 

In leaving or entering the city pray ! 

In leaving or entering the great gate pray 1 

In leaving or entering the house pray ! 

In the street pray ! 

In the temple pray ! 

On the road pray ! * 

Surely, if these rules were observed, the Assyrians were a 
religious people. Their religious character is further shown 
from the fact that the most prosaic astronomical and astrolog- 
ical tablets frequently end with a prayer to the gods. Per- 
haps, like the Athenians to whom Paul preached, the Assyrians 
were " in all things somewhat superstitious or religious," (Acts 
xvii, 22, Kevised Version,) while their cities were "full of 
idols," (verse 16.) 

The gods visit and comfort the righteous man when he is 
sick. " But Ishtar, who in her dwelling is grieved concerning 
him, descends from her mountain, unvisited by men. To the 
door of the sick man she comes. The sick man listens. 
'Who is there? who comes V •^It is Ishtar.'" In company 
with other gods she enters. They give him " bright liquor " 
from shining cups, and pray that the sun-god may " receive his 
soul into his holy hands." f 

We meet with real penitential prayer, sometimes clothed in 
imagery not unlike that of the Psalms of David. The follow- 
ing Babylonian penitential psalm is called forth from a soul in 
deep distress. It is the cry of the soul after God. 

O my Lord ! my sins are many, 

My trespasses are great ; 

And the wrath of the gods has plagued me with disease, 

And with sickness and sorrow. 

* " Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch.," vol vi, pp. Ml, 642, Boscawen. 
f "Records of the Past," voL iii, p. 136, Talbot 

290 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

I fainted ; but no one stretched forth his hand I 

I groaned ; but no one drew nigh ! 

I cried aloud ; but no one heard ! 

O Lord ! do not abandon thy servant ! 

In the waters of the great deep, seizehis hand ! 

The sins which he has committed turn thou to righteousness !* 

Many passages of Scripture will be suggested with which 
such religious utterances as the following may be compared : 

Who can compare with thee, O Ninip, son of Bel? Thou 
didst not stretch forth thy hand (in vain.) . . . O thou! thy words, 
who- can learn ? Who can rival them ? Among the gods, thy 
brothers, thou hast no equal. ... In heaven, who is great ? Thou 
alone art great ! On earth, who is great ? Thou alone art great ! 
When thy voice resounds on heaven the gods fall prostrate. 
When thy voice resounds on earth the genii kiss the dust. . . . 
Keep thou the door of my lips ! Guard thou my hands, O Lord 
of light ! . . . O Sun, to the lifting up of my hands (in prayer) 
show favor ! . . . O my God, my sins are seven times seven I . . . 
Before his god in prayer he fell flat on his face. 

Self -mutilation was practiced. " He who stabs his flesh in 
honor of Ishtar, the goddess unrivaled, like the stars of heaven 
he shall shine ; like the river of might he shall flow." This 
reminds us of the false prophets against whom Elijah con- 

Justin Martyr says that Jewish exorcists made use of magic 
knots to charm away disease. The Babylonians did the same. 
A woman's linen kerchief is twice knotted with seven knots, 
sprinkled with white wine, and bound about the sick man. 
He is then sprinkled with holy water. If all this be done, 
then the gods will protect him, and Merodach will " find him 
a happy habitation." X This looks very much like " extreme 
unction." In this case the disease is not cured, but the man is 
saved. Since the Babylonians believed that diseases were 
unused by evil spirits, these diseases could be cured by spiritual 
forces. This, again, is the old Accadian magic. We meet 
also with the belief that sins might be inherited from the par- 
ents, or imputed from an elder brother, or even some unknown 
person. § 

The Assyrians knew one supreme God. At Erech was a 

• "Records of the Past," vol. Hi, p. 136, Talbot. 

f "Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch.," vol ii, pp. 61, 52, 57-60. 

% " Records of the Part," voL iii, p. 14L g /w ** TaL ^ PP- 149-141. 

1883. J The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 291 

school of monotheism as late as the times of the Romans- 
Tablets found at Warka are now in the British Museum, con- 
taining inscriptions, in which the only name of the deity is 
"God One," and this name is many times repeated. Says 
Lenormant, " When we penetrate through the gross surface of 
polytheism, which it had acquired from popular superstition, 
and revert to the original and higher conceptions, we shall find 
the whole based on the idea of the unity of the Deity, the last 
relic of the primitive revelation disfigured by and lost in the 
monstrous ideas of pantheism, confounding the creature with 
the Creator, and transforming the Deity into a god-world, 
whose manifestations are to be found in all the phenomena of 
nature."* Polytheism is shown in the early inscriptions. 
The temple of the moon-god was built by King Ligbagas in 
Ur, the most sacred city of the ancient Chaldeans. The same 
king erected temples to Ishtar at Erech ; Samas at Larsa ; II, 
" the king of the gods," at Nirgnlla ; Bel at Nipur, and a sep- 
arate one to Belat at the same place. Perhaps in the reign of 
Ligbagas, instead of Sargon I., may be placed the great religious 
reformation. " In truth, polytheism was stamped on the earth 
in temples and towers, and the warlike or beneficent works 
of kings. Rimmon was the patron of the all-important irri- 
gation ; Sin, of brickmaking and building ; Nergal, of war. 
Polytheism glittered in scrolls of light in the constellations of 
the firmament ; it measured days and months, and years and 
cycles, and by its auguries of good or ill decided the least ways 
of house-life and the greatest collisions of nations." f Sin and 
Nebo were worshiped at Haran, which remained a center, of 
heathenism down to the fifth century of the Christian era. 
Such was the polytheism of both the first and second home of 

It is most interesting to compare the Chaldean account of the 
creation with that of Genesis. Our first account we take from 
Berosus, a Babylonian priest, who lived about 330 to 260 B.C. 
There is no doubt, as may be learned from the inscriptions, if 
compared with Berosus, that he wrote in perfect good faith. 
Berosus says that in the first year there came from the Ery- 
thraean Sea, Oannes, an animal endowed with reason. In form 
he was half man and half fish, and his language human. He 

• "Ancient Hist. East," vol i, p. 450. \ " Times of Abraham," p. 12. 

292 Methodist Quarterly Review. TApril, 

taught the people letters, arts, and sciences ; he taught also con 
cerning the origin of mankind. Berosus gives us his account : 
According to the teaching of Oannes, there were in the begin- 
ning only darkness and an abyss of waters. In this abyss dwelt 
monsters formed of different parts of different animals. Their 
queen and mother was Omoroka, (Um-Uruk, " the mother of 
Uruk,") in* the Chaldean language Thavatth, (Tiamat,) in 
Greek Thalassa, " the sea." Now Belus came, attacked Omo- 
roka, and cut her into two parts. He destroyed the monsters 
of the deep, and made of the two parts of Omoroka heaven and 
earth. " All this," says Berosus, " was an allegorical descrip- 
tion of nature." The meaning seems to be this : Belus divided 
the darkness, separated the waters from the waters, and re- 
duced all to order. The race of animals then existing, not 
being able to bear the changed physical conditions, died. As 
the account further goes : Belus then cut off his own head, and 
the other gods mixed the blood with earth and made men and 
animals as they now exist. Belus also made the 6un, moon, 
planets, and stars. 

According to Damascius, Sig6 was the primitive substance of 
the universe. From Sig& came Apason and his wife, Tauthe, 
who is called the mother of the gods. Her first-born is Moy- 
mis, " the intelligent world." She also bore Dakhe and Dak- 
hus ; and again Kissare and Assorus, from whom were Anus, 
Ulinus, and Aus. Belus, the maker of the world, is the son of 
Anus and Dauke. 

We leave these accounts for a moment, and look at the first 
of the creation tablets. Here we read : 

When the upper region was not yet called heaven, and the 
lower region was not yet called eartn, and the abyss of Hades 
had not yet opened its arms, then the chaos of waters gave birth 
to all of them, and the waters were gathered into one place. 
No men yet dwelt together; no animals yet wandered aoout ; 
none of the gods had yet been born. Their names were not 
spoken; their attributes were not known. Then the eldest of 
the gods, Lakhmu and Lakhamu, were born and grew up. .... 
Assur and Kissur were born next, and lived through long periods. 
Anu .... The rest of the tablet is wanting.* 

In this tablet the first existence is Mummu Tiamatu, " the 
chaos of waters," the Moymis and Tauthe of Damascius. 

• " Records of the Past," vol v, pp. 113-116, Talbot 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 293 

Tiamatu is the Thavatth of Berosus. The Assyrian and Baby- 
lonian artists represent Tiamatu as " a monster in whom all the 
disorder of the primitive creation was reflected," having " the 
body, the head, and the fore-paws of a lion ; the wings, the tail, 
and the hind-claws of an eagle? ; while the neck and upper part 
of the body are covered with feathers or scales." The same 
word is the Hebrew tehdm, "the deep," of Gen. i, 2. This 
" deep" is tok& 9 "without form." Both Genesis and the mon- 
uments make a watery chaos precede the formation of the 
world, and use the same word to name this chaos, and with this 
account Damascius and Berosus agree. Lakhmu and Lakhamu, 
male and female personifications of motion and production, are 
Dakhe and Dakhus, the r&ach, " spirit," of Genesis. The next 
step, the creation of Assur and Kissur, agrees with Damascius' 
account of the creation of Assorus and Kissare. Next, in the 
Chaldean tablet, we have the name of Ann ; but, unfortunately; 
the remainder has not been recovered. Perhaps it related the 
creation of the great gods, Anu, Elum, and Hea, the Anus, Uli- 
nus, and Aus of Damascius, symbolizing heaven, earth, and sea. 
The Oannes of Berosus has been identified with Aus and Hea. 
Sigfe is the Accadian Zicu or Zicara, " the heaven ; " and Apason 
is Apsu, " the deep." 

If all. of these be mere coincidences, the coincidences are 
certainly very remarkable. We cannot but conclude, upon 
careful investigation, that all these accounts of the creation 
have a common basis. The Phoenician cosmogony may be 
profitably compared, and we shall find the same general agree- 
ment. Therein we find as its basis a trinity, Baau, or chaos, 
spirit or desire, and Mdt. M6t is interpreted as " slime," and 
is also termed Vldmos, or " time ; " and again the primordial 
"egg," out of which came heaven and earth. This trinity 
corresponds to the Accadian trinity, Anu, Hea, and Mulge, 
already mentioned. The wife of Hea is Davkina, or Dauke, 
which has been identified with Bohu of Gen. i, 2, and Phoeni- 
cian Baau. " Baau is said to have been the wife of the wind, 
Kolpia ; and we thus get a striking resemblance to the Chal- 
dean Triad of the Demiurge, the sky and the earth, whose 
spirit broods over the abyss, and is wedded to Baau. Even the 
language of the biblical account, in which Elohim i carves' the 
heaven and the earth out of a primeval chaos, his spirit brood- 

294 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

ing over the deep and wastenees of the earth, shows a similar 
coloring." * 

Much of the Chaldean account of the creation has not been 
recovered. "We must be content to pass on to the fifth tablet, 
which gives the work of the fourth day of Genesis. We read 
as follows : 

He constructed dwellings for the great gods. He fixed up 
constellations whose figures were like animals. He made the 
year. Into four quarters he divided it. Twelve months he es- 
tablished, with their constellations, three by three. And for the 
days of the year he appointed festivals. He made dwellings for 
the planets ; for their rising and setting. And that nothing 
should go amiss, and that the course of none should be retarded, 
he placed with them the dwelling of Bel and Hea. He opened 
great gates' on every side ; he made strong the portals, on the 
left hand and on the right. In the center he placed luminaries. 
The moon he appointed to rule the night, and to wander through 
the night until tne dawn of day. Every month, without fail, he 
made holy assembly days. In the beginning of the month, at the 
rising of the night, it shot forth its horns to illuminate the heav- 
ens. On the seventh day he appointed a holy day, and to cease 
from all business he commanded. Then arose the sun in the hori- 
zon of heaven (in glory), f 

We have here the creation of the heavenly bodies, the ap- 
pointment of the moon " to rule the night," the division of the 
year into seasons, months, and days, and the appointment of 
festivals. Compare the statement of Genesis : " And God said. 
Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the 
day from the night ; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, 
and for days, and years," (i, 14.) The resemblance is striking. 
A most interesting part of this tablet is that concerning the fix- 
ing up of the constellations, " whose figures were like animals." 
We must date back the beginnings of astronomy to remotest 

A portion of the seventh tablet is saved, and gives the crea- 
tion of " cattle of the field, beasts of the field, and creeping 
things of the field ; " corresponding with the " beast of the earth 
after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that 
creepeth upon the earth after his kind," of the sixth creation 
day of Genesis (i, 25). Not only in substance, but also in 

• Letter of Pro! Sayce to "The Academy," March 20, 1815; quoted by Lenor- 
mant, u Chaldean Magic," pp. 123, 124. 
f " Becords of the Past," vol xi, pp. 117, 118, Talbot. 

1883.] The Bdigion of Babylonia and Assyria. 295 

the order of creation, the tablets agree remarkably with the 

A second account of the creation, coming from Cuthah, and 
older than our first account, shows marked differences, while 
agreeing in important particulars with Berosus. According to 
this tablet, the first creation was one of monsters and giants, "men 
with the bodies of birds of the desert, human beings with the 
faces of ravens ; " " the terrible brood of Tihamat, the principle 
of chaos and night. Among them were seven kings, all 
brothers, the sons of King Banini and Queen Milili, who ruled 
over a Titanic people 6,000 in number. The eldest, of the 
brothers was called i the thunder -bolt,' wliich gives us a clew to 
the atmospheric origin of the myth." These giants are at last 
defeated and destroyed by the gods.f These legends, in their 
origin, probably date back centuries before the time of Abra- 
ham. We may hope that the spade will yet uncover the Ac- 
cadian originals. 

An Assyrian tablet contains a most curious account of the re- 
volt of the angels. At the first, all was peace and harmony in 
heaven. When God laid the foundations of the earth, "the 
morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted 
for joy," (Job xxxviii, 7,) but there were angels who " kept not 
their first estate, but left their own habitation." Jude 6. Ac- 
cording to this tablet, while the hosts of heaven were engaged 
in holy song, the signal for revolt was given; upon which 
part of the heavenly hosts broke out in curses, and were cast 
out of heaven. We give a portion of this interesting legend as 
translated by Talbot : 

The Divine Being spoke three times, the commencement of a 
psalm. The god of holy songs, Lord of religion and worship, 
seated a thousand singers and musicians, and established a choral 

band, who to his hymn were to respond in multitudes 

With a loud cry of contempt they broke up his holy song, spoil- 
ing, confusing, confounding, his hymn of praise. The god oi the 
bright crown, with a wish to summon his adherents, sounded a 
trumpet blast which would wake the dead ; which to those rebel 
angels prohibited return. He stopped their service, and sent 
them to the gods who were his enemies. In their room he cre- 
ated mankind. The first who received life dwelt along with him. 

* Later translations of the creation tablets make a few important changes, which, 
however, do not affect the value of the comparisons suggested in this paper* 
f " Babylonian Literature," p. 33. 

296 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 


May he give them strength never to neglect his word, following 
the serpent's voice whom his hands had made. And may the god 
of divine speech expel from his five thousand that wicked thou- 
sand who, in the midst of his heavenly song, had shouted evil 
blasphemies ! The god Ashur, who had seen the malice of these 
gods who deserted their allegiance to raise a rebellion, refused to 
go forth with them.* 

It may be noticed in this connection that the mediaeval 
Church also believed that man was created to fill the void left 
by the rebel angels. 

The epic of Izdubar is, in all respects, a most important pro- 
duction. Any account of the Assyrian religion which neglects 
this great national epic will be very defective indeed. "We en- 
deavor to furnish, a general outline of this mythological and re- 
ligious work : The husband of Ishtar— Dumzi or Dumuzi by 
name, (Tamzi, Tammuz, of Hebrew history, " the son of life,") 
the analogue of Adonis — is the chief of Erech. After his 
death she rules in his stead. She begins to lead a dissolute 
life, and 60on becomes the scandal of the kingdom. Humbaba, 
or Hubaba, a powerful Elamite chieftain, invades and conquers 
the kingdom. {Humba was an Elamite god.) This occurs 
about 2280* B. C. 

Izdubar (this is but a provisional conjectural reading; 
George Smith identifies him with Nimrod) has a dream. The 
stars of heaven fall. They strike him on the back. He beholds 
a terrible being, with claws like a lion, standing over him. He 
calls upon the wise men to interpret the dream. He offers 
them rich rewards if they prove successful. None of them 
are able to show the interpretation of the dream. Izdubar is 
sorely troubled. 

He thinks of Heabani, " creation of Hea." This monster is 
a satyr which avoids human society, dwells in a forest in a cave 
by himself, by the side of a great river. His only companions 
are the wild beasts which surround his gloomy dwelling. He 
is represented as half man and half bull, somewhat resembling 
the Minotaur or Pan of the Greeks. Hea has endowed him 
with great wisdom, for which he has become renowned. Iz- 
dubar calls upon him to interpret the dream. At first he is 
angry because his solitude has been thus invaded. At length 
the god Samas persuades him, and Zaidu, " the hunter," 6on of 

* " Records of the Past," vol vii, pp. 127, 128. 

1883.] The Bdigion of Babylonia and Assyria. 297 

Izdubar, with the help of two dissolute women, Harimtu and 
Samhat, entices him to Erech. 

Izdubar prays and offers sacrifices to Samas and Ishtar. 
After this, in company with Heabani, he goes to the palace of 
Humbaba. Humbaba is slain, and the two heroes carry away 
trophies of their exploit. Izdubar now becomes king of Erech. 

Ishtar proposes marriage to Izdubar, but is refused. She is 
angry, goes to heaven, and complains to Ann and Anatu. A 
" divine bull" is created to slay Izdubar, but the latter procures 
the assistance of Heabani, and they slay the " bull." (Repre- 
sentations of this conflict are to be found on the monuments.) 
Ishtar rages, and curses Izdubar. She goes to Hades to sum- 
mon unearthly powers against him, " to the house where all 
meet, the dwelling of the god Irkalla — to the home men enter, 
but cannot depart from ; to the road men go, but cannot re- 
turn. The abode of darkness and famine, where earth is their 
food, . . . ghoul-like birds flutter their wings there." It is 
not an easy matter to gain admittance to this realm of the 
shades, for there are seven gates which must be passed, and 
each gate is well guarded. She applies for admission at the 
first of the seven gates, threatening to let out the dead as vam- 
pires if her request be not granted. After considerable diffi- 
culty the porter is commanded by Ninkigal, " goddess of the 
great region," to admit her. Through the seven gates she 
passes, but at each is compelled to leave some portion of her 
attire and ornaments — her crown, her earrings, her necklace, 
her mantle, her bracelet, her tunic — until, .naked at last, she ap- 
pears in the presence of Ninkigal, who derides her. Namtar, 
the plague demon, smites her for her sins with loathsome dis- 
eases in the sides, eyes, feet, heart, head, and limbs. She still 
nurses wrath and jealousy against Izdubar. 

There is great grief upon the earth at her departure, for 
every thing goes wrong. Upon the petition of the gods, 
Hea, " lord of .deep thoughts," undertakes her release. He 
creates Uddusvrnamir, a monster half man and half bitch, 
and, like Cerberus of the classics, having more than one head. 
First he forms a figure of clay, and then breathes into it, and 
it is alive. This monster t>e sends to Hades with the command 
to secure the release of Ishtar by magic rites. He succeeds, 
although at first Ninkigal only strikes her forehead and bites 

298 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

her finger, Namtar heals Ishtar of her disease by pouring 
upon her the water of life, and she returns to earth receiving 
back her clothing and jewels as she passes through the seven 

Now Anatu, the mother of Ishtar, plots against Izdubar. 
She smites him with a terrible disease. His friend and ally, 
Heabani, is killed by an unknown reptile or insect, called 
Tambukki. Izdubar is weighed down with great grief, and 
for advice goes in search of his father, Hasisadra, son of Uba- 
ratutu. He reaches a fabulous region, in which there are 
monsters with feet resting in hell and heads towering into the 
heavens. They possess great power, and control the sun. A 
scorpion man with his wife, u burning with terribleness," 
guards the gate. Izdubar reveals to them his purpose. The 
monsters endeavor to dissuade him from proceeding, and de- 
scribe in unmeasured terms the dangers of the journey. He 
pleads the necessity, and they permit him to pass. He reaches 
the sea-coast, and his progress is again barred by two women, 
Sidnri and Sabitu. Having prevailed with them, he meets 
with a boatman, Nes-Hea, and with him journeys by water. 
Through many adventures and perils, in which we will not 
follow him, he at length reaches the land where his father 
dwells, and unfolds his mission. In the course of his reply 
Hasisadra says, " Spoiling and death together exist ; of death the 
image has not been seen. The man or servant, on approaching 
death, the spirit of the great gods takes his hand. The goddess 
Mamitu, maker of fate, to them their fate brings. She has 
fixed death and life ; of death the day is not known." Again 
Hasisadra, who is the Chaldean Noah, says, " Be revealed to 
Izdubar, the Concealed," and relates the story of the flood. It 
is in substance as follows : Hasisadra is ordered to build a ship 
six hundred cubits long and sixty cubits wide, and the same 
number in height. He is commanded to " cause also the seed 
of life of every kind to go up into the midst of the ship." 
There must be placed in the ship " thy grain, thy furniture, 
thy goods, thy wealth, thy women slaves, thy handmaids, and 
the sons of the host (the beasts) of the field, the wild animals 
of the field." The ship is made according to directions, and 
covered outside and inside with pitch. Hasisadra makes a 
trial trip, and is satisfied with his work. He is forewarned of 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 299 

the time when the flood will be sent upon the earth. He enters 
the ship with his family and people. All animals and all his pos- 
sessions are brought into the ship. He shuts to the door. A 
black cloud rises in the sky. The thunders roar ; the rain descends 
in torrents; the flood reaches heaven. The e^rth is made a 
waste and the wicked are destroyed. There perish all " living 
beings* from the face of the earth." " The brother saw his 
brother no more ; men knew each other no longer." Only the 
gods who seek refuge in "the heaven of Anu" are saved. 
" Six days and nights passed, the wind, the whirlwind, (and) 
the 6torm overwhelmed. On the seventh day at its approach 
the rain was stayed, the raging whirlwind, which had smitten 
like an earthquake, was quieted. The sea began to dry, and the 
wind and deluge ended" Corpses of men are now seen floating 
on the waters " like sea-weed." The ship stands on the mountain 
of Nizir. After seven days a dove^ a swallow, and a raven are 
.sent forth. The dove and swallow return. The raven returns 
not, thus showing that the waters were drying from the face 
of the earth. Hasisadra goes out from the ship, and having 
erected an altar, sacrifices to the gods. A rainbow appears in 
the sky, by which the gods descend to the sacrifice. The gods 
repent of the deluge they have brought upon the earth, and 
promise that the world shall not again be covered by a flood. 
And now Hasisadra, along with his wife and people, is trans- 
lated to heaven. The rest of his followers settle in the plains 
of Babylonia. (The name of the eleventh month in the Chal- 
deo-Babylonian year means " the curse of the rain.") 

The story ended, Izdubar returns, having been healed of the 
disease with which he had been cursed by Anatu. He is ac- 
companied by his boatman to Erech. By means of enchant- 
ments the shade of Heabani is raised, and with him Izdubar 
again communes. 

Such are the main features of the Epic of Izdubar, so far as 
it has been recovered and interpreted. With a number of dis- 
crepancies the story of the deluge shows close general agree- 
ment with the inspired record of Genesis.* We may also 
profitably compare the Izdubar deluge legends with the state- 
ments of Berosus. Hasisadra is the Greek Xisuthrus. " Its 

* " Chaldean Genesis," pp. 1 75-314. For comparison of accounts of the deluge 
especially pp. 304, 305; also Rule's Oriental, Records, Monumental," pp. 13-33. 

300 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

meaning appears to be i shut up in a box or ark,' from the two 
characters signifying ' inclosed ' and i box,' respectively." * 

This epic is arranged in twelve books. The tablets from 
which it is taken are probably as old as 1600 B.C. Sayce 
places the composition in about 2000 B. C, and the independent 
poems from which it has been formed to the centuries imme- 
diately preceding. The twelve adventures of Izdubar remind 
us of the twelve labors of Hercules, and mythologists have 
worked out the comparison in great detail. Many scholars 
believe it to be a solar epic, (Hercules may be a solar hero,) the 
twelve books answering to the signs of the zodiac and the twelve 
months of the year. Some writers, as the late George Smith, 
of the British Museum, believe it to rest on a historic basis. 
It does not enter into our purpose to discuss these questions. 
We may, however, hazard the opinion that that philosophy which 
refers everything in ancient and heathen mythology and religion 
to the heavenly bodies, especially the sun, for its explanation, has 
been pushed entirely too far. The solar theory of mythology, 
which has accomplished such grand results, cannot do every 
thing. A too enthusiastic disciple may bring into disrepute the 
safe teachings of a master, or even a master may unconsciously 
close his eyes to valuable sources of information. We may 
admit the solar character of the epic, and yet believe in its 
substantial historic basis. This interpretation seems to be the 
most reasonable. It would not be difficult to show that what- 
ever theory of interpretation may be adopted for the Izdubar 
Epic, the relation of the flood legend (which forms its eleventh 
tablet) to the Bible will be but slightly affected. 

The recovery of the literatures long buried in the unknown 
Sanscrit, Zend, Egyptian, and Assyrian languages has created 
many chapters of history, while it has necessitated the re-writ- 
ing of many others. The Egyptian and Assyrian literatures 
have also necessitated the re-writing of many chapters of skep- 
tical criticism, while they have annihilated many others. Con- 
temporary and yet more ancient records have grandly confirmed 
and illustrated many portions of the Holy Scriptures. The 
Bible has lost nothing and gained much from all modern re- 
search. It may be considered a providence that these " evi- 
dences " have been so wonderfully preserved during thousands 

* " Archaic Dictionary," p. 11. 

1883.] The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 301 

of years to be brought to light just when of priceless value to 
strengthen Christian faith in the divine authorship of the word 
of God. 

Many of the passages from Assyrian records compared with 
Scripture prove only that human nature is the same the world 
over. Other passages, such as the accounts of the creation and 
the flood, point to a common basis. In many cases the Assyr- 
ian records antedate the biblical, and even the traditions which 
Abraham inherited. It is evident that wrecks of important 
primitive revelations and historic documents have been pre- 
served in the valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris. Truth, 
wherever and whenever found, is divine. If the Bible bear 
the seal of God, our faith in its divinity and power is not 
weakened though fragments of the same truth be found indig- 
enous in every land. 

• ♦• 


Missions and Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. By John If. 
Reid, D.D. la Two Volumes, with maps and illustrations. New York: 
Phillips & Hunt; Cincinnati: Waiden & Stowe. 12mo, pp. 462, 471. 

Sixty-Third Annual Report of (he Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, for the year 1881. 8vo, pp. 331. Printed for the Society. 

These books treat almost entirely of matters of facts, of work 
actually done. Our purpose shall be to go over the same 
ground, not so much to tell anew their story, as to examine the 
processes followed and the results reached, and, as far as may 
be, to detect the inspiring and guiding spirit of the work ; to 
find out its rationale, and to note its successes and failures. 

Dr.Reid's volumes deserve a commendatory notice as a work 
prepared with care, written in attractive style, and furnishing 
us a needed source of information. In writing them, no doubt 
he accomplished just what he designed, which was to put into 
a form easily accessible, and sufficiently condensed to bring thpm 
within readable limits, the chief facts of the past doings and 
achievement of the Society — that is, the Church — of which he 
is the trusted agent and representative. The work is, however, 
a condensed history, in the narrative sense of that word, dealing 
in facts, details, processes, and records of results ; leaving all 

Fourth Sfries, Vol. XXXV.— 20 

302 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

the philosophizing, the making of deductions, and the judging 
of men and measures to the reader ; and, within his pnrpose, the 
work is what it should be. It appears to be entirely trustworthy 
in its statements, and fair in the presentation of its facts. 

The missionary work here brought into notice is of compar- 
atively recent date, having been originated only a little more 
than fifty years ago. True, the Methodist itinerancy was 
always essentially a missionary agency, and its ideal sphere of 
action was, from the first, world-wide ; but the expansion of 
its work, and its purposed extension to foreign lands, seemed 
to call for some more definite arrangements for its direction 
and maintenance than had appeared to be necessary in the 
home work, and in response to that demand (A. D. 1819) the 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church came 
into existence. Its primary design was to aid in carrying 
forward the work of the itinerancy " throughout the United 
States and Territorie8, ,, but in the original constitution the 
clause was added, rather prophetically than for present use, 
" and also in foreign countries." Its income, which for the 
first year was less than a thousand dollars, advanced year by 
year, and in 1829 exceeded fourteen thousand dollars. 

Down to that date, the term " itinerancy," as applied to the 
Methodist ministry, retained its proper etymological and usual 
lexicographical meaning, which ha* since been largely modi- 
fied. Till then that ministry was chiefly "in the saddle," and 
as the Seventy, sent by Christ only to " the lost sheep of the 
house of Israel," went forth "without purse or scrip," so these 
going among the people of the land were expected, in military 
phrase, to " live on the country." But with changes wrought 
by the lapse of years it became at length almost a necessity to 
aid at the outset the adventurous pioneers who might be sent 
out to " take up new work." To provide and apply such sub- 
sidies was therefore the,chief business of the Society for its first 
two or three decades. 

The true missionary spirit — that which looks beyond its own 
home and kindred, and longs to carry the Gospel message to 
those who sit in the darkness of heathenism — was but faintly 
manifested in early Protestantism. It began to show itself, 
however, during the latter years of the last century, and in 
the early part of the present it was developed in organic forms 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 303 

among the principal bodies of English-speaking Protestantism ; 
and of this movement in evangelical Christendom the organ- 
ization of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and its subsequent devotion to foreign missions, was a 
natural result. That, too, was the heroic age, the period of ro- 
mance, in respect to foreign missions. The whole subject 
was seen in a glamour, not to say a mirage ; the missionary 
seemed to go forth, " taking his life in his hand," with the 
combined spirits of the monk and the crusader. All that, 
however, is now largely modified, for the better in some things, 
but not entirely, for there is a legitimate place for enthusiasm 
in such a work, and it is only right that that element in hu- 
man nature should be actively consecrated to the cause of 
Christ. The marvelous results of missionary work in Tahiti, 
South Africa, India, and Madagascar reported among the 
home churches, and supplementing the earlier stories of Hans 
Egede and Christian David, were firing the hearts of both 
British and American Christians, all of which found its appro- 
priate expression, not only in the poetical imagery and spir- 
itual inspiration of which Bishop Heber's missionary hymn 
is a bright example, but also in substantial deeds whose results 
remain. As now contemplated, after the lapse of more than 
half a century, that era is seen to have been " the fullness of the 
time," for the advent of the new spirit, and the inauguration of 
a npw departure in the living Church. The call had gone forth, 
and all evangelical Christendom was responding, and the great 
heart of Methodism burned with a holy zeal to have a share in 
the glorious enterprise. 

The occasion, which soon became more than an opportunity, 
for entering a foreign mission at length came to the authorities of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church from an unexpected quarter. 
The large development and apparently immovably fixed posi- 
tion of that greatest and most fearful anachronism of the age, 
American Slavery, had cast loose upon society a pariah class of 
free Africo- Americans, whose presence was at once a menace 
to the institution of slavery and an appeal to the pity of the 
benevolent and philanthropic; and strangely enough these 
two forces united to originate the scheme for colonizing them 
in Africa. In one of the earliest of these emigrant expeditions 
were found a number of persons who had been Methodists 

304 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

in America, one of whom — Daniel Coker — was a licensed 
preacher, and these during the voyage united to constitute 
themselves a Methodist Episcopal Church, and so the Church 
was thus early set up in that distant land. 

The African Mission. 

These things became known in the Church at home, and it 
was agreed that they should be understood as providential in- 
dications of its duty in the matter ; and yet it was nearly two 
years before the work* appeared in a practical form. It was 
determined that, as soon as the proper man for the work could 
be obtained, the work should be undertaken, and at length 
such a one was f ound in the person of Rev. Melville B. Cox, a 
native of Virginia, a man of good parts, of a most amiable 
spirit, and with deep piety, but in delicate health, and (conse- 
quently, perhaps) affected with a kind of dreamy melancholy. 
His career as a missionary was brief but brilliant. Before setting 
out for his distant field, he is reported to have said to a young 
friend on parting, " If I die in Africa, come after me, and 
write my epitaph : i Let a thousand fall before Africa 
shall be given up.' " On his arrival at his post of duty he 
wrote back : " I have 6een Liberia and live : It rises up yet as 
a vision of heaven." After only a few short weeks of earnest 
labors among formidable difficulties, he fell a victim to the ac- 
climating fever. Re-enforcements went forward, a year or two 
later, and the Liberia mission was thenceforth a recognized fact 
But in less than a year after the arrival of the re-enforcements, 
of the two missionaries, one had died, and the other had re- 
turned, leaving only one white person, a woman, in the field. 
Thus far the results achieved were much greater at home than 
abroad, in giving to the pent-up missionary spirit, of the 
Church a method for expressing itself, and a mission field 
toward which to look and upon which to lavish its sympathies. 

It has become, perhaps unduly, the fashion to speak of that 
mission as a failure, which is partly true and partly not. After 
all its mishaps and discouragements, due chiefly to the lack 
of effective superintendence, it has now more than twenty 
traveling preachers, and nearly three times that number of 
local preachers, and over two thousand Church members, 
which is about one tenth of the population of the Republic 


1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 305 

Besides the wosk done by the colored men, the mission has 
been the scene of some decidedly heroic labors by white mis- 
sionaries, both as ministers and teachers, and in no other field 
probably have such labors been productive of better or more 
abundant fruit. The history of that mission, covering more 
than fifty years, is especially worthy of careful and honest study, 
in both its successes and its failures, the former of which dem- 
onstrate its abundant capabilities, and the latter stand out as 
beacon lights to show how things ought not to be done. And 
of the latter class of lessons the home administration has as 
much need as those in the foreign field. 

The Oregon (or " Flathead ") Mission. 

Our second " foreign " mission, in the order of time, was that 
to the Indians beyond the Rocky Mountains, along the Colum- 
bia River. It forms a part of one of the most remarkable 
and romantic chapters of American history, and it has in itself 
certain peculiarly interesting circumstances. Of these we can 
write but briefly, although they are the conditions among 
which matters must be considered. From the time that Cap- 
tain Cook, the famous ocean explorer and the first circum- 
navigator of the globe, drifted along our "Western coast, and 
sighted from afar some of its headlands, until the extension of 
the boundary line on the parallel of forty-ninth degree of 
north latitude, the proprietorship of the region of the Colum- 
bia River had been an open question, which the fur traders 
sought to determine in favor of Great Britain, and the mission- 
aries in favor of the United States — a strife in which, as every 
body knows, the missionaries were the winners. The story of 
the inception of that mission is an illustration of the proverb 
that fact is stranger than fiction. In the spring of 1832, four In- 
dians, differing in appearance from any known tribe, appeared in 
St. Louis, then a small frontier town, 6aying, as best they could 
make themselves understood, that they had come from beyond 
the great mountains, sent by their people, to procure a wonder- 
ful book, sent from heaven, which they had been told that the 
white men possessed, and which made them great and powerful. 
They were " Flatheads," — Nez-Perces — and Captain Clark, who 
made the famous overland journey in 1804-5, known in history 
as that of Lewis and Clark, and who was now in St. Louis, knew 

306 ' Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

something of their tribe. But it was cold comfort that the 
poor Indians received from those among whom they fell, and 
when they at length turned their faces westward, without the 
wonderful book, they said sadly, " We go back, and our people 
will die in darkness." Their story at length got abroad, and of 
course awakened ^very deep interest. Dr. "Wilbur Fisk, the 
President of Wesleyan University, became especially active in 
urging that the Methodist Episcopal Church should at once 
send out a mission to this interesting people, and the Church 
every- where seconded the call, and in 1834, when Captain Wyeth, 
the fur trader, set out with an expedition for Fort Hall, two 
missionary companies accompanied him — one, Methodist, con- 
sisting of Jason and Daniel Lee, Cyrus Shepard, and T. L. 
Edwards; the other from the American Board, consisting 
of Key. Dr. Whitman and Rev. Samuel Parker and their 
wives. They proceeded that season only as far as Fort Hall, 
and the next year descended into the valley of the Columbia. 
Having ascertained that the " Flatheads," to whom they were 
especially sent out, were an inconsiderable tribe, and at that 
time gone away to a considerable distance, the Lees and their 
associates passed down the river to Vancouver, and soon after 
located and went at work in the Willamette Valley. The 
mission was vigorously prosecuted, both by preaching to the 
adults and teaching the children in school, and was quite large- 
ly re-enforced, two years later, by an overland company, and 
still more largely by a kind of missionary colony, which left 
New York in October, 1839, proceeding by way of Cape Horn, 
and arriving in the Columbia the next spring. But all these 
magnificent provisions failed to insure success, for causes now 
easily understood. The home office was wholly inexperienced 
in the conduct of such an enterprise, and those charged with 
administration of the work were evidently unequal to the un- 
dertaking. In 1846 Rev. George Gary was sent out from 
New York to supersede Mr. Lee in the superintendency, who, 
using the discretionary power given to him, proceeded to dis- 
pose of most of the property of the mission, and to bring the 
whole work, which had been a mission to whites rather than 
Indians, within the narrowest possible limits. In 1848 the 
General Conference instituted the Oregon and California Mis- 
sion Conference, which four years later was divided into two, 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 307 

and as both Oregon and California had become part of the 
territory of the United States, so the missions were no longer 
" foreign." In respect to the Indians, this, as nearly all other 
Indian missions, was largely a failure, but it was most timely, 
and afterward eminently successful in its influence over the in- 
coming white population. Nor is there any good reason for 
suspecting either the zeal or the integrity of those charged with 
the work, though evidently they were not in all things equal 
to the duties devolved on them. 


Missions in South America. 
When the Methodist Episcopal Church began to look beyond 
the bounds of its own country for fields for. evangelical enter- 
prise, its attention was quite naturally directed to the countries 
of the southern portion of our own continent. The countries 
of that region had not long before become free states, most of 
them republics, and it was hoped that in all of them religious 
liberty would be granted. As early as 1832 the General Con- 
ference indicated its wish that a mission to that part of the 
world should be undertaken, and accordingly, in 1835, Rev. 
Fountain E. Pitts, of Tennessee, made an exploring tour down 
the eastern coast as far as Buenos Ayres, returning early the 
next year. The General Conference of 1836 again expressed 
its interest in the work, and recommended that at least two 
missionaries should be sent out. The points selected for occu- 
pation were Rio Janeiro and Buenos Ayres. To the former 
Rev. Justin Spaulding was sent, who was joined a year later 
by Rev. D. P. Kidder, as assistant missionary, and R. M'Mur- 
dy, as teacher. The work appeared to open favorably, and 
the missionaries, while acquiring the Portuguese language, en- 
gaged in preaching to the seamen of the port and distribut- 
ing the Scriptures, both in the city and in the interior, in 
which they seem not only to have been allowed full liberty, 
but also enjoyed the warm sympathy of many of the officials 
and other chief citizens, encountering only such opposition as 
came from the wordy attacks of some of the priests. After 
three years' residence Mr. Kidder, on account of the death of 
his wife, was compelled to return home, bringing his infant 
child, and soon after the Board, alarmed at the state of the 
funds, declined to authorize his return, and a year later Mr. 

308 Methodist QuaHerly JReview. [April, 

Spaulding was recalled, leaving his work in the hands of the 
missionaries of the American Board, by whom it has been pros- 
ecuted with a good degree of success. The abandonment of 
such a work, among such conditions, appears quite inexplica- 
ble. The mission in Buenos Ayres was begun by Rev. F. E. 
Pitts, already named, in 1836, who entered into a work that 
had long been carried on by Presbyterian missionaries, but was 
about this time given up, somewhat as that at Rio Janeiro was 
afterward given up by the Methodists. As his visit was in- 
tended to be only a temporary one, and chiefly for observar 
tion, he gave place, after a few months, to Rev. John Demp- 
ster, who engaged heartily and successfully in his work, which, 
however, he was Hot permitted by the local authorities to ex- 
tend beyond the resident foreign population, an inhibition 
which remained without any relaxation till 1 852, when a more 
liberal policy was introduced. For nearly twenty years the 
work of the mission was thus shut up to the foreign popula- 
tion, tvhich, however, was relatively large, and to a considera- 
ble extent made up of persons permanently domiciled in the 
city ; and among these a successful and highly beneficial work 
was maintained. .In 1839 Rev. W. H. Norris went to Monte- 
video, but found the city beset by a hostile army and the whole 
country convulsed with war. He was able, however, to enter 
upon his work among the foreign residents, and for some time 
to prosecute it with good prospects of success. . A school of 
high grade was also projected at Buenos Ayres, under the di- 
rection of Professor Hiram A. Wilson — now of Saratoga — and 
soon a promising academy for children of American, English, 
and German residents was established. Mr. Norris also opened 
a school at Montevideo, and asked that a teacher might be sent 
to assist him. But in the fall of 1841, Mr. Dempster having 
returned temporarily, as he intended, to New York, it was re- 
solved by the Missionary Board to discontinue the mission " for 
want of funds." The reasons assigned more in detail were 
that the Society was already in debt five thousand dollars, and 
" that our labors in South America have been less productive 
of visible good than we had hoped." As viewed at our dis- 
tance of forty years, the treatment of all these South Ameri- 
can missions appears quite inexplicable ; and they compel to 
the conclusion that either less than the whole truth is revealed 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 309 

in the records, or else that the missionary authorities at home 
were sadly, not to say culpably, deficient in faith and devotion 
to their work. And this view is confirmed and intensified by 
the fact that the foreign residents of both these cities strongly 
objected to the discontinuance of the missions and schools, and 
offered, if they could be renewed, to carry them on almost en- 
tirely at their own expense. This was actually done at Buenos 
Ayres, and a church was built sqon after and placed under the 
care of Mr. Norris ; and upon his return to this country in the 
spring of 1848 he was succeeded by Rev. D. D. Lore, and the 
work has been continued by successive appointments to the 
present time. Two mistakes, arising from inexperience and 
insufficient appreciation of the best methods for prosecuting 
their work, were here made by the missionary authorities : one, 
overcaref ulness in respect to incurring debts and trusting to 
the future liberality of the Church to pay them, by which they 
permitted much well-begun work to perish ; but this mistake 
has since been corrected, and the opposite policy has been prac- 
ticed quite as freely as prudence would allow. The other mis- 
take was in failing to sufficiently rely upon the people served 
for the pecuniary support of the work ; and this they con- 
tinue to be very slow to learn, greatly to the detriment of the 
home treasury and of the manly self-respect of the people 

The later history of the work was not unlike that of the ear- 
lier days of the mission, though its later fruits were more en- 

. couraging. In 1856 Rev. William Goodfellow became its su- 
perintendent, and continued in that office for over ten years, 
during which time not only was tie local Church at Buenos 
Ayres edified and increased in numbers, but some efforts were 
also made to extend the work to the native population. After 

. Dr. Goodfellow's return, in 1870, Rev. Henry G. Jackson was 
appointed his successor, and ten years later lie was succeeded 
by Rev. T. B. Wood, who had been for some years serving as a 
missionary in the country. He is now at the head of the mis- 
sion, having Rev. J. R. Wood, his brother, and Rev. I. F. 
Thompson for assistants. The work has recently* assumed a 
more decidedly aggressive attitude than at any previous time, 
and it gives promise of becoming really what its name imports 
mission to the people of south-eastern South America. 

310 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

Db. Dubbin's Secbetabyship. 

The middle of the century marked a crisis in the affairs of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in respect to both the home 
administration and the extension of the foreign work. Neither 
of the three early foreign missions had proved satisfactory. 
Liberia, though it had been the object of very high hopes, and 
was looked to as the door opening to the heathen masses of the 
interior, and though vast sums had been lavished upon it, was 
not justifying the expectations of its friends. Oregon had 
ceased to be a foreign mission-field, both by its incorporation 
into the territory of the United States and by the diversion of 
the attention of the preachers from the Indians to the white 
settlers ; and the South American mission was only a chap- 
laincy for the foreign population of Buenos Ayres. The home 
administration was by no means effective. There was a man- 
ifest lack of the knowledge and skill in adaptation in the home 
office which the longer experience of later years has brought 
to it. About that time Rev. Dr. Durbin became cliief secre- 
tary, whose advent to the office constituted a new epoch in the 
Society's affairs. His first efforts were directed to the awak- 
ening a zeal for missions in the Church generally, for doing 
which he relied less on his own marvelous power as a public 
speaker than on, first, showing something to be done, and, sec- 
ond, by organizing the working forces of the whole Church for 
missionary action. The work in Liberia was strengthened, 
and (with a very doubtful liberality) its annual appropriation 
for several years averaged over thirty-five thousand dollars; 
and, as has been shown, the work in South America was resus- 
citated and given a new lease of life. The new mission in 
China (begun in 1847) was strengthened, and received liberal 
grants of money. Missions were also begun in Germany, 
Sweden, India, and Bulgaria. The Church responded grandly 
to these practical appeals from the home office, and from an 
income of eighty-four thousand dollars, in 1848, it increased 
steadily till it reached its maximum of six hundred and eighty 
thousand in 1872, the year of Dr. Durbin's retirement. Dur- 
ing these years the entire structure of the Church's missionary 
arrangements was reconstructed, revolutionized. It had been 
simply a voluntary organization, through which the Church op- 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 311 

erated, and hence the missionary administration of the Church 
is still spoken of as " the Society ;" but now it was wrought into * 
the organic structure of the Church, as among its direct and 
principal functions. Every local church is an auxiliary, every 
pastor an agent, every church officiary a portion of the working 
force, and every Sunday-school is designed to be an active and 
co-operating agency. 

The scheme, as a project, shows the mind of a statesman, and 
its successf nl organization and practical operation indicate rare 
administrative abilities. Many wise and excellent men had 
given their earnest thoughts and prayers, as well as the diligent 
labor of their hands, to the interests of the cause of missions in 
the Church, but it was for Dr. Durbin to animate with a new 
life and thoroughly marshal its working forces for efficient ac- 
tion. Its present greatness and its multiplied fields of labor, 
upon which the 6un never sets, is his best monument 

The China Mission. 

Long before any such had been undertaken, it had been felt 
that the Methodist Episcopal Church ought to have a well- 
established mission somewhere in the great outlying world of 
heathenism, and an answer to this feeling found expression in 
the year 1847, when a missionary expedition sailed for China. 
Two young men, Messrs. Collins, of Michigan, and White, of 
New York, were chosen for the work, who sailed from Boston 
for Canton, having Foochow for their point of destination. 
They were furnished in their own persons with fair natural 
parts, a college education, (and Mr. White had also a medical 
education,) personal piety, and zeal for souls. They lacked 
maturity of mind and heart ; they knew very little of public life 
and the ways of the world, and, in common with nearly all Chris- 
tendom, they knew very little about the philosophy and the 
practical working of missions among non-Christian peoples. 
Six months after their departure they were at their place of 
destination, ready to begin their wearisome preparation for 
their work, to master the language and to gain access to the 
people. They were disliked, as " foreigners," and became ob- 
jects of curiosity by reason of their complexion and their dress ; 
but this soon changed to indifference, or only served to mark 
them as objects for the cupidity of the average Celestials. In 

312 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

October, of the same year, a re-eriforcement was sent forward, 
consisting of Rev. Henry Hickok, with his wife, (but on ac- 
count of his failing health he was compelled to return the 
next year,) and Rev. R. S. Maclay, a name that has since be- 
come famous in the work of missions. All of these, however, 
except the last, were compelled to abandon the field after only 
a few years, and before seeing any real fruit of their labor, 
leaving Mr. Maclay in the superintendency. In 1851 the mis- 
sion was further strengthened by the arrival of Rev. I. W. 
"Wiley (now Bishop) and Rev. James Calder, and two or three 
years later Revs. E. Wentworth and Otis Gibson. But affairs 
were not hopeful ; not a convert had been made ; the govern- 
ment was unfriendly ; the mission suffered greatly from sick- 
ness and deaths, especially among the females, and at one time 
only Mr. Wiley and his wife remained at Foochow, both in 
delicate health, the latter dying soon after. The first baptism 
took place in 1857,' ten years after the commencement of the 
mission, and twelve more during the year. Rev. S. L. Bald- 
win joined the mission in 1858. Whether this want of success 
at the beginning was a necessity of the case, or owing to the 
want of that kind of faith in the missionaries which expects 
present results, and 'obtains them because they are expected, 
cannot now be determined ; but from the date of the first bap- 
tism the work has proceeded steadily and hopefully, and the 
Foochow mission has been recognized by competent judges 
as among the best of its kind. Through its action Christianity 
has been naturalized in China, so that it is no longer a foreign 
religion, and the mission itself has become multiplied into four 
distinct works, located, at somewhat remote points, in Central, 
Northern, and Western China. 

India Mission. 

As soon as Dr. Durbin came to the missionary secretaryship 
his attention was directed to India as a desirable field for mis- 
sionary occupation. Accordingly, at his suggestion, the General 
Committee, in November, 1852, placed the necessary funds at 
the discretion of the Board of Managers, to be used for 
opening a mission in India. After this it was felt that the 
next important consideration in the case was to find out the 
right man to inaugurate the work, as only to one of mature 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 313 

years and tested ministerial character could snch an enterprise 
be intrusted. Accordingly, after some delay and much corre- 
spondence, choice was made of Rev. William Butler, of New 
England Conference, an Irishman by birth, educated at Dids- 
bury College, and formerly a traveling minister of the Wes- 
leyan Connection. He sailed from Boston in April, 1856, and 
in September following was in Calcutta. After a full and 
brotherly consultation with some of the chief missionary work- 
ers in India, it was determined to select the north-western 
provinces — Oude, Rohilcund, and Gurhwal — lying between the 
Ganges and the Himalayas, as the places to be occupied. 
Having canvassed the territory and estimated its requirements, 
Mr. Butler concluded that to effectively operate the proposed 
work twenty-five missionaries would be necessary, and for 
these he asked. Of course this requisition could not be at once 
complied with, and very soon other events demanded the atten- 
tion of all in India. The very next year the Sepoy Rebellion 
swept over India like a tornado, and for the time all other in- 
terests were in abeyance. In the spring of 1858 two additional 
missionaries — Messrs. Humphrey and Pierce — having arrived, 
and also a resident Englishman, Mr. Josiah Parsons, a local 
preacher, having been accepted as an assistant, work was act- 
ually begun at Bareilly, in the far north-west, learning lan- 
guages, arranging for homes, opening schools, and preaching 
to the European residents. These were the beginnings ; the 
history of the years that have followed, their labors and trials, 
and, above all else, their successes, would require volumes for 
their full statement. It has been specifically a working mis- 
sion, with every thing to be accomplished by steady and per- 
sistent efforts. It is chiefly a mission among heathen idol- 
aters, but also in the presence of a dominant nominal Christian 
civilization, and under the protection of a Christian govern- 
ment. In the larger towns and along the lines of travel are 
found, in considerable numbers, English residents and their 
mixed-race descendants, called Eurasians, and all through the 
land are a large number of Mohammedans, the descendants of 
earlier conquerors, proud, bigoted, and fierce, and restrained 
from violence only by their later conquerors, the English. But 
the great body of the people, numerically, and their multitude 
seems like the "leaves in Yallombrosa," are Hindus, the an- 

314 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

cient people of the land, of many castes, each separated from 
all others by impassable barriers, mo6t of them very poor, ig- 
norant, superstitions, and both mentally and morally degraded, 
with only the fewest present sources of enjoyment, and utterly 
without hope. The attempt to Christianize such a people 
n^ust be a labor of love, to be sustained only by the most un- 
bounded faith in the saving power of the Gospel ; and yet, that 
it is a hopeful work is demonstrated by substantial results. 

The India Mission has been prosecuted on a broad and lib- 
eral scale from the beginning. About fifty missionaries, proper, 
have been employed, with more than as many women, either 
wives of missionaries or else teachers under the care of the 
"Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. No doubt some mis- 
takes have been made in its affairs, in the appointment of mis- 
sionaries and in the internal administration; for those who 
have made the former are not infallible, and those who have 
been charged with the latter have all along justified their claim 
to be human. And yet it stands forth to-day, after the expe- 
riences and tests of a quarter of a century, a model mission / 
eminently such on account of the devotion of its members to 
the one great work of saving souls, for the steady persistence 
of the missionaries in their appropriate work in the face of 
great difficulties and discouragements, and of the broad and en- 
lightened statesmanship of their plans and purposes. And in 
all this the work has been liberally sustained by the home 
office. Nearly one and a half millions of dollars have been 
given to it, and all its interests have been cared for and de- 
mands responded to with a truly parental liberality ; and after 
all requisite deductions have been made, it may still be claimed 
that the results achieved abundantly justify all the outlay that 
has been made in money and labor. These are now embodied 
in an Annual Conference, after the home model, containing 
21 American ministers, 10 Anglo-Indians, 11 ordained and 40 
unordained native preachers, 400 native helpers of various 
Idnds and degrees, with 3,200 Church members, 8,000 children 
in day-schools and 12,000 in Sunday-schools, 22 houses of 
worship, and church and school property valued at considerably 
more than $300,000. These churches, made up for the most part 
of the very poorest of the poor, are also beginning to contrib- 
ute a considerable per cent age of their own church expenses. 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 315 

Southern India— Wilt.t am Taylor. 

While in India, though a little out of the order of time, we 
may pause to notice the work in the southern portion of that vast 
and populous country. It was an old mission field long before 
the agents of the Methodist Episcopal Church had entered that 
country ; but still there was, and there still is, an abundance of 
unoccupied room in every portion of that immense field. Near 
the end of 1870 Rev. "William Taylor, in the course of his 
seven years' evangelistic tour round the world, came to India, 
and during the next year labored chiefly among our missions 
in Northerp. India, preaching in English wherever he could get 
hearers, and through an interpreter to the natives, not without 
good results, but not entirely to his own satisfaction. In No- 
vember of that year he was in Bombay preaching in English, 
at first in the chapel of the American Board's Mission, and 
afterward in a large hall. He had now struck the right vein — 
had found a people to whom to deliver his message. It is es- 
timated that there are in India, chiefly in the sea-port towns 
and along the principal lines of travel, not less than 150,000 
Europeans, or the children of such, (Eurasians,) English-speak- 
ing, nominally Christians ; many of them somewhat educated, 
often men of very positive characters, but socially outcasts, 
and for the most part entirely godless. These were just the 
men to appreciate the street-preaching apostle of San Francisco, 
and toward them Mr. Taylor especially directed his evangel- 
istic efforts ; and, like the publicans and sinners of the times of 
Christ, they heard him gladly, believed, and were converted. 
Afterward the work spread to Poona, Kurrachee, Madras, and 
Calcutta ; and in all these places souls were converted. And 
now came the more difficult question, What shall be done with 
them ? for they must have spiritual nurture or they will per- 
ish, and their last case be worse than the first. The first expe- 
dient was to organize them into "fellowship bands," each 
with its appropriate leader, not unlike Mr. Wesley's "Soci- 
eties ; '- but later, yielding to the requirements of the case, Mr. 
Taylor gave them a virtually complete Church organization. 
The work also called for additional ministerial labor, and such 
was supplied partly by old residents of India, now quickened 
into new religious activity, and partly by new-comers from 

316 Methodut Quarterly Review. [April, 


America, drawn thither, without any formal appointment, by 
the fame of Mr. Taylor's work, and some, a little later, by 
episcopal appointment ; but in all cases they were to depend 
upon those among whom they labored for their maintenance. 
In December, 1873, Bishop Harris having gone thus far around 
the world, from east to west, came to India, and with the 
hearty concurrence of all parties erected Mr. Taylor's churches 
into an integral portion of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
constituting them a district of the India Conference. In 1876 
these were given a separate organization of their own, as the 
South India Conference, a mission of the highest type in 
respect to its evangelistic aggressiveness, and eminently Paul- 
ine, in that it is built upon no man's previous labors ; but, un- 
like almost every other mission, it has been from the begin- 
ning self-supporting, never having received a dollar from any 
missionary organization, beyond its own bounds, for either the 
maintenance of its laborers, or for building its houses of wor- 
ship, its schools, or its dwellings. Its success and the growth 
attained are the vindication of its policy, and though its con- 
ditions may have been exceptionally favorable to such an un- 
dertaking, still it has demonstrated the possibility of missions 
among non-Christian peoples without outside support. That 
work, as it stands forth to-day, is Mr. Taylor's vindication, made 
effective, however, by a most noble band of his fellow-laborers 
in the Gospel. 


Among the favorite schemes that engaged Dr. Durbin's at- 
tention during the early years of his administration was the 
mission in Bulgaria. When Kossuth was in this country, in 

1851, he called attention to the openings in European Turkey 
for Protestant missions. The officers of the American Board 
considered the case, but decided that they could do no more in 
that region than they were already doing ; but suggested that 
the Methodist Episcopal Church should be invited to consider 
the case. The subject was accordingly referred to the General 
Committee by the Corresponding Secretary, in November, 

1852, with a decided expression in its favor, and the sum of 
$5,000 was placed at the disposal of the Bishop in charge of 
foreign missions for the commencement of the work. Bul- 
garia was selected, aa an unoccupied field, at the suggestion 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 317 

of Dr. Riggs, of the American Board, at Constantinople ; but 
nothing was actually done till more than two years later, and 
it was not till 1857 that missionaries were sent forward, when 
Revs. W. Prettyman and A. L. Long began their work at 
Shumla, on the Black Sea. In November, 1858, Rev. F. W. 
Flocken, who spoke both Russian and German, was added to 
the missionary force. In 1859 Mr. Long removed to Tirnova, 
where, near the close of that year, he began preaching in his 
own house to such companies as he could collect, which quite 
naturally awoke the opposition of the priests of the Greek 
Church, though some of a better class showed him great favor ; 
among them was Gabriel Etieff, who had before been in the 
employ of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and who 
now became Mr. Long's assistant and colporteur. At the same 
time Messrs. Prettyman and Flocken continued their studies 
of the Bulgarian language at Shumla, the former preaching in 
English and the latter in German to the resident foreigners. 
The next year Mr. Flocken began work at Tultcha, on the 
Danube, preaching and distributing tracts, as opportunity of- 
fered, in Bulgarian, Russian, German, and English, and a little 
later he opened a school in his study, which was soon attended 
by more than fifty children, and most of these were also in- 
duced to attend the Sunday-school for religions instruction. 
Here three or four Russians were baptized, and the beginnings 
of a real evangelistic work appeared. But the whole country 
was rocked by both political and religious controversies ; the 
Bulgarian Church laity, especially, desired to be separated from 
the authority of the Greek Patriach; the Papists were in- 
triguing to have them united to Rome, and the political state 
of the country was on the borders of revolution. All hope of 
reviving and using, as an evangelistical agency, any of the 
churches of the country was at length abandoned, and, in utter 
despair of accomplishing any thing, Mr. Prettyman resolved 
to abandon the mission and come home, and Mr. Long removed 
to Constantinople in order to make that city the base of his 
further operations. Here (1863) he was associated with Dr. 
Riggs in the revisal and publication of the Bulgarian Testa- 
ment for the British and Foreign Bible Society. He also 
issued, during 1864, a small paper, "The Morning Star," 
which had a considerably extensive circulation among the 
Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 21 

318 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

Bulgarians ; and though the work of evangelization made very 
little visible progress, precious seed was being sowed among 
that people which has since yielded fruit. In 1865 Bishop 
Thomson was in the mission, and, with Mr. Long, visited the 
chief points in Bulgaria, and it seems that he was deeply im- 
pressed with the apparent possibilities of the work ; and on his 
return he recommended re-enforcements, which, to some ex- 
tent, were sent forward. A real revival occurred at Tultcha, 
and also at Sistof. A long series of conflicts, persecutions, 
successes, and discouragements make up the record of the 
decade, 1870-80. Mr. Long accepted a chair in Robert Col- 
lege, most of the missionaries left the country, and for a time 
the work was abandoned by the home authorities, to be re- 
newed again the next year, 1873. 

In 1874 Bishop Harris visited the mission, called all the 
workers together — American and natives — and reorganized the 
work, which seemed to him to be full of promise. But with 
the next year came the Russo-Turkish war, of which Bulgaria 
was the battle-field, and the whole land was swept with a hur- 
ricane of destruction and massacre, ending in the erection of 
the independent Principality of Bulgaria. During these fear- 
ful years the mission was entirely broken up and scattered, and 
a large part of the converts were actually massacred by the 
Mussulmans, and all the missionaries were called home. But at 
the earnest prayer of the native preachers in the country, and 
with the hope that in the new order of things, in free Bulgaria, 
something better could be done, in 1878 Mr. Flocken was di- 
rected to return, which he did, and was not long after followed 
by Messrs. Challis and Lounsberry, and Messrs. Economoff and 
Thomoff, native preachers, who had been for some years in this 
country, students in Drew Theological Seminary. The work, 
thus renewed, has advanced only moderately, but perhaps not 
the less hopefully, and in the judgment of the home adminis- 
tration it still affords promises of ultimate success. Probably 
both the possibilities and the difficulties of the work have been 
underestimated ; the working force has never been equal to the 
demands made upon it, nor have the means at its disposal been 
adequate, and the men themselves, faithful and godly mis- 
sionaries, have not been for the most part endowed with the 
requisite force and tact, breadth of views and executive talent 



1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 319 

that the work in a pre-eminent degree requires. In respect to 
silent moral educating influences no dotibt Dr. Long has ren- 
dered an inestimably, valuable service, both political and relig- 
ious, to Bulgaria ; but to redeem that land it must be taken 
hold of with a strong hand. The Church must move upon it 
in force if it is to go up to possess the land. 


In Roman Catholic countries and among peoples of the Latin 
race two missions have been undertaken comparatively re- 
cently : in Italy and in Mexico. A mission to Rome was the 
life-long dream of that veteran hater of Romanism, Dr. Charles 
Elliott, who for forty years ceased not to press the subject 
upon the Church, but who died without seeing even the begin- 
ning of his Church scheme, though possibly the influences that 
he left behind him at length became effective, for a member 
of his family (Dr. L. M. Vernon) was at length the founder of 
that mission. After the decease of Dr. Elliott, Rev. Gilbert 
Haven (Bishop) became its champion, and he succeeded (in 
1870) in procuring a grant from the Board of Managers in its 
favor, and in 1871 the work was actually begun, Dr. Vernon 
being sent out to explore the land, and, if found practicable, 
to begin the work. The Wesleyan Church of Great Brit- 
ain were already in the country, having missions established at 
many of the chief centers, and at their first meeting " Rev. 
Mr. Piggott, the Wesleyan Superintendent, proposed the union 
of their forces and ours in one missionary movement, to con- 
stitute one Italian Methodism, believing that such united 
action would be approved and sustained by the Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary Society. Dr. Vernon at the time concurred in this 
proposal and reported it favorably to the Mission Rooms. . . . 
The Board steadily advised a Methodist Episcopal Mission," 
(Dr. Reid.) As the Wesleyans were first in the field, the com- 
plaint against us for " intrusion " is not without some sem- 
blance of justice, if indeed there can be such a thing as " pre- 
emption rights " among Churches, or as between distinct but 
fraternal Methodist bodies. As simply a question of policy, hav- 
ing the best interests of Christ's Kingdom and the advancement 
of " Ecumenical " Methodism for its object, the refusal to accept 
the proposition for united action, and for the localization of 

320 Methodist Quarterly Review. TApril, 

Methodism in Italy, self-governing and largely self-supporting, 
it is at least open to same questioning. As the result of that 
determination there are now in Italy two Methodisins, of which 
ours is the second in age and in numerical extent, operating 
in the same general localities and sometimes in the same 
towns, a policy which would seem to be not altogether favora- 
ble to either economy or " fraternity." In 1872 Rev. F. A. 
Spencer became connected with the mission, but continued 
only one year. Bologna was first selected as the seat of the 
mission, which has since been transferred to Rome, and its 
working force augmented by the accession of a number of able 
and valuable native laborers, both Protestants and converted 
Romanists. The conversion of Count Campello, and his quasi 
and temporary connection with our work, was an event rather 
notorious than really profitable. The progress of the mission 
under the wise and energetic administration of Dr. Vernon, 
who is its only American minister, has been steady and as rapid 
as could be expected. The work has been organized as an 
Annual Conference, having (in 1881) thirteen native preachers, 
with about a thousand Church members, two church buildings 
with parsonages, of an aggregate valuation of thirty-three 
thousand dollars ; two hundred and forty-two Sunday-school 
scholars (!), and two hundred and sixteen dollars (twenty-one 
cents per member) contributed for self support (! !). Probably 
future reports will set some of these things in a better light, 
for it may be hoped that even Italian Methodists will be 
taught that " the collections " are inseparable parts of their re- 
ligion. If not too late, it might be wise to reopen the subject 
of the consolidation and naturalization of the now separate 
Methodist bodies in the kingdom of Italy. 


The second mission among peoples of the ecclesiastical and 
ethnic type referred to above is that in Mexico, undertaken 
about ten years since. In November, 1871, the sum of ten 
thousand dollars was placed in the hands of the Board of Man- 
agers to be used in the interests of a mission in that country, 
if found to be practicable. A year later, Dr. William Butler, 
the pioneer of the mission in India, was sent out to explore 
the field, and, if the way should seem to be open, to commence 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 321 

the work ; and before the end of 1873 he was fairly settled 
down to his work, and was joined the same year by Rev. T. 
Carter, of New York, (who returned the next year,) and a little 
later by Rev. J. W. Butler (his 6on) and Rev. C. W. Drees, 
(now in charge.) Dr. Butler entered upon his work with 
characteristic vigor and boldness, managing his somewhat deli- 
cate relations with the government with admirable address, 
and, despite all obstacles, the missien has been a success from 
the beginning. It has required a rather liberal use of men and 
money, administered in some cases without very exact conform- 
ity to the instructions from the missionary office, but 6o as to 
bring things to pass, which, though, perhaps, not always a safe 
method of proceeding, is to some extent justified by the out- 
come, especially as compared with the conservative feebleness 
exercised in some other cases. Its statistics for 1881 show 
nine foreign and eight native missionaries, about seven hundred 
members, and nearly the same number of Sunday-school 
scholars ; it has nine church buildings, valued, with other real 
estate, at nearly a hundred and twenty thousand dollars ; and 
best of all' in what they promise, the contributions of the 
churches for their own running expenses make a decidedly re- 
spectable showing. If the Mexican mission has been a rather 
expensive one, (costing about two hundred thousand dollars to 
date,) it has something to show for this outlay. Here, too, our 
work is proceeding side by side with that of another Method- 
ism, (the Church South,) suggesting thoughts of a desirable 


Nearly simultaneously with the opening of the two last- 
named missions was the beginning of the strictly heathen mis- 
sion in Japan. The first steps toward its establishment were 
taken in the autumn of 1872, and the next year Rev. R. S. 
Maclay, of the Foochow (China) Mission, who was then in 
this country, was appointed its superintendent. He was soon 
followed by Revs. J. C. Davison, Julius Soper, and M. C. 
Harris, and their wives, and, not much later, by Rev. I. II. 
Correll, (from China.) Bishop Harris also visited Japan, almpst 
at the same time, and aided by his counsel in the beginning 
of the work. The work so begun was a marked success from 
its incipiency, presenting a marked contrast with that at 

322 Methodist Quwrterly Review. [April, 

Foochow, for in a little over two years the first converts, a 
gentleman and his wife, were baptized. The progress of this 
mission has been from the beginning simply marvelous as to 
its early success, its steady and relatively large increase, 
and especially its decided and wholesome religious character. 
To this no doubt the peculiar state of mind of the Japanese at 
the time largely contributed ; the deference of all classes for 
our western, and especially American, civilization and ideas, 
and their loss of faith in their ancestral religion, without re- 
lapsing into general unbelief and indifference. But the mis- 
sionaries themselves went there expecting early and abundant 
results, and for these they lived and labored and believed, and 
it was done for them according to their faith. There are now 
in that field, occupying the chief cities, twelve foreign mission- 
aries, distributed, with their native preachers (seven ordained 
and eight unordained) in three districts, and more than 6ix 
hundred Church members, and every department of the work 
shows signs of a wholesome vitality. In that country, also, there 
are already two or three other kinds of Methodist missionaries, 
suggesting the inquiry whether both fraternity and efficiency 
might not be promoted by a closer, organic union. 


German Methodism, of the specific type represented by the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, both in America and Europe, is 
inseparably associated with the name of Rev. William Nast, 
who, in early life a student at Tubingen, a classmate of David 
Frederic Strauss, came to America in 1828, utterly without 
faith, but very ill-at-ease, and having come into certain Meth- 
odist associations, he was converted at a Methodist revival, 
at Danville, Ohio. He soon after began to preach, but found 
himself unable to use the English language, and therefore his 
efforts were turned toward his own couutrymen — emigrants. 
Out of these labors grew up the now widely-extended German 
element in the Methodist Episcopal Church, whose history, 
however, does not fall within our present design. The Ger- 
man Methodists in this country not only reported to their 
kindred at home the news of their newly-fouud salvation, but 
also soon began to cast longing looks toward the fatherland, 
and to plead that some one of their ministers might be sent a 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 323 . 

missionary to Germany; and accordingly, in October, 1849, 
Rev. Ludwig S. Jacoby, a converted Israelite, who had been 
laboring in St. Louis, was appointed to that service. But com- 
ing to his own people he found that they cared very little for 
himself or his mission ; that Bremen, where he proposed to be- 
gin his work, was little better than a heathen city, with its Sab- 
bath desecration, its unfrequented churches, its unspiritual but 
exclusive ministry, and every-where prevalent worldliness. 
He, however, entered upon his work in faith, though against 
appearances. A hall for public worship was procured in Bre- 
merhaven, and in due time souls were converted, as the mis- 
sionary expected. A Sunday-school was established, a rather 
rare institution in Germany at that time ; a small weekly pa- ' 
per, Der Evangeliste y was published, and other appropriate 
measures used to keep the work in motion. 

In 1850 Messrs. Louis Nippert and C. H. Doering, natives 
of Germany, but naturalized American citizens, were added to 
the mission, and Dr. M'Clintock also visited it, and aided by 
his presence and counsels in the work. In 1852 was held the 
first formal session of the missionaries for mutual consultation 
respecting their work, and * in 1856 it was erected into a 
"Mission Conference." From that time onward, through 
great labor, some peril, and a pretty liberal outlay of money, 
the work has spread nearly all Over Germany and the 
German cantons of Switzerland. It has a membership of 
nearly 12,000, about 70 traveling and 50 local preachers, and 
20,Cf00 in the Sunday-schools ; 75 churches and 50 ministers' 
" houses," together valued at $400,000 ; also a large amount of 
school property, including an endowed theological seminary — 
the Martin Institute — which has been presided over by Dr. W. 
F. Warren, President of Boston University, and by Dr. J. F. 
Hurst, (now Bishop Hurst,) and is now under the presidency 
of Dr. Arnold Sulzberger, a Swiss. In it a large share of the 
members of the Conference have been trained for their work. 
There is also, after the almost universal fashion with Meth- 
odist bodies, its "Book Concern," with its weekly "Evan- 
gelist," and the needed supply of Sunday-school and mission- 
ary publications, as well as " books of the general catalogue." 

These statistics show very clearly that our variety of Meth- 
odism is fairly established, " grounded and rooted," and some- 

324 Methodiat Quarterly Review. [April, 

what " built up " in the land of the Reformation ; and yet ours 
is only one of several varieties, one of which, the British Wes- 
leyan, preceded us in time, and has also become well grounded 
and somewhat numerous in a number of the chief cities. 
There are also one or two other American varieties operating in 
that country. On this subject a late annual report of the mis- 
sion remarks : " It would be a means of progress if the several 
branches of the Methodist Church in Germany were united. 
We should need fewer preachers and chapels, and the impres- 
sion we should make on other denominations would be a good 
one," all of which is too evident to be for a moment ques- 
tioned ; and since every body confesses that it ought to be, 
how is it that nothing effectual is undertaken looking to such 
a consummation ? Is it not about time that the Methodism of 
Germany, now forty thousand strong, with its nearly two hun- 
dred traveling preachers, should be emancipated from its for- 
eign and colonial condition by consolidating itself into an or- 
ganic unity, a German Church, not an American or an English 
exotic, standing in its own individuality, self-governing, and, 
much more largely than now, self-supporting? 

Spiritually, German Methodism possesses some marked char- 
acteristics. It shows very clearly the mingling of American 
and German peculiarities, while Dr. Nast's marked type of re- 
ligious experience has affected it quite largely, and for its 
good. It is somewhat pietistic, and yet not wholly without 
rationalistic tendencies, nor is it subject to any strong puri- 
tanical tendencies. It is somewhat sturdy in the assertion of 
its own thoughts, perhaps a little restive under authority ; but 
having been accustomed from the beginning to look abroad for 
help, tluere has not been the best possible development of the 
spirit of manly independence and self-reliance. American 
Methodism attained its majority and became an independent 
body at eighteen years old, having cost the Mother Church one 
hundred and fifty dollars. German Methodism has reached 
nearly twice that age, has received from the parent body not 
less than a million dollars, and is still a minor and a beneficiary. 

Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. 

The Methodism of the Scandinavian Kingdoms originated 
in New York City in 184:5, when Rev. O. G. Hedstrom, a 

1883.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 325 

member of the New York Conference, a native of Sweden, 
' was appointed a missionary to the Swedes in the lower part of 

the city, of whom it was said there was not less than three 
' 4 hundred, with no provision for their religious culture. An 

old vessel, that had before been prepared and used as a place 
of worship, was obtained, and the work commenced. Pastor 
1 % Hedstrom — by which title he was called by his countrymen — 

was evidently peculiarly adapted to the work to which he was 
thus called. He was in the prime of life, not specifically an 
educated man, of fair natural abilities, with the kind of mag- 
netic enthusiasm that characterizes the people of the northern 
kingdoms, to which mental qualities the peculiar stamp and 
impulse of American Methodism was now added. He seemed 
never to have had a rationalistic doubt, and his faith in the 
power of the Gospel to save all men was unlimited. 'His 
preparation for and his call to this work reminds one of Dr. 
Nast's in respect to the Germans, both by their coincidences 
and their contrasts. The entire conditions and arrangements 
of the work were eminently opportune. The w Bethel Ship " 
soon became all that its name implied, and its fame was spread 
over all the seas, and every port into which Swedish or Nor- 
wegian sailors came. By a happy coincidence, which may with- 
out superstition be termed providential, soon after the begin- 
ning of this work the streams of Scandinavian immigrants, 
which have since swelled to so greait a volume, began to flow 
into this country ; and these were met at their coming by Pas- 
tor Hedstrom and his helpers, and so the " Bethel Ship " be- 
came known as a kind of immigration office, where many a 
forlorn stranger heard his native tongue in the land of his ex- 
ile, and received sympathy and direction, mingled with warm 
and affectionate religious instruction. These, in passing away 
into the remote North-west, carried with them and natural- 
ized in their new homes the form of Christian life which they 
had learned at the " Ship," and from these have grown up the 
now extensive and vigorous Swedish missions and churches in 
all the North-western States and Territories. And as many 
of the converts made at the " Bethel Ship " were sea-faring 
men, these, on returning to their own country, told among 
their kindred and acquaintances the story of their conversion, 
and soon the fire was kindled among them also. Numerous 

326 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

letters were likewise sent home by the converts, telling the 
same wonderful story, and through their influence many a sus- 
ceptible heart was impressed, awakened, and saved ; and so in 
both Sweden and Norway the story of early German Method- 
ism was repeated, with certain natural variations, and with 
even more remarkable spiritual features. 

A Swedish sailor, Mr. John P. Larsson, was converted at the 
" Bethel Ship," and soon after returned home, where he began 
to publish abroad the great things that had been done for him ; 
and, though he bore with him no Church authority, he soon 
found himself forced into the work of preaching Christ and of 
caring for the newly converted. And as the work detained 
him at home, and grew on his hands beyond his powers of ad- 
ministration, he sent the Macedonian cry across the ocean, to 
Pastor Hedstrom, for assistance and instruction. The Mis- 
sionary Board recommended that Mr. Larsson should continue 
in the work, and also voted two hundred dollars for his imme- 
diate use ; and so Methodism became a fact in Sweden, with 
the converted sailor for its evangelist. In 1855, while Mr. 
Larsson was engaged in an extensive and powerful revival at 
Calmar, he was joined by Mr. S. M. Swensen, a layman from 
New York, a class-leader at the " Ship," who entered heartily 
into the work, and continued his labors there for several months ; 
and thus the Methodism of these parts assumed from the first 
the characteristics of a deep and earnest spiritual revival, to 
which the Scandinavian character appears to be specially 
adapted. At the same time, and in much the same way, the 
work proceeded .in Norway, first under the labors of Mr. 
Peterson, who was joined in 1856 by Rev. Christian Willerup, 
a native of Denmark, who had been from his youth in Amer- 
ica, where he had entered the itinerant ministry. A few years 
later Mr. Willerup was sent to his native land, to plant a mis- 
sion in that kingdom also. The progress of the work in the 
three Scandinavian kingdoms for the last twenty years has been 
a steady growth in numbers and strength, until it has become 
firmly established in all the chief centers, and widely diffused 
among the smaller towns and the rural parishes. The petty 
annoyances by the local officials, encountered at the beginning, 
have nearly ceased, the more certainly and effectually because 
it is known that King Oscar himself bears no* unfriendly 

1833.] Methodist Foreign Missions. 327 

feeling toward the movement. At present the work in each of 
the three kingdoms has its own organization, those in Norway 
and Sweden being constituted Annual Conferences. Sweden 
has 67 traveling preachers, 9,232 members, 57 church edifices, 
and a still larger number of halls and other buildings used 
for public worship. Norway, 46 ministers, 3,375 members, 
and 22 churches, while in Denmark there are 9 ministers, 798 
members, 7 churches, and 50 other places of worship. The 
whole amount of appropriations to these missions from the be- 
ginning is rather more than three quarters of a million. Their 
church property amounts to nearly three hundred thousand ; 
their annual contribution for church building and for the sup- 
port of their ministers to about four thousand. It may be 
hoped that in the near future their contributions will much 
more nearly approximate their expenditures, for large and long 
continued feeding is always unprofitable. 

At this point, want of room compels an abrupt closing with 
the u improvement " of the fact presented that we intended to 
make. What we have shown is, however, the best possible ar- 
gument for both the demand for the work described, and the 
fidelity and efficiency with which it has been prosecuted. The 
Methodist Foreign Missionary work stands before the Church 
and the world, deprecating no amount of honest and fair criti- 
cism, and seeking to be justified as to the past and trusted for 
the future, and only so far as its own record shall challenge 
such treatment. In another article we may attempt to bring 
into view some of the lessons learned by this half-century^s 


[second article.] 

The parting command of the Son of God to his disciples was, 
" Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every 
creature." The majesty of these words is absolutely unpar- 
alleled. Jesus often spake as never man spake, but in uttering 
these words he spake as he never spake on any other occasion 
to mortal hearers. No other words ever spoken to any class of 

328 Methodist Quarterly Review. TApril, 

human beings ever imposed or defined such an obligation. 
Perhaps he never uttered any other command to men with 
such a concentration of motive. The gathered intensity of his 
life-long purposes and love was in his words. They were 
spoken with the power that could pledge the guidance and 
energy of the Holy Ghost about to fall upon the wondering 
hearers. They were intensified with the purpose of resuming 
the scepter of omnipotence, now for the first time taking it 
with the hand of glorified humanity. And he spoke them with 
his mind filled with plans and purposes of preparation among 
the many mansions of his Father's house, to receive the mighty 
tide of redeemed humanity to be turned heavenward by those 
obeying this command. 

These words were to rouse and rally and inspire men to a 
life-work of the loftiest and most sustained heroism, and to test 
the fidelity and capacity of every one called to be a disciple ; 
and on the manner of the reception of this Gospel he then and 
here predicated the salvation or damnation of every hearer. 

O, miserably do they err who deem their Christian duty done 
when the Church at home is well sustained 1 The Church of 
Christ is organized as an invading army, and the home Church 
is its base of operations. But what shall we say of an invasion 
whose utmost success is that of standing still ? Is not that 
resisting enemy already triumphant that can confine the atten- 
tion and resources of his invader to works of self-preservation ? 
Instead of conquering, the Church is ever in danger of being 
overcome by the spirit of the world ; and such is the temper of 
the foe, that the most vigorous offensive is the best, the safest, 
and the cheapest defensive measure. 

The Church as a local institution exists for a twofold pur- 
pose : First, for the conversion of sinners in its vicinity and 
the edification of its members, enforcing on them the duty of 
a life of holiness and self-denying consecration to* the service 
of God. Second, to organize and execute measures for giving 
the Gospel to the regions beyond. 

But can that be a true conversion at all that does not carry 
with it some important knowledge of the life and work of a 
believer ? And can that be a sound edification that allows one 
of the foremost of duties to fall into desuetude and forgetf ul- 
ness ? There is no escape from the conclusion, that just in 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 329 

so far as a Church is not disciplined to the duty of the world's 
conversion, so far it is in the condition of the blind led by the 

Wherever the Church is spiritually alive the ear is open to 
the Macedonian cry, and the heart feels the force of the Sav- 
iour's great command, and the response is proportioned to the 
degree of faith working by love and the knowledge of the sub- 
ject possessed by the Church at the time. 

The response to Christ's command by the Churches in this 
age is almost entirely in their organized benevolences for ag- 
gressive evangelical work. It is so in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Here the Missionary, Church Extension, Tract, 
Sunday - School, Freedmen's Aid, and Educational Boards 
and Societies, together with a proprietary interest in the 
American Bible Society, these almost exhaustively constitute 
and measure what this great Church is doing toward the 
world's evangelization. Beyond these are but few fragmentary 
efforts which, like the aerolites among the planets, scarcely 
count in their attraction or impact. An occasional sporadic 
exception only proves a lesson of needed enlargement and per- 
fection of method, and is quickly learned. These are parts 
of the great missionary movement. They are parts of un- 
equal magnitude, but each indispensable, and none can be 
neglected without impairing the efficiency of the whole, and 
it is doubtful whether for years to come any one of them could 
be consolidated with another without loss to the whole. 

Hence the immense importance of these benevolences, which 
not only gather and use the material resources, but also call 
forth and fix upon their objects the prayers and faith-power 
of the Church. 

What is the Measube of the Church's Obligation? 

To this question we get the uniform answer from every side, 
as in case of any truism, that the obligation is only measured 
by the ability ; but when we ask for the measure of the ability 
the answers are innumerable and endlessly discordant. 

Churches enough to make whole Conferences, and large ones 
at that, are giving a few pennies per member and declaring 
themselves at the utmost limit of their ability; they groan 
under their burdens, and think one of the chief reasons why 

330 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

they are so often behindhand with their finances is because of 
the drain of the benevolences on their resources, and many of 
their leading members would think an attempt at an advance 
only a proof of rashness. 

At the other extreme, with a curious gradation between, are 
persons of high intelligence, and always careful in forming 
their opinions, who believe the evangelical Churches now pos- 
sess potentially the spiritual and actually the material resources 
to carry the living Gospel to every human being within ten 
years, and that, too, without asking a single individual to do 
any thing unreasonable, or to make a sacrifice greater than 
many are now making for the blessed Master with joy and 
gladness. They are persuaded that if all believers should 
gather as one man at the mercy-seat — as was intended by the 
original projectors of the Week of Prayer — and fixing their 
minds on the one object alone, ask the Lord for the world's 
conversion, and for the baptism of the Holy Ghost upon them- 
selves every one, to fit them fully for their part of the work 
according to God's provision and measure, and if they should 
persist, Pentecost would be re-enacted on a scale as broad as 
evangelical Christendom, and the Spirit would call out tens 
of thousands who would go abroad with power that would 
force itself through the resistance of unknown tongues ; and 
even by the preaching through interpreters — as with Brainard 
among the Indians at Crosswicks, and Taylor in South Africa, 
and many others of less renown among men — conversions with 
power would occur by hundreds; and God, honoring his 
servants as he always does when they are faithful, would pour 
out his Spirit upon the heathen till the very rumor of the 
coming Gospel would cause them to gather together by thou- 
sands — as in Fiji and Madagascar, beyond where a missionary 
had ever trod — and call upon the God of the Christians to 
accept them, and to send them a teacher to tell them the words 
of life. Then what a field for the coming preacher to broad- 
cast the Word ! Out of these multitudes of believers there 
would not fail to arise many a Luther and many a Knox, many 
a Wesley and many a Whitefield, many an Asbury and many 
a Nast, to complete the work of evangelization, and organize 
these newly-conquered provinces of the kingdom of God. The 
money I A needed million is so hard to get now. Hundreds 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 331 

of millions would be needed then, and these would be forth- 
coming as spontaneously as the shekels at Pentecost, or as the 
offerings of the Macedonians, made beyond their power, in the 
depths of poverty and affliction, urging them upon Paul when 
they had such weighty reasons for keeping them at home. 
He only prays the Spirit of God into his imagination and not 
into his heart who does not pray up within himself a liberal- 
ity as royal as the king's sons. Would the Church be impov- 
erished ? Nay, but enriched by perceiving many of her own 
outlays to be needless, and by accessions from.every class, high 
and low, who could reimburse her five fold every year without 
loss to themselves out of the savings from expensive vices. 

Another answer to the question of the Church's ability is fur- 
nished by what is actually now being done by a part of the 
Church. There were, in 1882, more than twenty thousand 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church who gave more 
than their full share of an aggregate of twenty millions of 
dollars to these benevolences. That is to say, if each member 
of the Church of equal ability with these respectively had 
contributed as they did, the sum would have exceeded twenty 
millions. And it is probable that hardly any of these noble 
givers have overdone their giving, and that an increase of 
their piety, wisdom, and knowledge of the matter would in- 
crease the contributions of nine tenths of them. It is certain 
that these collections appear to them less burdensome than they 
appear to any other class of the Church's membership. 

If we test the Church's ability by the tenth of the income of 
its members — the lowest amount mentioned in the Scriptures 
as acceptable when a proportion is mentioned at all — and if we 
say the rule may admit of many exceptions, it remains that the 
exceptions are chiefly among those having the least income, (and 
still they could usually give something,) and that all persons of 
the average prosperity of the class to. which they belong, 
throughout nearly all the industries of the land, should not 
give lees than a tenth. It remains, too, that many should give 
more than a tenth ; and as these are generally such as have the 
larger incomes, therefore it is entirely within bounds to say 
that the Church's average should be one tenth ; then, with half 
that $um the home Church could be far better supported than 
now, and leave the other half, or five per cent, of the general 


Methodist Quarterly Review. 

I April, 

income, to supply the means to carry out the Saviour's great 
command. This would multiply the present collections by a very 
large factor, and give an astonishing product ! An average of 
one per cent, would produce about three times the amount now 

Actual Condition of the Benevolences. 

A careful tabulation of the average contribution per mem- 
ber to all these collections in every charge in the United States, 
as the statistical reports stood in the middle of the year 1881, 
gave the f ollowipg : 

104 charges, comprising 24,377 members, giving from $2 60 upward. 







2 00 to $2 49 







1 50 to 1 99 







1 00 to 1 49 







75 to 99 







60 to 74 







25 to 49 







10 to 24 





















The application of certain rules of analysis and classification, 
(see Methodist Quarterly Review, January, 1882, pp. 52, 53,) 
and which have never been invalidated, showed : 

Amount Contributed 
par Member. 

IT amber 


Number of 


GlYmg m 
In ordinary 
baeket collec- 

more than in 


basket oollce- 


Large given 

from nrfddle 

and lower 



$2 50 up. 

2 00 to $2 49 

1 50 to 1 99 

1 00 to 1 49 

75 to 99 

60 to 74 

25 to 49 

10 to 24 


No report .... 

No members.. 










































• ■ • ■ 

• • • • 










• • ■ « 

• • • • 


• • • • 

• • • • 











There is an appreciable error in these figures, because they 
were based upon the reports of membership made before the new 
method of reporting was adopted, and which were somewhat 
inflated with names of members that had disappeared. The 

1883.] The Problem of our Chturch Benevolences. 333 

adoption of the new method, and especially of the rule requir- 
ing " the number of known members at the end of this year," 
has probably reduced that inflation during the last eighteen 
months by a number that would fall somewhere between fifty 
and seventy-five thousand. This has accounted for the appar- 
ently slow growth of the Church in numbers during the time. 

Having adopted the policy, in this work, of keeping safely 
within the line of indisputable facts and unassailable inferences 
from them, an allowance of fifty thousand has been made for 
this contraction. That is, the rules of analysis and classification 
have been adjusted by the changed conditions required by this 
supposition. The change was effected in this way : It is mani- 
fest that every unreal member would fall into the class of non- 
contributors ; therefore, after the results had been obtained 
under the working of the rules as they stood, the required pro- 
portion, 48,412, was deducted from the class of non-contributors 
and distributed among the other classes by the same rule that 
had governed the body of the membership. The remaining 
1,588 of the 50,000 represents the contraction in the 42,128 
members of the 628 charges contributing nothing. 

A year's experience, if this work is continued, will show 
how nearly correct is the working hypothesis thus obtained, 
and how nearly this estimate covers the actual contraction. 
The error at most will fall below two per cent. Another very 
slight change in the working of the rules was made by plac- 
ing the class giving from 75 to 99 cents per member partly 
under the rule of- the preceding class, to meet a changed con- 
dition probably occasioned by the improved financial condition 
of the country. The effect upon the whole, caused by this 
change, is very slight, and is in the direction of a more favor- 
able showing. 

The reports in the General Minutes of 1882, tabulated with 
equal care as the preceding, show that besides nine charges 
reporting collections but no membership, and whose member- 
ship cannot be got from the preceding reports, there are : 

ChatgM. Mtmbm. 





130 31,909 

$2 50 up. ' 



25 to 49 

83 20,134 

2 00 to $2 49 



10 to 24 

202 43,895 

1 50 to 1 99 



Under 10 

609 110,426 

1 00 to 1 49 




730 130,760 
1,441 250,191 

7fi to 99 

50 to 74 



Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV 



Methodist Quarterly Review. 


Then, applying the rules of analysis and classification, with 
the modifications needed to meet the changed conditions as 
explained above, we find the number of each class of givers as 
f ollow8 : 

Mora than In 

Large gfren 





Aaln ordla- 


basket ouUac- 


from middle 

and lower 






$2 50 and up. 








2 00 to $2 49 








1 60 to 1 99 








1 00 to 1 49 








75 to 99 








50 to 74 








26 to 49 








10 to 24 








Under 10 





• • • 





• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • 








This shows a decrease of 55,607, or .06 per cent, of the 
non-contributors, about half of which is accounted for by the 
contraction of the membership. The class contributing as in 
ordinary basket collection taken at every service by the trust- 
ees increased 10,860, or .02 per cent. Those giving some- 
what larger sums than in ordinary basket increased 66,279, or 
.67 per cent. The large givers from the middle and lower 
classes increased 7,476, or 26 per cent. The class of large 
givers increased 676, or 31 per cent. 

These increments, at the respective averages assigned them 
in the tabulation of eighteen months before, would produce : 

676 giving $125 — 84,500 

10,860 giving 10 cents — $1,086 

66,279 " 51 " — 33,802 

7,476 M $10 — 74,760 

Total $194,148 

Now, turning to the General Eecapitulation in the General 
Minutes, we find the increase reported is $184,691. The 
summaries in the reports include about $21,000 in the former 
and $14,000 in the latter case evidently raised for local insti- 
tutions of learning, but reported as if raised for the Board of 
Education and auxiliaries. This item was deducted in the 
first calculation, and must be in the latter to make the cases par- 
allel. Then we find the results required by the increments of 
these different classes under the rules differ from the actual in- 
crement as shown in the General Minutes by only $4,543. 
Certainly this is a most surprising proof of the correctness 



1883.] The Problem of our Chureh Benevolences. 335 

of the rules of analysis and classification applied to the tabu- 
lated averages, and which in their turn are accurate because 
proved uniformly by reverse arithmetical process. And it may 
be confidently expected that the same process will trace with 
satisfactory accuracy the collections of any year or variation of 
totals while the present method of taking the collections prevails. 
And further, when an advance is effected, it is clear from 
what classes the added money comes — from the liberal few. 
That is, the liberal few are affected by the methods now used 
and the pressure as now applied. They respond more or less 
in proportion to the urgency of the appeal, while the great mass 
of the membership are unaffected by special appeals, and con- 
tinue nearly stationary at their low figures. In this case, the 
part of the advance of $184,691 contributed by 1,672,207 mem- 
bers was $34,888, or an average advance of two cents each ; 
while the part contributed by 39,331 members was $149,803, 
or an average advance of $4 05 each. 


When we ask how the contributions of the people are dis- 
tributed among the different benevolences, and how each one 
is sustained in different parts of the country, then a good sys- 
tem of tabulation is needed. 

It will not suffice to take the Minutes and look at the com- 
pactness of the tables, the fewness of blanks,' or even the mag- 
nitude of the totals. One church often gives respectability to 
the totals of a whole district. And as to the blanks, sometimes 
they would bfetter serve the cause by remaining to tell the 
truth than do the figures that displace them. A few years 
ago, the constant reiteration of nearly every Secretary speaking 
at Conference was, u Take a collection ;" " Take a collection, if 
you only get a few shillings, and give the people a chance to 
give." The glaring blanks gave a striking text to the speaker ; 
they glared at the pastor and presiding elder till they produced 
an uneasy feeling. A few elders took pride in having their 
preachers report " No blanks." And for the most part the re- 
sultant change was an omnibus collection, but little increased by 
being omnibus, or divisions and subdivisions of little sums raised 
for a few of them among the whole, and so filling blanks with- 
out increase. The practice is now one of the most noticeable 

336 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

characteristics of some districts and of some whole Conferences, 
and many pastors have the confirmed habit of leaving this 
kind of footprints on each successive charge. It is curious to 
see how little money can be made to do great things in filling 
blanks. Multitudes fill every blank, Woman's Foreign Mis- 
sions included, with punctilious fidelity, and generally with uni- 
fortn amounts, at an aggregate expense of ten cents per mem- 
ber. After these come other multitudes who do it just as well 
at half the expense ; and after these come crowds of others in 
descending grades, till half a cent per member answers every 
purpose. Not a blank in some places, and in others only an oc- 
casional one, is left to cast a reproach or check the triumphant 
report of the presiding elder, at Conference. But, alas! the 
benevolences are not profited by the agitation, and few are 
they who lay it to heart. 

The proper way to show what is real and what is seeming in 
thi6 matter is by applying standards. 

The Newark Conference has adopted a system of standards ; 
possibly other Conferences may have done something of the 
kind. Of this system, the Minimum Standard is for Missions, 
40 cents ; Church Extension, 8 cents ; Freedmen's Aid, 7 cents ; 
Bible, 4 cents ; and Tract, Sunday-School and Education each 
2 cents ; total, 65 cents. This is understood to be too low by 
half to serve as a fair Average Standard for the Newark Con- 
ference, or any other jn places where the work is established 
and the region is fairly prosperous. 

Now, taking for a guide the average pastoral support and 
the character of the collections actually taken, we find this Mini- 
mum Standard is too low for a fair average standard in sixty- 
seven Conferences. By dividing it and calling the half of it a 
Sub-Minimum Standard, we can apply this last to eleven Con- 
ferences more. Then there will remain eleven Conferences 
still which will be tested with equal fairness by bisecting the 
standard last used, being a quarter of the Minimum Standard. 
Call this the Minor Sub-Minimum Standard, and applying 
these standards to every collection reported in every charge in 
the United States, counting the missionary collection blank only 
when not taken in either Church or Sunday-school, and call- 
ing those " slighted " which fall below the standard, and those 
" standard " which equal or exceed it, we have the following : 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 837 




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1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 339 

Here we find in the Missionary Columns, out of the sixty- 
seven Conferences tried by the standard of forty cents, there 
are thirteen Conferences having over 50 per cent, of standard 
collections. They include every one of the nine Conferences 
of the foreign-born brethren and four others, and they rank as 
follows : (1) Southern German, 96 per cent. ; (2) East German, 
83 ; (3) N.W. Swedish, 76 ; (4) N. W. Norwegian, 76 ; (5) Chi- 
cago German, 72 ; (6) Central German, 71 ; (7) Colorado, 67 ; 
(8) West German, 65 ; (9) St. Louis German, 63 ; (10) Rock 
River, 61 ; (11) Central Illinois, 59 ; (12) N. W. German, 59 ; 
(13) Central Ohio, 57 per cent. 

In the Church Extension columns there appear nine Con- 
ferences that have, over 50 per cent, of collections, as high as 
eight cents per member. Six of these are of the foreign-born, 
five German and the N. W. Swedish. The Colorado, Colum- 
bia River, and N. W. Iowa are the other three. 

In the Tract Society columns, the only Conference in the 
sixty-seven that has more than 50 per cent, of collections, as 
high as two cents per member, is the East German ; while ten 
of them have not over 2 per cent, of the number of collec- 
tions, amounting to so much as two cents per member. 

In the columns of the Sunday-School Union, the East Ger- 
man Conference is the only one again that has over 50 per 
cent, of collections, amounting to so much as two cents per 
member, among the sixty-seven. 

In the columns of the Freed men's Aid Society there is not 
one of these Conferences having 50 per cent, of collections, 
amounting to so much as seven cents per member. The 
highest is the Rock River, 48 per cent., and the next to it is 
the Central Illinois with 28 per cent. At the other extreme, we 
find nineteen of these Conferences do not exceed 2 per cent, 
of collections up to this standard. 

The Educational columns have so much money reported in 
them that was raised for local institutions of learning, and not 
for the Board of Education or auxiliary societies, as to affect 
considerably a comparison like the preceding. This important 
Board needs reconstruction. It is capable of great improve- 
ment in respect to its methods, efficiency, and harmony with 
the other benevolences of the Church. 

In the columns of the American Bible Society, the Rock 

840 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

River Conference is the only one that has so much as 50 per 
cent, of collections, amounting to so much as four cents per 

Let it be kept in mind that the standard by which these col- % 
lections are tested is about half high enough for a fair average 
for the Conferences respectively, while we note that in the 
whole Church in the United States 25 per cent, of the Mis- 
sionary collections are standard ; 16 per cent, of the Church 
Extension ; 11 per cent, of the Tract ; 14 per cent, of the Sun- 
day-School ; 9 per cent, of the Freedmen's Aid ; 33 per cent, of 
the Educational, and 10 per cent, of the Bible collections are 

Arb our Members Exceptionally "Wanting in Liberality 

to the6e benev0lence8 ? 

These figures certainly have an unfavorable look on their 
surf ace ; and there is no relief except to such minds as could 
find it in less favorable appearances under the surface of the 
figures of other Churches of high respectability. 

Some have thought the lesson they teach so humiliating 
that it is not wise to publish them, lest they depress too much 
the spirit of the Church, and damage its reputation before the 
religious public and the world. But is it not better to look 
the worst faults squarely in the face and study the case till we 
are fully impressed with the magnitude of the undertaking, 
and then to gird ourselves to remedy the evils ? If the present 
generation of the ministers and members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church are not able or disposed to place themselves 
in their true position in this matter, then are they unworthy of 
the generations gone before, whose name and work and hon- 
ors they have inherited. Is not a deep sense of the need of a 
reformation one of the most potent causes tending to bring 
it about ? 

The figures previously published, on which these are a fair 
improvement, have been widely commented on, not always in 
a friendly spirit, and often to make out a case that could not 
stand in the light of other facts shown in the article from which 
they were taken. 

Religious papers of various denominations, and others claim- 
ing to be undenominational, while imperfectly concealing their 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 341 

affinities, have rung the changes on these figures with an air 
that implied a consciousness of greatly superior faithfulness 
among themselves. And yet, in almost every case, if a com- 
parison were made with equivalent conditions, the result would 
f turn in favor of the Church now disparaged. Our superficial 

investigator, and sometimes supercilious writer, sees the figures, 
% discards concomitant facts, turns to comparative tables such 

as are found in Dr. Dorchester's book, and furnishes his readers 
with very erroneous conclusions and misleading comments. 
In this case the large and liberal givers were eliminated, and 
also other classes of givers, for the purpose of bringing to the 
proper attention those who needed instruction and exhortation 
to attend to a neglected duty. 

If we take the Presbyterian Church, certainly a good repre- 
sentative of the Evangelical constellation, we find at first sight 
that our Church is giving one fourth as much per member as 
theirs. But if we proceed a little further, and take a score of 
the largest contributing churches and add them to a score of the 
largest individual offerings, we shall find the effect on the aver- 
age is enormous, while the same thing in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church would affect the general avenige but little. The Pres- 
byterian Church has thirty charges unequaled by our highest, 
and has been still more greatly blessed beyond our own with 
princely givers to these benevolences. The true way to get 
at the facts is to take all gifts of churches and of individuals, 
such as have no counterparts with us, add them together, and 
deduct the amount. Then match the per centage of the differ- 
ent classes of givers of equal ability, or place side by side 
churches of equal financial strength, then it will be seen that a 
larger per centage of Methodist tlfan Presbyterian churches are 
in the lead ; and if in the lower three fourths of the member- 
ship a comparison could be made, member with member of equal 
ability, the Methodists would appear in the more favorable light. 
This is because Methodism has been more dependent on the 
gifts of the middle and lower classes, and has made more effort, 
and by the peculiarity of organization has been able to make 
more successful effort, to. obtain contributions from them. The 
Presbyterian Church has 44 per cent, of blanks in the reports 
of collections corresponding to these under consideration, against 
28 per cent, in ours. Their higher grade churches have fewer 

342 Methodist Quarterly Bevi&w. [April, 

blanks than ours,* bo that in the lower nine tenths of the 
churches twenty per cent, of which are without pastors, their 
blanks are nearly twice as numerous as ours. 

The Reformed, (Dutch,) another highly respectable Church, 
standing near the Presbyterian in Dr. Dorchester's tables, has 
been examined, and is found to report nearly three times our 
per centage of churches giving nothing, though almost the en- 
tire Church corresponds to our older northern Conferences, with 
nothing equivalent to our new work in the South and Far West 
where the greater per centages of blanks occur. If the con- 
tributing churches had been tabulated as ours have been, and 
equally fair rules of analysis and classification applied, the per 
centage of non-contributing members would exceed ours. A few 
of the smaller Methodist bodies exceed us because their methods 
are better, though in some cases their ability is less, and here and 
there one of the smaller denominations, better circumstanced 
than we are, may exceed us; but, taking the evangelical Churches 
as a whole, and we are considerably above the average of them 
in what is done by the lower nine tenths of the membership. 

The true attitude of most of our critics is not that of complar 
cent censors, but of inquirers, with fallen countenance and bated 
breath, asking, " What, then, must be the number of our mem- 
bers who are giving nothing toward the world's conversion % " 

The true lesson of these figures teaches to ask, How many mill- 
ions of Church members in good and regular standing in their 
respective Churches, outside of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
are giving nothing ? and, What shall each Church do in its 
own way to rally its entire forces and develop its latent power 
for this work ? 

Emphatic as is the language of those disturbing figures, the 
article from which they are taken shows by facts as emphatic 
that they are neither the result of inability nor indisposition ; 
they come about by defectiveness of method. Our people have 
done as well as they have been taught and asked to do when 
the manner and spirit of the asking is taken into the account. 

A striking example of the readiness of our people to respond 
to a benevolence like these, when presented in a fairly effective 
way, is found iij the case of the success of the Woman's Foreign 

* Forty-eight of the 89 churches that each stanc^ highest in their respective 
Oonfereuces report blanks, the 48 aggregate 107 blanks. 



1883.] The Problem of owr Church Benevolences. 343 

Missionary Society. Their collection is purely voluntary. 
No pastor takes it up, no member is bound by vowx>r law to 
contribute to it The claim is not more 6acred, nor the work 
more important, than that of those organized by the General 
Conference. ' Only about a fifth part of the charges have their 
work organized, but its method is a good one for the purpose, 
and so it has outrun every benevolence of the Church in the 
race for success. 

There are reported to the credit of this society 4,158 collec- 
tions, of which 1,588 are not over $2, and are probably the 
gift of one or two persons ; or they come by the pastor's in- 
cluding this with those among which he divides what he has to 
fill his blanks, as can be seen by the uniformity of the sums 
running across the list, leaving 2,570 collections, or 25 per cent, 
of the whole number of charges. Yet there are found 1,045 
collections that are multiples of all the six (Church Exten- 
sion, Tract, Sunday-School, Freedmen's Aid, Education, and 
Bible) collections on the same charges added together. And 
after these come 561 collections of sums nearly as large as the 
sum of these six added together on the same charges. 

Now, if the claim of .the collection or the obligation of the 
giver should be measured by the character and necessities of 
the work, then the amount raised for these six collections 
should be to the amount raised for Woman's Foreign Missions 
as about four to one ; just as the amount raised for the parent 
Missionary Society should be to that for Woman's Foreign 
Missions as about eight to one, and all the benevolences or- 
ganized by the General Cenference as twelve to one of this. 

The 1,045 charges mentioned above gave altogether for 
Woman's Foreign Missions $67,878 66, and the 561 which each 
gave nearly as much as to the six combined gave $24,772 57. 
The 1,606 charges together gave $92,651 23, or 86 per cent, of 
the total of $107,673. 

It is safe to say that our sisters have not overdone their work 
at many points, and that in these very charges, giving these 
extra-proportionate amounts, ten have stopped short of what 
might properly and ought to have been done where one has 
gone beyond it. It is equally certain that as earnest a presen- 
tation of these six benevolences, by a method as well chosen 
and a purpose as strong and true and ambitious to raise the 


Methodist Quarterly Review. 


needed money, would have resulted in collections for these pro- 
portionately as good as the one obtained by our sisters. 

The same may be said of the general missionary collection. 
Then the managers of every one of the General Conference's 
benevolences would not have to limit, and often cripple by 
retrenchment, the plans of their agents in the field, cutting 
down the amounts pleaded for, and finding themselves unable 
to enter new fields of the most promising character; while 
seeing their sisters able to make appropriations beyond what is 
asked for by their agents in the field, and stimulated by the 
very funds committed and likely to be committed to their 
hands to seek new fields of useful operations. 

The forty Conferences made notable by charges raising more 
money for Woman's Foreign Missions than for the six General 
Conference collections combined range as follows : 

lo multiple* of, 

or nearly m 
much ft*, for six 
Geo. Conf. col- 
lection* com- 

Ohio : $5,760 26 

NewYork 4,989 72 

New England 4,438 00 

Michigan < . . 3,923 62 

Ciucinuati 3,732 05 

Iowa 3,724 80 

Baltimore 3,623 OS 

East Ohio 3,597 52 

Detroit 2,941 35 

RockRiver 2,870 86 

New York Eaat 2,375 1 1 

Central New York 2,064 50 

13 Troy 2,006 93 

14 North Ohio 1,969 74 

15 Upper Iowa 1,904 23 

16 Des Moines 1,836 95 

17 New England Southern . 1,778 00 

1 8 Genesee 1,622 00 

19 Minnesota 1,619 09 

20 North Indiana 1,606 51 













la multiple* of, 
or nearly a* 
much **, for six 
Gen. Conf. col- 
lections com- 



N. W. Indiana $1,527 09 

22 Central Ohio 1,508 12 

23 New Hampshire, 1,469 7 1 

24 Wisconsin. 1,412 18 

25 Northern New York 1,368 67 

Erie 1,225 66 

Vermont 1,221 98 

Pittsburg 1,188 00 

29 New Jersey 1,114 48 

30 Central Pennsylvania... 1,105 44 

31 S. E. Indiana. ^ 1,075 43 

32 Illinois 1,027 27 

33 St Louia 921 79 

34 Washington 886 46 

35 Wyoming 873 30 

36 Central Illinois 853 07 

37 Indiana 834 28 

38 Newark 794 00 

39 Kansas 727 27 

40 Philadelphia 714 86 

It is possible that a few of these large amounts may be the 
special contributions of one or more wealthy and benevolent per- 
sons, but is not likely that enough such could be named to greatly 
modify the showing. A large number of the churches above 
represented have also shown the noblest liberality on many 
occasions when worthy appeals for large sums have been made 
to them for various objects, • 


1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 345 

Who is Responsible? 

First, and above any other class, a majority of the presiding 
elders. Their office holds the key to the situation They 
derive their importance chiefly from their being the cus- 
todians of general and connectional interests. It is their duty 
to bring the subject before every Quarterly Conference. They 
should do this with a knowledge of what has been done, and 
what ought to be' done, and with a purpose and plan to get the 
charge committed to measures of improvement till the proper 
support is given to each benevolence. For this they have 
special facilities through the standing committees on each of 
them. The perfunctory way in which the disciplinary ques- 
tions are asked, is utterly worthless in nineteen cases out of 
twenty. Presiding elders hold Quarterly Conferences in which 
they see several men who ought each to give more to several 
of the benevolences than the whole membership are in the 
habit of giving, and these men are often found on the com- 
mittees on these benevolences. Here a little well-directed 
counsel and organization would be very effective, and produce 
great results. But, so sadly often no other influence comes from 
the elder than a little more smothering. Pastors are many 
who will say they have never had a word or an act of encour- 
agement from the elder in this work, while they have had 
implied and sometimes direct and positive discouragement. 
What must be the effect of such words as these from an elder 
among his preachers and people ? — " I fear we are overdoing 
these collections to the injury of other interests nearer home." 
" We shall have to let you up on the benevolences." " I 
would not try to increase them." The authors of these words 
rank among the best in the eldership ; they have been popular 
and have received honors, and are men of many and rare ex- 
cellences of character; but are they not out of place when 
appointed to load the Church to the performance of duty to 
such vital interests? Still, it must be admitted that they have 
only spoken what many others have habitually acted. 

It is not a little significant that one of the best informed, 
and at the same time one of the most efficient, elders remarked 
to the writer, as advocating this cause, " The presiding elders 
are all against you." This last remark was hyperbolical ; a few 

346 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

of them show favorable enthusiasm, as a few of them are ex- 
ceedingly efficient in promoting these interests. So much so, 
that the benevolences could well afford to pay their salaries to 
keep them perpetually in the same office, and profit by the 
transaction, as would probably the other interests of the Church 
in similar degree. But the per centage of such is small, and 
one of the desiderata in Methodism is a class of presiding elders 
that will promote the benevolences as they deserve. 

This evil has an encouraging feature — it can be easily reme- 
died. Whenever a candidate is proposed for a district, let the 
Bishop ask in cabinet, What is his record respecting the be- 
nevolences ? and other things being equal, let the answer deter- 
mine the appointment ; then a remarkable waking up will occur. 
In addition to this, let the results on each district be carefully 
tabulated, to bring out the progress or retrogress every year, and, 
at the end of the second year of inefficiency, return the elder to 
the pastorate. One such removal would inspire a Conference, 
and be worth thousands annually for years to the benevolences. 

The next class of persons bearing the most responsibility for 
the poor results is made up of those pastors who uniformly 
run down the collections on each successive charge. If a grad- 
uated tabulation be constructed showing the rank or compara- 
tive standing of each charge in the Conference, and if this be 
repeated for a term of years, placing the number for each year 
in its proper column opposite the name of the charge, then it 
will only be necessary to inclose in brackets the years included in 
each pastoral term to show how many progressing or declining 
terms there are in the Conference. If the names of the in- 
cumbents be written over the pastoral terms, the historical 
record will be complete, and the credit and responsibility will 
be established. In most cases a small minority of names will 
be found connected uniformly with the terms showing ad- 
vance, while a larger number will be found uniformly with the 
terms showing declension. Between these extremes may be 
seen, among the varying terms, which ones have a generally 
upward and which a generally downward tendency. 

The Newark Conference, which is one of the most suitable 
to be taken for an example, as being about one third of the 
way from the bottom of the better half of our Northern 
and older Conferences in respect to the support given to the 

1883.] The Problem, of our Church Benevolences. 347 

benevolences, has been thus tabulated for the last twenty-one 
years, during which time there were 1,977 pastoral terms, 787 of 
which ehow relative advance, and 983 show a decline, or stand 
too low to show decline, and 19 show a stationary grade. Omit- 
ting snch as have served only one term, 29 pastors' names are 
always connected with advancing terms ; 41 names are always 
connected with declining terms; 78 names are connected 
with many advances and few declines ; and 98 are connected 
with many declines and few advances. The following is the 

Methodht Quarterly Review. [April, 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 349 

Fourth Sbbies, Vol. XXXV.— 23 


350. Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

The Fall Conferences have all been tabulated in like manner 
for three successive years. In them are 5,608 charges, 825 of 
which show a regular advance each year, and 1,200 show a reg- 
ular decline ; 792 show variation with upward tendency, and 
1,784 show variation with downward tendency, and 1,007 can- 
not be traced ; about 150 of these last are new charges ; some 
of them are differently constituted in different years, but the 
identity of most of them is concealed by change of name in 
reports without any thing to show by what name they had been 
previously known. 

The Spring Conferences have been thus tabulated for two 
successive years. 

Let this or a similar tabulation proceed ; then, from year to 
year, a striking history will be unrolled, showing the progress 
of every charge and of every pastor. It will be self-acting in 
fixing the responsibility of failure where it belongs, and in 
showing where remedial influences should be applied. 

Objections to Graduated Tabulations. 

1. " They do not fairly represent the benevolence of the 
Church. Some churches are doing nobly for Conference claim- 
ants, etc., and receive no credit in these tables." 

The reply to this is : They were never intended to show the 
general liberality of any church, but only to show what was 
done, and, by inference, what ought to be done, for these collec- 
tions for aggressive evangelical work. They stand on an en- 
tirely different basis from" all eleemosynary claims. Those are 
for the body, and these are for many souls. Those are given 
at the bidding of human sympathy, these by the love we bear 
to Christ, and by his great command. 

2. " They say nothing about the comparative ability of the 
churches." And in that they are no more objectionable than 
any other kind of reports, except that they show more clearly 
and quickly to the eye what ordinary reports reveal only to 
the careful examiner. 

A church known to be poor and taking a respectable position 
does itself greater honor often than a rich one standing much 

3. " They do injustice to churches having large revivals, and 
having received large accessions, and so having reduced their 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences.- 351 

average ; also to churches raising large sums for payment of 
debt, or engaged in church or parsonage building, and also to 
churches passing through seasons of special adversity." 

Let an asterisk be placed with the figures of the first class of 
these churches, poiuting to a foot-note saying, " Large acces- 
sions ; " a dagger to those of the second, with a foot-note saying, 
" Large amount raised for payment of debt ; " a double dagger 
to the third saying, " Church building," etc. Those connected 
with a note telling of " Special adversity " would receive none 
the less honor or sympathy, or perhaps needed help, by show- 
ing a brave struggle, like the Macedonian brethren, to give out 
of their deep poverty abounding to the riches of their liberality. 

Those having large revivals, and those conducting church 
building and debt-paying enterprises, are apt to be among the 
most efficient of pastors, and those standing by their churches 
in times of hardship deserve all honor. None of them should 
have their merits belittled. And to them all the graduated 
tables may be made to do more complete justice than any 
ordinary statistical report. 

It must be remembered, however, that a revival greatly 
stimulates a church, and makes it easier to raise generous sums. 
The collections should have their full share of the prosperity ; 
and when they receive their full share of attention and effort 
by a superior man with a superior opportunity, the results are 
sure to show accordingly. Many pastors also tell with glad 
surprise that a faithful presentation of the collections, asking 
the people to do what they could in years of heavy financial 
burdens at home, have resulted in some of the best returns in 
the history of the charge. In most cases where the collections 
have suffered greatly through these local enterprises, it is be- 
cause they were entirely neglected, and the effort intentionally 
not made. 

If the local burden or distress does not prevent the pay- 
ment of a considerable part of the pastor's salary, it is in order 
for him to rise and explain the neglect of the collections. If 
he can do so, his reputation will be as good as his explanation ; 
if not, it ought to be as bad as his record. 

The merit of this system of tabulation is that it singles out 
the delinquent churches and fixes upon their delinquency their 
own attention, and that of those who are over them in the Lord. 

352 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

And as the tabulation is repeated and becomes historic, it pre- 
sents to the eye of the neglectful pastor the part of his record 
that specially needs improvement, and it points out to the faith- 
ful presiding elder the pastors and churches on his district that 
most likely need encouragement or stimulation, that these 
interests suffer not in his hands. It also furnishes in compact 
form the weightiest facts for his use in Quarterly Conference 
when he seeks to commit the official members to measures of 
improvement. And it wakens emulation, which is the noblest 
of the secondary motives, and an appeal to which is warranted 
by emphatic Pauline precedent. 

What Improvement to our Methods can be Suggested ? 

Many things about them are excellent, and admired by the 
foremost men of sister denominations. Our connectional sys- 
tem and superintendency gives us the greatest facility for 
promoting these as well as other general interests. The episcopal 
connection with the different boards, bringing the broadest 
general knowledge to blend with the specific knowledge of the 
places represented by the members, enables the boards to give 
the best information to all who will study their reports. The 
custom of asking a given amount, and of its apportionment to 
the Conferences and then to the churches, must commend itself 
as business-like to all who are anxious to see this business well 
done. The provision for appointing missionary collectors in 
every charge cannot be too highly valued, and it should be ex- 
tended to all the benevolences. These things ought to be suf- 
ficient. And they are to many, but to the vast majority of our 
pastors and people they are as if they were not. And why ? 
Not because of conscious unfaithfulness, but rather because so 
large a part of the human family, high and low, including a 
majority of our preachers and most of our people, are creatures 
of habit and imitation more than of reflection and generalization 
as to their duties and the interests committed to them. So it 
comes about that most pastors construe all that is published or 
said or asked of them by what they have been accustomed to do or 
by the habits and customs of their people. Such a clear and 
strong presentation of these things on their merits, as will not be 
construed, strikes them as a hyperbole. Then, too, the general 
habits of surrounding changes form a vis inertia, hard, indeed, 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 353 

to be overcome, exerting an influence as constant as the law of 
gravitation, and giving the greatest advantage to reactionists, 
and discouragement to the progressive pastor. Yet it takes 
no more repetitions to establish a good habit than a bad one, 
and if a habit of reaching every member with an appeal for 
each benevolence were fixed, with the habit of expecting a 
proper response, and withal a habit of emulation, such as 
Paul tried to inculcate 'among the Greeks, the work could be 
done easily by all, and would be done constantly by nine tenths 
of those who now fail. But why have our people not formed 
better habits ? Largely because they have been told what to do, 
and then have not been called to account for the way of doing 
their work, or whether it was done at all. Missionary col- 
lectors are appointed ; nobody asks whether every member has 
been appealed to, nobody looks after the standard of the con- 
tributions, and only a general report of the aggregate is made, 
which may look well enough to the unthinking. 

Each board now acts alone, seeking to make its own impres- 
sion on the Church. The result is that seven different presen- 
tations, each on the theory of its being the one of greatest im- 
portance, and made in a way tending to dissipate and confuse 
the attention, and by mutual neutralization diminish the 
general impression. They should act as a unit, and so 
make a cumulative impression. A good way would be for the 
different secretaries to prepare in concert a circular stating 
concisely and forcibly the nature and extent of the common ob- 
ligation, and the vow of each member on joining the Church to 
contribute thereto according to ability — stating the nature and 
extent of the work of each, and consequently the extent of the 
claim — to go with a subscription-card, having a place for each 
cause, and send this to every charge to be presented to every 
member of the Church. Then -a system of reporting should be 
devised ; this could readily be done by putting it in the order 
of exercises at the monthly concert for missions. Let the re- 
port give the whole number of members, and a fair estimate of 
the number of friends in the congregation in sympathy with 
these things. After saying that cards and circulars have been 
sent to every one, report the number of responses, with the 
grade of each contribution, classed by amounts: and finally 
the amount resulting to each benevolence, and how much it 

354 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

averages per member for the Church. This wi.* bring out 
speeches from the best friends of the benevolences, and sug- 
gest the way for securing responses from others before the 
next meeting. Each coming report will waken curiosity and 
interest, and tend to the formation of systematic and gener- 
ous habits of giving. The number of contributors should be 
reported to the Annual Conference, classed under different 
standards. The Newark Conference adopted a system of 
standards as shown in the following form of the report re- 
quired : 

District Charge. 

No. of Con- Amount. 

Below Minimum Standard (65 cents) $ 

Minimum Standard and all others between 65 cents 

and $1 30 \ $ 

Average Standard ($1 30) aud all others between 

$130and$2 60 $ 

Higher Standard ($ 2 60) $ 

Special Contributions (above $2 60) .... $ 

Total amount given to the seven collections. $ 

Total membership 


These reports to the Conferences should be tabulated so as to 
show the degree of progress toward a proper contribution from 
every member in every part of the Church, and where efforts 
at improvement is most needed. 

It is surprising what an effect reiterated reports will have 
on the habits when systematically made and brought home to 
those concerned. 

It is as important to establish a system of minima as to get a 
contribution from every one. Every pastor who so presents 
the benevolences as to produce conviction has many a one com- 
ing to him and asking, u How much do you think I ought to 
give to this cause?" The average pastor would reply, " Give 
all you can," which adds nothing to the inquirer's information, 
and is interpreted, on the one hand, by a poor laborer to mean 
five dollars, and on the other, by a man ten times as able, to 
mean twenty-five cents. If, instead of saying, " Give all you 
can," the pastor should say, " Take 65 cents for your minimum 
if you are very poor, $1 30 if you have the ability of a common 
laborer of ordinary prosperity, $2 60 if you have the ability of 
the average mechanic, or if you are better off give such sums 

1883.] The Problem of our Church Benevolences. 355 

as will proportionately correspond to your means, provided you 
mean to give the lowest admissible sum ; but I want my people 
to give liberally, and not the lowest admissible sum, and if you 
want to give liberally do not give less than one per cent, of 
your income." A pastor who will thus instruct his people, and 
show his sympathy with them and with his subject by adding 
to their offerings two per cent, of his own income, can soon 
have them doing full justice to all these benevolences and 
keep certainly within the bounds of moderation. 

The missionary cause, which has about a two thirds interest 
' in the claim of the seven collections combined, would be much 
the gainer by admitting a report on the other six at every 
monthly concert, and the meeting itself would be made more 
interesting and effective. A season of special prayer for God's 
blessing on the offerings and on the work contributed to, 
should always constitute a prominent part of the exercises. 

Thus a little change in our system, introduced and improved 
by experience, would not be many years in adding another 
million to present receipts, and calling out the prayers of the 
Church for the work with tenfold the present power. 

Then could we enter and occupy, more nearly as we should, 
the mighty and opening West, the needy but rising South, 
and the whitening harvest of the world. 



American Reviews, 

American Antiquarian and Oriektal Journal, January, 1883. (Chicago, HI.) 
1. On the Interpretation of the Early Mythologies of Greece and India ; by 
F. G. Fleay, A.M. 2. Indian Migrations, as Evidenced by Language; by 
Horatio Hale. 3. Native Races of Colombia, S. A.; by E. G. Barney. 
4. Ancient Village Architecture in America— Indian and Mound Builders' Vil- 
lages ; by S. D. Peet, editor. 6. Description of an Ancient Aztec Town in New 
Mexico; by W. H. A. Reed. 6. Specimen of the Chumeto Language; by Al- 
bert S. Gatschet. 7. Mound Joliet ; by 0. H. Marshall. 

Bibliothrca Sacra, January, 1 883. (Andover.)— 1. Proposed Reconstruction of 
the Pentateuch; by Rev. Edwin C. Bissell, D.D. 2. The Conception Ex/o^erm 
in the New Testament ; by Prof. E. Benj. Andrews. 3. Positivism as a Working 
System; by Rev. F. H. Johnson. 4. The Argument from Christian Experience 
for the Inspiration of the Bible; by Rev. Frank H. Foster, Ph.D. 5. On some 
Textual Questions in the Gospel of John; bv Henry Hayman, DD. 6. The 
School- Life of Wrtlafried Strabo ; translated by Prof. J. D. Butler, Ph.D. 7. Some 
Notes on recent Catacomb Research and its Literature ; by Rev. Prof. Scott 

356 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

Christian Quarterly Review. January, 1883. (Columbia, Mo.) — 1. Worldlineas 
in the Church ; by J. T. Toof. 2. The Distinctive Peculiarities of the Disciples; 
by J. Z. Tyler. 3. The Foreknowledge of God; by John Tomliue Walsh. 
4. God Kvery-where; by G. R. Hand. 6. A Duty of Christian Parents; by 
J. W. Ellis. 6. The Philosophy of Pain— Hell; by Thomas MunnelL 7. Cre- 
ation and Evolutiou ; by G. T. Carpenter. 8. Will Morality Secure Eternal 
Life? by George E. Dew. 9. A Kingdom That Cannot be Moved; by H. 

Journal op Christian Philosophy, January, 1883. (New York.)— 1. The Ar- 
guments for the Being of God; by Prof. George P. Fisher, D.D., LL.D. 

2. Christianity and Social Science; by Washington Gladden, D.D. 3. Revela- 
tion; by Prof. George T. Ladd, D.D. 4. The Incarnation and Modern 
Thought ; by A. J. F. Behrends, D.D. 5. Mind and Matter, their Immediate 
Relation; by President John Bascom, D.D., LL.D. 6. The Spiritual Life, a 
Fact and a Testimony; by Giles If. Mandeville, D.D. 7. Proceedings of the 
American Institute of Christian Philosophy. 

Lutheran Quarterly, January, 1 883. (Gettysburg.) — 1. The Rise of the Epis- 
copate ; a translation from Dr. Heinrich Schmid's " Handbuch der Kirchenge- 
echichte;" by Prof. E. J. Wolf, D.D. 2. The Law of Burial and of Burial 
Grounds ; by Rev. William Hull. 3. How to Develop and Direct the Benevolence 
of the Church; bv Rev. George Scholl, A.M. 4. The Question of Primeval 
Monotheism; by if. Valentine, D.D. 5. The Length of Our Saviour's Public 
Ministry According to the Gospel of St John; by Rev. J. C. Jacoby, A.M. 
6. What Are the Qualifications Necessary to Church Membership? by Rev. E. 
D. Weigle, A.M. 7. Christ and the Conscience; by Prof. W. H. Wynn, Ph.D. 
8. The Liturgical Question; by Rev. F. W. Conrad, D.D. 

New Englander, March, 1883. (New Haven.) — 1. Goethe's Ethical Sayings in 
Prose; by Prof. R. B. Richardson, Ph.D. 2. Voices from the Spirit- Realm; 
by Dr. Robert Friese, Loipsic, 1879; translated by Rev. J. B. Chase. 3. The 
Importance of Experimental Research in Mechanical Science: by Prof. W. P. 
Trowbridge. 4. The Plan of Paradise Lost ; by Prof. John A. Himes. 5. The 
Human Mind. 6. Recent Infidelity: Its Extent and Remedies; by Rev. D."F. 
Harris. 7. The Bible as a Book of Education ; by Prof. H. M. Goodwin. 

Presbyterian Review. January, 1883. (New York.)— 1. The Teaching of Our 
Lord Regarding the Sabbath, and its Bearing on Christian Work; by Rev. 
George Patterson, D.D. 2. Tiie Separation of Church and State in Virginia ; by 
Rev. J. Harris Patton, A.M. 3. The Revised Book of Discipline; by Rev. 
Elijah R. Craven, D.D. 4. A Critical Study of the History of the Higher 
Criticism, with Sp< cial Reference to the Pentateuch; by Prof. Charles A. 
Briggs, D.D. 5. Darwinism and the Dakota Group; by Rev. William J. 
Harsha, M. A. 6. John Henry Newman and the Oxford Revival ; by Prof. Archi- 
bald Alexander, Ph.D. 

Princeton Review, March, 1883. (New York.)— 1. The Utah Problem; by 
Henry Randall Waite. 2. A Now Experiment in Education; by Prof. Felix 
Adler. 3. St Paul; by Rev. Philip Schaff, D.D., LL D. 4. The Hidden Heart; 
by the late Prof. Tayler Lewis, L.H.D. 6. Convict Labor and the Labor Re- 
formers ; by Hon. A. S. Meyrick. 6. American Manufactures : by Francis A. 
Walker, LL.D. 7. The Antagonisms Between Hinduism and Christianity; by 
Samuel H. Kellogg, D.D. 

Universalist Quarterly, January, 1883. (Boston.)— 1. Scripture Exposition: by 
0. D. Miller, D.D. 2. Drifts in Religious Thought; by Rev. H. I. Cushman. 

3. The Necessity of a Change in the Language of Our Creed ; by Rev. E. C. 
Sweetser, D.D. 4. The Attractive and Triumphant Cross; by A. J. Patterson, 
D.D. 5. A New System of Philosophy; by Rev. a & Hebberd. 6. The Cat- 
acombs of Rome : Their Teachings of Doctrine, Ritual, etc., (Part Third :) by 
Rev. A. B. Grosh. 7. True and False Ideas of Holiness; by Rev. A. G. 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 357 

English Reviews. 

London Quarterly Review, January, 1883. (London.) — 1. The Social Science 
Association. 2. The Relation of Kant to Speculative Philosophy. 3. Charily 
in the Early Church. 4. William Law. 5. Recent French Historical Litera- 
ture. 6. Egypt 1. Evolutionary Ethics. 8. The Doctrine of the Spirit in 
the Corinthian Epistles. 

London Quarterly Review, January, 1883. (New York.) — 1. Archbishop Tait 
and the Primacy. 2. Progress and Poverty. 3. Private Life of Cardinal 
Mazarin. 4. Pawnbrokiug. 5. Sir Archibald Alison's Autobiography. 
6. Corea. 7. American Novels. 8. Was the Egyptian War Necessary? 
9. The True Position of Parties. 

Indian Evangelical Review, January, 1883. (Calcutta.)— 1. The Education 
of the Aborigines ; by Rev. A. Campbell. 2. The Bengali Mufesulmans and 
Christian Effort among them ; by Rev. H. Williams, C.M.S. 3. Mussul- 
man-Bengali. 4. The State of Hinduism at the Ripe of Buddhism ; bv the 
Editor. 5. A Lady's Testimony to the Fiji Mission ; by Prof. W. G. Bhiikie, 
D.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E. 6. The Education of the Aborigine?.— II ; by Rev. A. 
Campbell. 7. Muhammad Missari on Sufiism, with Introductory Note; by 
Rev. E. M. Wherry. 8. Missionary Reminiscences of 1882; by the Editor. 
9. The Mission Work: Principles and Methods; by Rev. W. W. Howland. 

• ■» • 

German Reviews. 

Theologische Studien und Kritiken, (Theological Essays and Reviews.) 1883. 
Second Number. — Essays: 1. Prof. A. Porner, of Wittenberg, The Nature of 
Religion. 2. Ryssel, A Letter of George, Bishop of the Arabians, to the Pres- 
byter, Jesus. Thoughts and Remarks : 1. Grimm, Luther's Translation of tho 
Old Testament Apocryphas. 2. Usteri. The Original of the Marburg Articles 
in Fac-simile, rediscovered in the State Archives at Zurich. Reviews : 1. Lech- 
ler, Analecta ad Fratrum Minorum Histariam. 2. Felice, Lambert Daneau, 
His Life, Works, and Unpublished Leiters; reviewed by Ebrard. 3. Stadk, 
Journal for Old Testament Science; reviewed by Smenp. MisceUanea: 1. Pro- 
gramme for the Society of the Hague for the Defense of the Christian Rcligiou 
for the year 1882. 2. Programme of tho Tyler Theological Society in Harlem 
for the year 1883. 

Zeitsohrift fur Kirchekgeschichte. (Journal for Church History.) Edited by 
Theodore Brieoer. Vol. 5. Fourth Number. 1883. Investigations and Es- 
says. 1. Heidkniieimkr, Correspondence of Sultan Bajazet II. with Pope 
Alexander VI. 2. Brikgkr, Complement to the History of the Reformation 
from Italian Archives and Libraries. Analecta: 1. Loofs, The Surname of the 
Apostle of the Germans, together with a Communication concerning Boniface. 
2. MisceUanea, by Rohricht, Koch, and Karl Muller. 

The first article in the " Theological Essays," by Prof. A. 
Dorner, of Wittenberg, on the u Nature of Religion," is in two 
divisions — a critical one, treating of the various views enter- 
tained at the present time, and a second one, which presents 
t}\e leading traits of the " Nature of Religion " as the results 

358 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

of the critical investigation. The article is very long and ex- 
haustive, extending over sixty pages, and quotes scores of au- 
thorities from German Theologians and English Philosophers. 
It deals chiefly with the philosophical and religious methods 
of the present time, and reduces these mainly to four, namely, 
the historical, psychological, speculative-genetic, and„ the spec- 
ulative-critical ; and claims that, in general, the Nature of Re- 
ligion is to be found in the sum of the results obtained from a 
thorough investigation of all these phases. 

Professor Grimm, of the Theological Faculty of Jena, and a 
member of the Commission for the Revision of the Bible of 
Luther, gives us his views, in the article on " Luther's Transla- 
tion of the Apocryphas," as to the mode followed by the great 
German reformer. Grimm maintains that in this work Lu- 
ther did not consider it wise or necessary to follow the text as 
closely as in the translation of the canonical books. He there- 
fore, at times, assumed the role of the editor, critic, or exegete, 
because he hoped in this way to make the reading of these 
books more acceptable to the masses of the people, and also 
more intelligible. The author declares that Luther, in this view 
of his work, did not follow the Vulgate in all the books. 
Indeed, to some of them he distinctly gave the explanation 
that they were taken from the Greek, but seems in places to 
have followed the Vulgate as a species of commentary. 

Dr. Brieger, of the " Journal for Church History," treats his 
readers to an interesting article on his zealous efforts to learn 
all he could concerning the Reformation from Italian archives 
— certainly a new and valuable source of information. For 
this purpose he left his post and spent some eight months in 
finding out all the sources of information that he could com- 
mand. His main object was to increase the knowledge regarding 
the epoch of Paul III., by unsealing fountains that had hither, 
to been inaccessible. In this laudable endeavor he alludes to 
the friendly reception that he received from the directors of 
nearly all the libraries that he visited, although many of them 
could not have had much sympathy with the investigations of 
a Protestant theologian. Through this courtesy he was en- 
abled to collect and arrange much material into large groups, 
tending in different directions, which he hopes, later, to exam, 
ine closely and compare, confident that he will be thus in a 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 859 

condition to add much valuable and reliable information to the 
History of the Reformation. He cannot, of course, give all this 
material in the pages of a journal, although a goodly number of 
the documents are given in the original Italian. He acknowl- 
edges that this article is but a scheme and forerunner to a more 
extensive treatise that may assume the proportions of a book. 

Some of the letters and dispatches that he presents fill up 
gaps in new material, recently obtained, regarding Contarini, 
and already given in the columns of the Journal. In 1879, 
Victor Schultze presented some communications that he had 
obtained from the archives of Naples, making a fortunate be- 
ginning for this work, in which Brieger takes so deep an inter- 
est. In 1880, Ludwig Pastor obtained a series of important 
dispatches of Contarini's from the archives of the Vatican ; and 
Dietrich, in 1881, in his " Labors and Letters of Cardinal Con- 
tarini," collected a mass of useful material to this end. This 
was effected through a systematic examination of the archives 
and libraries of Venice, Milan, Treviso, Florence, Siena, Rome, 
and Naples. The great value of this new matter will be the 
opportunity offered by it to distinguish the Catholic from the 
Protestant sense of many of the proceedings in regard to Lu- 
ther. The number of original Latin and Italian documents 
obtained by Brieger is quite large, and will see the light of day 
in Germany for the first time, and will, of course, be matters 
of great interest to that school of German theologians who 
seem inclined to spend their days in the study of Luther. 

• ♦ • 

French Reviews. 

Revtjb Chrettennb, (Christian Review,) November, 1882. — 1. Sabatibb, Laical 
Religion. 2. Puax, Journey in Scandinavia. 3. E. db Pressbnsb, The R61e of 
the Will in Knowledge. 4. Alone, Bibliographical Bulletin. 5. Literary 
Notices by Mouchon. Monthly Review by Phessensb. 

December, 1882. — 1. Gopbt. The Life of Jesus, by Bernhard Weiss. 2. Causse, 
The Sunday-School. 3. B ridel, Philosophical Chronicle. 4. Sabatieb, Liter- 
ary Chronicle. Monthly Review by Pres8KN8£. 

January, 1883. — 1. E. de Pressense, A New Appreciation of Vinek 2. Naville, 
The Liberty of Religious Associations. 3. Lklibvbe, The Huguenot Psalter. 
4. Niegabd, English Chronicle. Review of the Month by Pbessehse. 

The leading spirit of the Remie is decidedly Pressens^, as will 
be seen from the part which he takes in the above summary. 

360 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

In the December number he makes a new appeal to his public 
for support, and, certainly, if a live editor is a desirable posses- 
sion, he is deserving of a hearty indorsement, morally and pe- 
cuniarily. Like every other editor, he promises to do better 
in the future than in the past, and proposes to devote more 
time to the defense of his creed and Church, while continuing 
to follow all movements in religion, literature, and philosophy, 
both at home and abroad. 

The distinguishing characteristic of the Revue is to treat of 
the questions of the hour, and in this sense we refer with 
pleasure to the article on the Sunday-6chool, by Causse, in the 
December number. It seems that the Protestant revival 
throughout Europe is turning the attention of all of its sincere 
followers toward the Sunday-school. Christian parents have 
long felt a want for some more decided religious training than 
has been hitherto imparted in the secular schools ; and now, 
since in these religious teaching is being 'so largely dropped, 
the cry is loudly going forth for some means of reaching the 
children. In this dilemma, French Christians — Protestant, of 
course — do not hesitate to name this a national question par 

They acknowledge that the future of Protestantism is in- 
volved in this great question of the religious training of youth, 
and declare that the battle of unbelief with faith must be mainly 
fought out among the children ; and the victory will be with 
those who shall succeed in possessing them. " We must arm 
ourselves in order to surround, to secure, and protect our 
children. For us this is a question of faith and of patriotism ; 
our Christian children will make Christian families; our 
Christian families will make Christian Churches ; and this lat- 
ter, in its turn, will make the Christian country — a great and 
difficult task, but a beautiful and glorious one." 

But the Reformed Church of France finds that it suddenly 
has a very difficult task on its hands ; because it has 60 long 
intrusted the religious education of the young to the ordinary 
secular schools. The teachers in these have, for the most part, 
been wholly unequal to so great and delicate a task ; and the 
mass of the children of their churches have thus grown up in a 
deplorable ignorance of their religious faith. And they have 
little better to expect, for a time, in the Sunday-school ; because 

1883.] Synapsis of the Quarterlies. 361 

of the almost total lack of teachers and appurtenances for this 
new work. In the few Sunday-schools hitherto established 
the numbers have been deplorably small, and the children have 
learned but little of the true spirit of religion. The Bible has 
been for them still a closed book, and the four or five years of 
their Sunday-schools have given them but little solid religious 

The author of this article, therefore, demands that they be- 
gin the Sunday -school ab ovo, with direct reference to all 
its needs. Firstly, that it must be really a school in 
spirit as in name ; that is, there must be a regular course of 
Bible study, proceeding with a curriculum that shall culminate 
in a fair and systematic course of popular Bible knowledge. 
And in this work the Bible must be the text-book in prefer- 
ence to any other. " It is of the highest importance that our 
children have the Bible in their hands. They must learn how 
to use it, to handle it, to understand it." This ignorance is 
declared to be one great lack of the Protestant population of 
France ; and the Sunday-school will be a blessing if it can fill 
up the dangerous chasm. 

But how supply the great want of teachers ? They reply : 
The weight of this new task must first fall on the pastors, and 
they will probably need to make an apprenticeship to the work 
in order to execute it. They have been taught to teach the 
parents only ; they must now direct their efforts toward the 
new mission to childhood. It will be necessary that the 
theological schools teach them to teach the little ones in the 
Sunday-school as they are now taught how to make a sermon. 
Thus trained, the young pastors must make it their first duty 
to establish in their churches normal schools for the training 
of teachers for these Sunday-schools. The French have an apt 
proverb which says, that a lesson comprehended is a lesson half 
learned. We submit that they seem to know their wants, and 
to have a pretty fair appreciation of the way out of their diffi- 
culties ; which is truly, in our way of expressing it, half the 
battle. That they will have to encounter many difficulties is 
very certain ; but it is a good sign that, instead of complaining 
about the situation, they are calling on all their forces to marshal 
hopefully in battle against the evil that confronts them. 

Naville's article, in the January number, on the " Liberty of 

362 Methodist Quarterly Review. TApril, 

Religious Associations," is an extremely timely essay to the 
Protestant world of France, which has found no little trouble, 
at times, to secure the right of assembling for religious objects 
and organization, or the liberty to join such bodies. Even the 
pastor of the American Chapel in Paris, under the present 
regime, has been annoyed and interfered with in an endeavor 
to have his people assemble at his house, for a conference of 
prayer or song. Had he invited them to a noisy dancing-party 
no objections would have been urged. The claim of the Reform- 
ers, as they are called in France, therefore, for interior liber- 
ty, or the autonomy of their societies, and especially for the 
right to determine the conditions on which persons may enter 
or leave their associations, is based on the clearest principles 
of religious freedom. A church should certainly possess the 
right of admission or exclusion of its participants or mem- 
bers, else it is at the mercy of incongruous elements that might 
force themselves into it, and finally take possession of the or- 
ganization. It should have also the right of fixing the rule of 
its teaching and its discipline. 

Naville would draw a clear distinction between the churches 
that are under the rule of the Concordat, and therefore of the 
State also in the religious systems, and the churches that are 
simply instituted by the State, and subsidized by it. A so- 
called u Concordate church " is a society that has entered into 
a convention or treaty with the State. On the one hand, cer- 
tain edifices are granted to the religious community, and 
salaries are paid from the State budget to its ministers or 
priests ; for which reason the Church consents that its func- 
tionaries may be indorsed by the government, and that its pub- 
lic acts may be under a certain control. But the Protestant 
Church of France has no such convention with the State, and, 
therefore, would resent State interference with its interior or. 
ganization and usages. The negation of this right of these 
Churches has of late years been shown with a certain degree of 
publicity and austerity that has caused considerable commotion. 
The Synod of the Reformed Churches, held in 1872 and 1873, 
imposed certain conditions for entrance and continuance within 
their lines. But, after lengthy conferences with the State 
officials, these acts of the Synod were annulled by a decree of 
the Council of State. This Council declares that no change 

1883.] Synopsis of the Quarterlies. 363 

can take place in the discipline of the Reformed Churches 
without the authorization of the government. At a later 
period a circular of the Minister of Public Worship affirmed 
that the very principle on wliich the Reformed Church is 
based subjects it to fluctuations of doctrine. Therefore, it is 
the political authority which shall at its will declare what are 
the doctrinal bases of these Churches. But if a society cannot 
determine its own conditions for membership, it is very evi- 
dent that its liberty, and perhaps its very existence, are gone. 
If every citizen has a right to become a member of these 
Churches by the expression of his will or interest, without any 
condition of adhesion to its doctrine, the Church itself might 
as well close its doors. Against this great injustice the author 
of this article is waging a bold fight, and he illustrates and 
strengthens his position by various examples from the Protest- 
ant Churches of Switzerland and other nations. We need 
scarcely add that the orthodox Reformers are heartily with 
him; while the liberals and free-thinkers within the Church 
would like to stay there, and get and retain possession, by vir- 
tue of this decision of the State Council, which is certainly most 
absurd and unjust. 

" The Huguenot Psalter " is an article of great interest, and 
full of instruction regarding the famous old hymns sung by the 
persecuted amid their oppression. Apart from the Bible, no 
work among them has had a more glorious history. Its words 
and very melodies have grown out of their sufferings and 
hopes and faith ; and one can scarcely believe that the French 
tongue could lend itself to accents so pathetic and devout. 
The complete Psalter first appeared in the year 1562; and 
Catharine de Medici, in the hope of conciliating the Hugue- 
not party, permitted it to be printed in no less than eleven 
editions in France, of which seven appeared in Paris. In the 
course of four years no less than sixty-two editions appeared 
in French in various countries ; and it is now known that it 
has been translated into twenty-two foreign languages. With 
such popularity it soon became a dangerous weapon in the mouths 
of the Reformers, and was as good a battle-cry as they could 
utter. Even Henry IV., when he renounced Protestantism, 
entertained a wholesome fear of the effect of its hymns. 
He had permitted his sister, Catharine of Navarre, to hold 

364 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

Reformed worship in his palace of the Lonvre, on condition that 
they would abstain from singing. One day his sister was de- 
layed in a conference with the king, when the company began 
to 6ing to drown the tediousness of delay. ' The king, hearing 
a noise, asked the cause of it ; and on being informed, he abrupt- 
ly said to his sister : "Mon, Dieu, go quickly and tell them to 
stop singing ! " 

Under the regime of the Edict of Nantes, the Protestants of 
Paris were accustomed to assemble at Charenton for worship. 
Every Sunday the road to this place was crowded with men, 
women, and children, in vehicles and on foot, going to church, 
and singing their hymns on the way. This so annoyed the 
authorities that they forbade the singing of hymns in public 
places; and in proportion as the famous Revocation ap- 
proached, this raid on the Huguenot hymns increased. In 1663 
a pastor of Nimes was banished for having published a treatise 
on the singing of the Psalms ; while the printer was also pun- 
ished for two years, and the book itself was condemned to be 
burned. And thus the persecution of the Psalter went on, 
until at last it was almost at the risk of life that spiritual 
hymns could be sung. This very repression made the Psalter 
still more dear ; and the comfort that it has afforded to thou- 
sands, amid persecution and adversity, has given it a rank right 
beside the Bible. This article will be widely read by the 
descendants of the Huguenots. 



French publicists have been pretty severe on the Germans for their 
treatment of the Jews in later years; and they and the Spaniards were 
quite generous in their offers toward the Russian Jews who recently left 
their homes in such large numbers, and came mainly to this country in 
preference to Palestine, France, or Spain. The Germans naturally reply 
that these critics would be more consistent if they practically knew 
more about the matter. Two centuries ago the Jews were driven out of 
Spain under circumstances of great cruelty, and a few months ago the 
first Jewish marriage took place in Spain for all this long period. And 

1883.1 Foreign Religious Intelligence. 365 

the French themselves have scarcely any Jews within their boundaries; 
certainly for some pretty good reason. 

While in Germany there are about 600,000, making one to every 
seventy-five inhabitants, there are in France only 65,000, or one to every 
508 souls. The Hebrew population in France is found scarcely anywhere 
else than in a few of the large cities. Paris alone counts 35,000; more 
than in all the provinces together. Jewish synagogues are found only 
in Paris, Bordeaux, Lyons, Marseilles, Besancon, Bayonne, and a few 
other cities. In many commercial centers, counting from 30,000 to 
50.000, there will be found but a few isolated Jewish families. . In four 
of the departments there is not a single Israelite; while in some twenty 
there are not more than a few hundred. But a very small portion settled 
in France before the nineteenth century. All the others came since 
1830 from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Russia, and Turkey. Some 
came with millions, as the Rothschilds, Goldschmidts, Erlangers, and 
Oppenheims, and these have all increased their millions in France. 
Outside of these extremely rich Jews the greater number of the Parisian 
Jews are poor, and find it a struggle to secure a decent livelihood. 
The Frenchman is a good business man, and quite expert in making a 
sale on fair business principles; there is here, therefore, no room for 
dickering or bargaining; and for any deceptive transactions, especial- 
ly in money matters, he is not much inclined. To the poorer class of 
Jews there is, therefore, nothing left ordinarily but the trade in ribbons, 
thread, and other small variety wares. Even the trade in old clothes, 
which elsewhere is exclusively in the hands of the Jews, is in Paris most- 
ly monopolized, by emigrant Frenchmen from the Province of Auvergne. 
There are a goodly number of Jews in the law, and in the civil and mili- 
tary service. There are Jewish prefects, cabinet ministers occasionally, 
quite a number 6f Jewish generals, and a large number of deputies to the 
Chambers. In industrial life the Jews have by no means the position 
which they hold in Germany. Their influence is all-controlling only at 
the Exchange; some of the largest banking and stock-dealing establish- 
ments and most of the railroad corporations have none. Consequently, 
they are not such a thorn in the side of the Frenchman as they seem to 
be in that of the German. 


We notice with pleasure that the Italians themselves have begun a 
work that has been successfully pursued for some time in France and 
Spain; namely, a new publication of all the evangelical writings from 
the period of the Reformation. It is to be hoped that this admirable en- 
terprise will receive an active support that will end in its consummation. 
In the year 1531 there issued from a cloister on the banks of Lago Mag- 
giore, from the pen of a Carmelite monk, a circular to the entire Chris- 
tian Church of Germany, in which we find the words: "Think, dear 
brethren in the faith, of the humble Canaanitish woman who begged for 
the crumbs that fell from the table of the Lord. Thus I, while thirsting, 

Fourth Series, Vol. XXXV.— 24 

366 Methodist Quarterly Beview. [April, 

take refuge in the Source of living waters ; surrounded by darkness, sigh- 
ing in tears, I beseech you, who know the secrets of God, send us the 
writings of your chosen teachers. Deliver a Lombardiao city from the 
Babylonian captivity. There are three of us here; but who knows 
whether God will not from a small spark cause a great burning? " 

This pious monk could scarcely imagine that from his own country 
there would spring forth an echo of his words. And yet the movement 
of the Reformation, even in Italy, in twenty years from that time, had 
become so strong, spreading even to the spiritually elevated classes, 
that an entire literature of testimonies of evangelical faith and life had 
risen into prominence. But the Inquisition had with only too great ef- 
fect nipped the buds of the movement in the beginning, and thus de- 
stroyed the fruit. Whole editions of devotional books were destroyed 
by its order, and in Rome piles of such books were burned. But by the 
providence of God many single copies were rescued from the general 
destruction, and they are discovered anew hidden in archives and 
libraries. These are not to disappear entirely, and it k the duty of 
evangelical Christianity to rescue them. From these the new Protestant 
communities of the Italy of to-day may draw native material for study 
and devotional instruction and encouragement. This important enter- 
prise is to be under the direction of Professor Comba, of Florence, aided 
by colleagues in Venice, Padua, and Rome, and some even from France 
and Germany. They are to be printed in Florence, and sold at a very 
low price so as to put them within reach of all. About eight or nine 
works are now already announced, of which the first is U A Simple 
Declaration of the Twelve Articles of Christian Faith." An appeal is 
being made to the Protestants of Europe to help this worthy enterprise 
by a generous purchase of these issues. 


The French Reformed Church, as well as the French Lutheran, is now 
suffering under the pressure of contemporary events. They both have to 
bear the burden of the exclusion of religious teaching from the schools, 
and are obliged to provide for it themselves or do without it There are 
those among them who accept willingly this new school law, but their 
labors in the Church are negative rather than positive. The extreme 
liberalism, which has such a foothold legally within the bosom of the 
Churches, is causing them much anxiety. In the Theological Faculty of 
Paris there are some faithful and immovable teachers of the Word, but 
even there we see an effort on the part of some to produce discord by 
unsound teaching. Maurice Vernes, of this body, who lately delivered an 
address, at the opening of the annual studies, contradicting the commonly 
received ideas of the soul and immortality, was obliged to withdraw 
as a teacher; but his influence is left behind him. There is doubt- 
less existing in the Reformed Church of France a noble inheritance 
and a solid power of active faith, as is proved by their eager work in 

1883J Foreign Religious Intelligence. 367 

evangelization of the masses; but they are doomed to encounter dis- 
couraging obstacles. Tbe record of the year last past amply attests this. 
In the Lutheran Church the injuries caused by the war of 1870 are not 
yet overcome; pastors were driven away from their flocks; congregations 
were scattered; and church property and soil virtually destroyed. 
These Lutherans, in various unions and conferences, have appealed to 
their brothers in Germany for help. The two Provincial Synods, recent- 
ly held in Paris and Mompelgard, were mainly occupied with the trouble- 
some school question, bemoaning the fact that the name of God is 
excluded from the schools with no power on their part to repair the 
wound. They now find hope in the fact that there has lately been a re- 
vulsion of feeling among notable Republicans regarding the religious 
question, and that an evident disposition is growing to treat it with 
more tenderness and consideration. The President and some prefects and 
ministers of state are counseling less severe measures, and the last budget 
for Public Worship was sustained by some of those who had hitherto 
opposed it. The death of the great dictator in this matter may cause a 
change of policy, and the fierce struggles of the political factions induce 
the opponents of religion to cease their efforts to strike all religious or- 
ganizations. The Lutherans seem to be even more helpless than the 
Reformed Church without aid from the State. 


The " Journal of the German Palestine Association," under the effect- 
ive control of Dr. Gutbes, is doing fine work in the matter of revelations 
of very general interest. The fourth volume has recently appeared, and 
from it we gather some curious information. For a series of years there 
have been found in the vicinity of Jerusalem small sarcophagi of lime- 
stone, whose significance has been a mystery. They are about thirty 
Inches in length and fourteen in breadth. To what purpose have these 
small coffins been appropriated? They can scarcely have been cinerary 
receptacles; for neither the Jews nor the Christians practiced cremation. 
The opinion has been broached that they contain the remains of the 
martyrs; for they are far too small for an ordinary unniutilated 
corpse. A high authority is of the opinion that these miniature coffins 
are for the reception of the remnants of bodies taken up from graves and 
transported to other places, because in these oases corpses were some- 
times transported from abroad. This is made probable from the fact 
that in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem they are most numerous, and 
some of them contain Greek inscriptions. A burial in Jerusalem was the 
most ardent desire of the Jews living in other countries; and in the 
Middle Ages there were very many of such transports to the Holy Land. 
Old Jews would go there simply to die. These little sarcophagi, there- 
fore, probably contained the bones of those who could not go in the 
body, as the Chinese send home the bones of their dead to lie in 
natal soil. 

368 Methodist Qvarterhj Review. [April, 

A professional architect in the interest of this Association, living per- 
manently in Jerusalem, gives some curious details as to the number of 
inhabitants of ancient Jerusalem. In his study of the outlines of the 
city, the mode of building, and the size of the houses, and also the his- 
torical traditions, he concludes that ancient Jerusalem, at the time of 
Titus, had a circumference of thirty-three stadia, and not less than 
250,000 inhabitants. 

• ♦• 

Abt. x.— foreign literary intelligence. 

The " Roman Catholic Directory " for England and Scotland, for 1883, 
issued under the control of Cardinal Manning, and therefore reliable, 
gives us some very startling figures. In England and Wales there are 
seventeen Romish bishops and 2,112 priests, who labor in 1,888 churches, 
chapels, and mission-stations. Scotland has six bishops and 806 priests, 
who have charge of 295 chapels. The English bishops are divided into 
one archbishop, six suffragan bishops, and two assistant bishops. 
Scotland has two archbishops and four suffragans, and either no congre- 
gations or very unimportant ones. A comparison with this directory and 
that of 1850 shows that the statistics are nearly doubled in the present 
one. In the House of Lords there are now twenty-nine Roman Catholic 
peers with seats and votes, and the privy-council of the Queen con- 
tains four Roman Catholic members; while in the nobility of the land 
there are forty-seven baronets who are Catholics. There are no statis- 
tics given of the growth of Roman Catholicism in the middle classes ; it 
seems to be only among the higher ranks that High-Churchism and 
Catholicism have become fashionable. 

The '* German Review " gives quite an interesting account of the status 
of the German universities at the close of the year 1882. The attendance 
is increasing quite out of proportion to the increase of the population. 
The number of students in the summer semester of 1872 was 15,113; but 
in 1882 it was 28,834 — in ten years an increase of 57 per cent This the 
Germans regard as alarming, because there is no such increased need of 
trained men, and the supply will therefore be much greater than the 
demand. An official warning has gone forth in the German Empire 
against the over-production of lawyers. But the greatest increase is in 
the philosophical faculty, including all branches not absorbed by the 
theological, judicial, and medical studies; and the increase is found 
mainly in the ten Prussian universities. The ratio of increase has been 
about even in tbe medical and theological faculties. For a series of 
yea i*8 there was a decrease here, but for the last five years there has been 
quite an increase. In tbe entire decade the theologians have made an 
increase of 80 per cent, in the Protestant faculties. In the faculties 
of Catholic theology there has been a constant decrease in the last 

1883.] Foreign Literary Intelligence. 369 

decade; in the seven German universities that have Catholic faculties 
this has reached about 20 per cent. 

The seventh issue of the " Encyclopedia of Christian Antiquities," by 
Kraus, which is just out, contains several articles of interest on Chris- 
tian Archaeology, though they are evidently tinged with the Catholic 
views of the author. A very valuable new work in the same line from a 
Protestant source is u The Catacombs, their History and their Monu- 
ments," by the well-known Dr. Victor Schultze, which has just appeared 
in Leipsic. From the circumstance that Catholic theologians, mainly, 
such as Kraus and De Rossi, have had the matter of the catacombs 
mostly in their hands, it has become a sort of tradition to construe what 
they find with a Romish tendency. This has in some measure been 
counteracted by Schnitzels work, entitled "Archaeological Studies con- 
cerning Ancient Christian Monuments,' 1 published some two years ago. 
But Schultze has spent several years in Italy, engaged in diligent work 
in the Sicilian catacombs, which has enabled him in many instances to 
give an entirely free and independent judgment. This author has taken 
very special pains to examine* the significance of these relics in their 
social, political, intellectual, and ethical bearing. 

Professor Victor Schultze writes in the highest terms of the Archaeo- 
logical collection of the University of Leipsic, especially with a view to 
the study of Christian history. Many of the objects are in copies, for 
the purpose of academic illustration in teaching. This idea was first 
broached by Dr. Piper, in Berlin, and then extended to Leipsic. The 
example has lately been followed by Professor Kraus of Strasburg. 
This famous Leipsic collection was begun by Professor Brock haus, in 
accordance with a resolution of the Ministry of Worship, in 1876, and 
had made fair progress before his death in 1877. The earlier collections 
were mainly of objects illustrating the Middle Ages, and the collection 
was to be not so much a museum as an archaeologic apparatus for the 
illustration of study. Its present condition makes quite an additional 
attraction for theological students at that vigorous and active univer- 

Ancient Hebrew poetry has l>een subjected to a close scrutiny -as re- 
gards its artistic form, by Professor Bickell, a very learned author in all 
that relates to Syriac and Hebrew literature. He is a wanderer from his 
mother Church over into the Roman Catholic fold, and now laboring in 
that stronghold of the Church, the quaint old town of Innspruck in the 
Tyrol. He has just published a Latin work, entitled " Carmina veUrit 
Tutamenti metrice," in which the Psalter, the Song of Solomon, the 
Lamentations, Proverbs, and the Book of Job receive particular atten- 
tion as to their metrical disposition. This work, and his recent " Poetry 
of the Hebrews," will attract the attention of biblical scholars. 

The famous Catholic Lexicon of Wetzer and Welte. that a few years 
ago made such a stir in the Ultramontane world, has now appeared in a 
new and much enlarged edition. It of course keeps up its ultra-Romish 

370 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [April, 

character, and makes some queer work of the Old Catholic*, the ** Anti- 
christ," and the "Reformers," and it is worthy of the attention of 
Protestant scholars, in order to let them see how the Mother Church re- 
gards some of their heroes and tenets. In the article on the "Augsburg 
Confession," it is extremely mild and peaceful, and condescends to say : 
Thut the few deviations from the old doctrines are so vague and general 
that a mutual understanding ought not to be difficult. But the author 
wanders a good deal when he speaks of the reticence of Mclanchthon in re- 
gard to the Confession of Faith; and he is quite out of the way in the 
affirmation that only the orthodox and the old Lutherans still cling to 
the Augsburg Confession, or simply maintain it officially while going 
over to the common faith of the Protestant people. It is natural to ex- 
pect that a Catholic lexicon should place all the errors of the Catholic 
Church in the best light; but wc suggest whether it is not going too 
far, as in the article on "The Apostolate and Episcopate," to affirm 
in the Apostolate, in order to justify it in the Episcopate, such attributes 
as the following: Universality; Unlimited power, infallibility, and the 
primacy of Peter as a lasting office. 

A deputy in the Prussian Diet lately complained, in a pamphlet en- 
titled " Cahossa" of the use, in many of the seminaries for the training 
of priests, of the text-book of the French Jesuit, Gury, justifying the 
crimes of perjury, robbery, adultery, and the falsification of documents, 
and demanded that it should be expelled from these schools. A Catholic 
journal demanded in a formal manner that the deputy should give the 
passages alluded to, with page and paragraph. This the deputy does, 
with a literal translation from the work in question, together with the 
original Latin. He adds all sorts of polemical spice to the detailed quo- 
tations, and every impartial reader cannot fail to see that he maintains 
his points. The title of his little book is as follows: u Where in the 
Manual of Moral Theology, by the Jesuit, Gury, are robbery, falsification 
of documents, adultery, and perjury declared to l>e allowable ? " The 
book is for sale for a shilling, so as to meet the popular demand, and is 
likely to make a furore in the fatherland. 

" Walcker's Manual of National Economy " appears in stately style, in 
Leipsic, in the first volume of five hundred pages, and promises three 
more volumes to be finished in 1888. It undertakes to treat the Chris- 
tian idea as well as the politico-economical, and does this with far 
more vigor than good sense. The author seems to dislike orthodox 
Protestantism quite as badly as« genuine Ultramontanism, and suggests 
that a commission be formed of theologians, teachers of ecclesiastical 
jurisprudence, historians, and national economists, in order to place all 
the arguments of both sides in a convenient form. He also gives a very 
thorough presentation of the Jewish question, in which he declares the 
emancipation of the Jews to be complete in Germany, and thinks it now 
time to secure the emancipation of the Christians. But in this he fol- 
lows the footsteps of the learned Mommsen, who would effect this 

1883.] Foreign Literacy Intelligence STL 

emancipation in the way of mixed marriages between Jews and Chris- 
tians. It is, of course, simply ridiculous to suppose that any such measure 
could be made popular and acceptable, and it certainly could not be 
forced on any community, simply if for no other reason than that peo- 
ple generally like to make such bargains themselves, and could not be 
induced to do so by any fantastical politico-economists. 

The fourth centennial of Luther's birth, which occurs this year, is oc- 
cupying the minds of German scholars and historians ; and besides many 
other good and proper things, arrangements are being made for a com- 
plete edition of Luther's works as a national monument, for this would 
be quite as much so as the Cathedral of Cologne. This work is to be 
done by a commission sustained by the generous hand of the German 
emperor, and supported by the Ministry of Public Worship. To this 
commission belong three members of the Academy, the Germanist 
MUllen hof, the historian Waltz, and the theologian Weiss as representa- 
tive of the ministry. The work will be published in Weimar, under 
ministerial sanction. Three volumes will be published yearly, of about 
four hundred pages, and the price will be made as moderate as possible; 
to make a large circulation easy. It will take from ten to twelve years 
to finish the work, and already an appeal for subscriptions in advance is 
being made to patriots, scholars, and Christian theologians. It will be 
considered a matter of honor for all public libraries to patronize the 
work, and a duty and a pleasure to have it in the libraries of churches 
and schools. 


Abt. XI.— quarterly book -table. 

Religion^ Theology^ amd Biblical Literature. 

Domer on the Future State. Being a translation of the Section of his System of 
Christian Doctrine comprising the Doctrine of the Last Thinjw. With an Intro- 
duction and Notes by Newman Smyth, Author of ** Orthodox Theology of To- 
day," etc. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1883. 16nao, pp. 155. 

The purpose of the present volume seems to be to bring the high 
authority of Dorner before us to justify the speculation of a 
post-mortem probation. In noticing, in a former Quarterly, 
Dorner'a third volume, we called attention to this peculiarity of 
his Eschatology, specifying at the same time that he relieved the 
notion from its worst aspect by applying it only, or mainly, to those 
beyond the reach of the Gospel message. So held, not as a 
dogma to be imposed on the Church, but as a hypothesis reliev- 
ing to the mind of the individual, the notion need create no great 
commotion. Similarly, the personal suggestion of Rev. Joseph 
Cook, that there may be cases of eminently conscientious men 

372 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

whose souls are quickened into a living faith at the moment of 
transition from time to eternity, may be a conception that one 
might adopt as a relieving hope. There are eminently conscience- 
governed men outside the Church whose rectitude of life often 
shames the members of the Church, skeptics, it may be, yet 
comparatively ruled by right, upon whom it seems difficult to 
pronounce the doom of eternal misery. What shall we say to or 
of such men ? The great Doctor of the Roman Church, Thomas 
Aquinas, would say : Heaven is the vision of God to which the 
pure in heart through Christ are alone admitted ; while outside 
the divine vision are varied regions of happiness, which is not 
blessedness, where the virtuous not holy abide. And all outside 
the visional heaven is hell. The holy live in the eternal golden 
sunshine of glory ; the virtuous in the silver moonshine of intel- 
lectual enjoyment. Personally we would not peremptorily con- 
demn Mr. Cook's hypothesis as a mental relief to those who need 
it. We cannot, however, elevate the conception to a dogma, nor 
write it an article in a structural theology. Whichever way pri- 
vate speculation may verge, we should say to the virtuous not 
holy man, Your position is, nevertheless, precarious and danger- 
ous ; " give heed to make your calling and election sure" Leave 
not the eternal blessedness to a contingency. 

We cannot fully admire the finesses of Mr. Smyth in the pres- 
ent and past volumes. His curvelinear periods about the " New 
England theology," as if New England had but one theology, and 
as if a narrQw local name for a theology were a recommendation 
instead of a disparagement, we do not intensely admire. And to 
cover over his emergence from the past Calvinism of New En- 
gland under such terms as " the New Orthodoxy," " the New Cal- 
vinism," " the New Theology," seems to us a very superficial 
showiness. He seems like a fresh spring butterfly who imagines 
that such an epoch as his emergence into existence is to make all 
things " new." It took long centuries and eons for creation to 
arrive at his advent. Now we say that truth is old. As Dr. 
Nevins once said, "Old Calvinism is none the worse for being 
old" If oldness were Calvinism's only unfortunate point, that 
point it shares with geometry and with God. The new geometric 
truth, discovered not invented, never invalidates the old. We are, 
and are proud to be, traditionalist. Next to the Bible and conscience 
we believe in the Church. We study the dogmas of the thinkers 
of past centuries, and especially the nearest to Christ. With Wes- 
ley we love to recur to the " Scriptures and the primitive Church." 

1883J Quarterly Book -Table. 373 

But Mr. Smyth now brings out the giant Dorner upon us to 
crush opposition like an avalanche. Awful ! But we intimated in a 
late Quarterly that we are to be numbered among the admirers, 
but not the worshipers or followers, of Dorner. In his " History 
of Protestant Theology," for instance, Dorner gives a definition 
of Arminianism which, Arminian through our life long as we had 
supposed ourselves to be, defined an Arminianism we never 
heard of, and never dreamed, and do not understand. We do sup- 
pose the gross caricature had a purpose. And Dorner is often 
muddy. We cannot, indeed, quite characterize him as Robert Hall 
did the great Calvinistic Doctor, John Owen : " A continent of 
mud, Sir ; a continent of mud ! " At any rate we should make 
reserve that the muddy continent has many a placer of golden 
ore ; and the mud may be quite worth exploring for the sake 
of the golden finds. But as authority Dorner decides nothing 
for us. 

But while we do not admire the finesses of Mr. Smyth, we do 
confess a reverence for the high-souled frankness of Professor 
Park, in boldly attributing to Wesleyan- Arminianism a central 
prominence at the present hour in the maintenance of Protestant 
orthodoxy. It is a high compliment from a high authority. 
Methodists entertain thereat no puerile feeling of triumph, but 
do cherish a veneration for the magnanimity that makes such a 
statement. It portends no ecclesiastical unions of organizations ; 
but it heralds a harmony of inward feelings among the organiza- 
tions. For fifty years past it has appeared to us that our Meth- 
odism stood very much in the way of the New England reform- 
ers from Calvinism. We had preoccupied the ground of a liberal 
evangelical theology ; and their problem, a very difficult one, and 
also a very unnecessary one, was how to liberalize without 
coinciding with us. Moses Stuart, in a bold, true, historic spirit, 
revealed to astonished Calvinistic New England that Arminian- 
ism, true Arminianism, the Arminianism of Arminius himself, 
was not the ragged effigy which their pulpits had been bethump- 
ing for a century or two, but was evangelical and marked with 
the characteristics of truth. In the same style Professor Park 
has made a still further frank advance. But in the general, the 
impolicy of the late Dr. Fitch, of New Haven, and of Newman 
Smyth, has been followed ; namely, to smuggle themselves into 
Arminianism, and call it " a different statement of the same doc- 
trine,'' " a statement of Calvinism which is so made that Armin- 
ians are obliged to accept it ; " or a " New Orthodoxy," " a New 

374 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

Calvinism," and finally, in Mr. Smyth's present broehwrt^ "a New 
Theology." In all these flexible metamorphoses one curiosity is 
the absurd tenacity with which they stick to the term " Calvin- 
ism." If they are unhappily born heirs to a theology whiih the 
nineteenth century of Christendom will not stand, no man in 
history is more flagrantly responsible for this, their fate, than 
John Calvin. Nevertheless, they writhe to get out of his fetters 
and yet to retain his label. Great were the powers and energies 
of John Calvin ; great his services to the Protestant Reformation; 
yet his great and ghastly failure was as a constructive theologian; 
and yet, curiously enough, it is in just this sphere that they 
struggle to retain his name ! 

As to the heathen problem, to solve which the theory of post- 
mortem probation is suggested, it has been fully considered and 
fairly solved in the Arminian theology. Curcellaeus in his able 
treatise, De necessitate cognitionis Christi adsalutem, unfolded the 
true view, followed, or at least coincided with, by. Wesley in his 
commentary, and Fletcher of Madeley in his polemic tractates. 
Of that solution we have given a tolerably full statement in our 
chapter on the Equation of Probational Advantages, pp. 343-360 
of our volume on The Will. So satisfactory to our Methodism 
herself from the beginning has been that solution, that we have 
had no temptation to the post-mortem theory in the past, and 
none but a very few eccentric and local thinkers in the present 
have tended toward that notion — thinkers, especially about Bos- 
ton, who have apparently absorbed it into their organisms from 
the surrounding Congregational atmosphere. 

We are told that this is a revised translation of Dorner ; and 
we are moved to inquire why did not this revision transform 
Dorner's uncouth Teutonic into pure and lucid English. As if 
they admired the very unshapeliness of their idol, the translators 
take good care that it should re-appear in the English wording. 
Take, as a fair specimen of the whole, the very first sentence that 
salutes the puzzled attention of the English reader in this puri- 
fied version : " There is to be a consummation of individuals, 
what is " a consummation of individuals " ?] and of the whole, 
" whole " what ?] particularly of the Church, which, however, 
shall not be realized ["shall" here used illegitimately for the 
simple future vsM ; whereas " shall " would properly express Dor- 
ner's purpose and determination that the thing shall be] through 
a purely immanent continuous process, but only through crises, 
and through the second coming of Christ." And so on through 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 375 

pages of lumbering clumsiness, requiring us to re-read the absurd 
misconstructions to elicit a meaning ; a fault which is Dorner's 
nature, but the translator's folly. 

Sermons and Speeches. By Attious O. Haygood, D.D., President of Emory Col- 
lege, Oxford, Gta. 12mo, pp. 428. Southern Methodist Publishing House, 
Nashville, Tenn. 1883. 

We are duly instructed, in printed note, by Dr. M'Ferrin, to call 
attention to the handsome execution of this Nashville volume, 
and to its low price of one dollar and twenty-five cents. We 
cheerfully obey instructions. And we add the wish that a million 
copies may be sold, and that, by publishing works of such excel- 
lence, the Southern Methodist Publishing House may grow rich and 
powerful for good. Times are beautifully changed. We seem 
to remember the time when our good Dr. M'Ferrin considered the 
slightest unfavorable allusion to slavery, in any book, " a fly in 
the ointment,** from whose pestilential odor the said House must 
be quarantined ; and probably Wesley's works were the only anti- 
slavery volumes tolerated about House. And this book, pub- 
lished in 1852, would have consigned the author to degradation 
and banishment, with Professor Hedrick, from slave land. Dr. 
Haygood, however, has a ready retort. He can point to the pro- 
slavery fanaticism that, at the same time, disgraced the North. 
So that our rejoicing is properly over the advance made by both 
South and North in the direction of righteousness and freedom. 

Dr. Haygood is a mentor for " the times." He does not preach 
extensively against the wickedness of the scribes and Pharisees of 
the olden time ; but he aims his sharp-shootings against the short- 
comings and misdoings of the Southerners before him. He does 
this so skillfully and pointedly that a Southerner might say : 
" That's personal ; it means me." The response of the preacher 
might be : " Precisely so, thou art the man." In his sermon on 
" The New South " he reads to his audience a catalogue of " un- 
pleasant things," " weaker points," and "lacks" of his dear 
South. First is " our intense provincialism," isolation from the 
world, and consequent inordinate self -appreciation ; and here he 
utters the memorable sentence : " Had we been less provincial, 
less shut in by and with our own ideas; had we known the 
world better, we would have known ourselves better, and there 
would have been no war in 1861." That is, the war was the 
result of Southern ignorance and narrowness. What a eulogy 
on the leaders of that great assault on our national Union ! 

376 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

The second lack is "illiteracy." The third, "our want of lit- 
erature ; " and this is to us a most unaccountable fact. There is 
plenty of ability in our South. In oratory and in politics the 
talent of Southern men seems to have vindicated, and alas ! 
exhausted itself. But where are the contributions to poetry, to 
history, to science, to biblical literature, to periodical essay, in our 
South ? We have seen defenses of slavery based on its furnish- 
ing the means of literary leisure, and so of a higher civilization ; 
but how much soever the leisure, the literature, or the civilization, 
has failed to appear. The miserable, Yankee, wooden-nutmeg 
State of Connecticut alone, the object of supreme Southern con- 
tempt, has had at one period, within our own memory, more 
superior poets, contemporaneously, than the entire broad-spread 
South through her whole history. The fourth point is the want 
of educational facilities, colleges, and universities. The fifth is 
"manufacturing interests." And the orator finally concludes 
with this home truth : " Our provincialism, our want of literature, 
our lack of educational facilities and of manufactures, like our 
lack of population, are all explained by one fact and one word — 
slavery. But for slavery Georgia would be as densely peopled 
as Island. Wherefore, among many other reasons, I say 
again, I thank God that it is no more among us ! " 

Skillfully, if not quite ingenuously, Dr Haygood prefaces these 
frank reproofs with an undiscriminating taunt against "our 
Northern censors." He hints no thought that these "censors" 
ever spoke, like himself, in honesty or sincerity, with desire to 
remove rather than produce reproach; or that they were the true 
destroyers of "slavery," and so the best friends of the South. 
Garrison, Greeley, and, we may add, our own humble Quarterly, 
spoke no words of hate of the South when they censured the 
wrong-doings in the South. Their censures enabled him to utter 
his. Had they never spoken, his lips would have been forever 
sealed ; or, if opened with such speech, lynch-law would have 
sentenced him to banishment. When these " Northern-censors " 
were asked, Why oppose slavery here where no slavery is? they re- 
plied, Because no one there will speak. Dead silence reigned 
under the sway of the slave-power. It was the " Northern cen- 
sors " who emancipated both the slave and Dr. Haygood. And 
he does, in fact, but implicitly repeat their censures ; their cen- 
sures for the same faults, and which they attributed to the same 
cause. And until this day it is the " Northern censors " that com- 
pel Southern sentiment to onward progress. Such " censors" say, 

1883J Quarterly Booh -Table. &77 

with Jesus, Why do ye not of your own selves judge that which 
is right ? And when Southern men, and the Southern religious 
press, and Southern churches, come to utter th$se truths in their 
full power, the "Northern censors" will rejoice to find their 
occupation gone. The vote of the last Southern General Confer- 
ence, making Dr. Haywood Bishop- elect, announces, with cheer- 
ing authority, that the bold speaker could no longer be ostra- 
cised, and the issue of this book from the Southern House declares 
that truth about slavery is in order with Southern Methodism. 
The logic of events, the logic of thought, and the logic of con- 
science will yet compel the utterance of still bolder conclusions 
in still firmer style. 

Many of the discourses of this volume are pastoral sermons, 
treating not of the public status, but of the inner truths of the 
Gospel. And these are quite equal in ability and quality to the 
best in the series. The same insight into realities, the same inde- 
pendence in rebuke, and the same sharp analysis of popular falla- 
cies, are displayed in the specially religious sphere. One of the best 
of the series was preached at Oxford " during the great revival." 
There may be more " eloquent " men ; but we suspect that the 
South has no abler preacher and no truer statesman than the author 

of this volume. 

> ■ 

Lectures and Addresses by Rev. Thomas Guard, D.D. With a Memorial Sermon by 
Rev. T. DeWitt Talmagb, D.D. Compiled by Will J. Guard. 12mo, pp. 3*70. 
New York: Phillips & Hunt Cincinnati: Walden & Stowe. 1883. $1 50. 

Dr. Thomas Guard was, like Summerfield and Maffit, a gift from 
Ireland to American Methodism. Of the peculiar style of elot 
quence of which they were eminent specimens Ireland is said to be 
the home ; though it may be said to be Celtic, for France abounds 
with much the same style ; and more broadly still it abundantly 
appears among the more fervid sons of our own South. "It 
comes not by much study," says Goethe ; it is a gift, or a result 
of a combination of qualities done up in the nature of the man* 
Good imitations of it may be wrought up by elaborate efforts, but 
seldom so completely as to pass for truly natural. When com- 
bined with powerful logic, or based on a solid substrate of good 
sense, it becomes true, legitimate, and powerful oratory. 

Mr. Guard was born in Galway, Ireland, in 1831, and died in 
Baltimore, 1882. A marked episode in his life was his mission 
in South Africa, the interest of which brought him on a visit to 
America. Here it became clear that the missionary field was not 
his true mission, As great and greater men are needed in that 

378 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

field; but Mr. Guard's peculiar gifts marked him out for a metro- 
politan preacher. His career was brilliant and ever broadening, 
but, alas! too brief. He ascended to the empyrean before the 
meridian of his fame was reached. 

There are in the volume fifteen public addresses, of somewhat 
varied excellence, but every one the product of an oratorical 
genius. They are preceded by a Memorial Sermon by Dr. Tai- 
mage, a man of kindred genius and greatness of soul. Perhaps 
the best of Guard's performances is that on the Sovereignty 
of Man, delivered in San Francisco at the opening of the 
Mechanics' Institute Fair, in 1879. We give one strain from 
this address on man's appropriation of nature's forces to his use: 

" From the marching season and the timely rains ; from the 
hidden wealth of mountains and from the wealth more real of 
the generous soil ; from the products of the forest and of the 
flock, of the field and of the far-resounding sea, man draws reve- 
nues and service. Lightning is his courier, and sunlight his art- 
ist. Trade-winds waft his white- winged argosies, and snows 
gather on Sierra crests to swell the floods wherewith his ample 
acres shall be irrigated. Flowers, by their weird alchemy, trans- 
mute dew and gases into aromatic odors for his delight ; and 
change sunbeams and dull clays into hues emerald, purple, and 
roseate, wherewith to greet his kindling glance, as he moves out 
to gaze upon dh inheritance, over which * far as the breeze can 
bear the billow's foam ' it one day shall be true, man's nod is em- 
pire, and his footfall law. Silkworms spin for him ; oysters se- 
crete pearls for him ; for him lime becomes marble, and carbon, 
diamonds ; rooks are turned into silver, and plants become coal. 
Rivers leap to light from lofty fountains in the hearts of hoary 
hills that, utilizing the law of gravitation, man may make them 
turn his ponderous wheels and whirl his myriad spindles. The 
wild fowl 'nurses' the plume that shall wave upon his victor 
helmet ; and the cotton and the flax plant offer the fibers of which 
to fashion the banners beneath whose folds he shall move forth to 
conquest, or repose unharmed amid the fruits of his free and hon- 
est industry. Force guards him— sows, reaps, threshes, and grinds 
for him, as in ages past it toiled in fashioning his dwelling-place. 
Art breathes inspiration. Music reveals her mystic laws to his 
modulating genius. The block becomes a thing of beauty. The 
canvas glows with the tints and flush of life. Arch and pillar, 
capital and dome, spring from earth and soar to heaven, obedient 
to his all but necromantic touch."— Pp. 296-297. 

1888.3 Quarterly Book -Table. 379 

BiMSotkeca Theological A Select and Classified Bibliography of Theology and 
General Religious Literature. By John F. Hubst, LL.D. 8vo, pp. xvi and 
417. New York: Phillips & Huat OiuciunaU: Walden & Stowe. ' 1883. 

Our indefatigable Bishop Hurst has found time, amid the pressure 
of other cares, to prepare and publish, under the above title, a most 
convenient and valuable theological index, adapted especially to 
meet the practical wants of the great body of English theological 
students and readers. Some professional scholars may wish that he 
had carried out the plan, which he indicates in his preface as the 
original scheme, formed years ago in Germany, of a more elabor- 
ate and comprehensive work covering the theological literature 
of other languages as well as the English. Such a work, how- 
ever, would have required many volumes, have been necessarily 
costly and beyond the reach and needs of multitudes who read 
English only, and who desire just such a select and classified 
bibliography of theological and general religious literature to 
guide them in their reading and studies. 

There is no end of making books, for each generation demands 
fresh treatment of all great and interesting subjects. Modern 
scholarship aims to appropriate the best literary productions of 
the past, and to go beyond therau Bibliography, therefore, is 
likely to become a recognized science. He who saves the time 
of a student, and enables him to expedite his researches, is a real 
benefactor. Allibone's " Dictionary of Authors " and Darling's 
" Cyclopaedia Bibliographioa " have been an invaluable aid to thou- 
sands, and other similar works of less magnitude have proven 
equally useful in their way. But every work of this kind needs 
revision and supplementing as the years come and go. 

The plan of the present work is at once simple and compre- 
hensive. It is not designed to be a complete or exhaustive cata- 
logue of English theological literature, but to furnish the titles 
of a select number of standard works in the several departments. 
The table of contents (pp. 9-16) gives us, first, in brief outline, 
the topics and arrangement of the whole book. Part I (pp. 1-34) 
is entitled Introduction, and contains a list of general works on 
the study of theology, bibliography, lexicography, cartography, 
and large collections like the Edinburgh Ante-Nicene Christian 
Library, the Biblical Cabinet, the Bampton Lectures, etc., with 
the authors and titles of each separate treatise. Part II 
(pp. 35-113) is devoted to JSxegetical Theology, embracing gram* 
matical and philological helps to the study of the biblical lan- 
guages, and an ample list of the best commentaries. This part also 

380 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

comprises under distinct heads all such subjects as biblical antiqui- 
ties, chronology, geography, inspiration, and prophecy. Part III 
(pp. 114-240) presents a list of the great works on Historical 
T/ieology, embracing not only the great writers on general 
Church history, but also those on special periods, sects, and 
denominations, missionary and other benevolent societies, histo- 
ries of doctrines and of ethnic religions. Part IV (pp. 241-rdOd) 
is equally full and comprehensive on the subject of Systematic 
Theology, and Part V (pp. 304-358) on Practical Theology. 
Fifteen pages of Addenda (pp. 361-375) furnish a further list of 
the most recent literature in the four leading departments 
previously treated. The whole is provided with full indexes of 
authors and of subjects. It is printed in large, handsome type, 
and will be welcomed by English and American students. 

Sermons on The Higher IAft, By Rev. Lewis R. Dukn, D.D., Author of "The 
Mission of the Spirit," " Holiness to the Lord," " The Angels of God," " Garden 
of Spices," etc. With an Introduction by Bishop 8impson. 12mo, pp. 385. 
Cincinnati: Walden ft Stowe. New York: Phillips A Hunt 1882. 

Mr. Dunn remarks that " there is no volume of sermons specific- 
ally upon ' The Higher Life ' in our literature, either in England 
or America ; " and the present publication is made to fill the 
blank; He furnishes twenty sermons, preached at divers times 
and places in the course of his ministry ; yet connected in the 
order of thought, and furnishing a certain symmetry and complete- 
ness of view. Though meeting objections by the wayside, and 
solving occasional difficulties, the whole series is rather construct- 
ive than controversial. The spirit is free, fresh, and animated ; 
the style pure, perspicuous, and flowing ; and the preacher ranges 
through the regions of modern literature and thought for living 
illustrations. The reader will find this one of the best exhibi- 
tions of this most vital subject in the range of our literature. 

The Marriage in Cam of Galilee. By Hugh Macmtluln, D.D., author of "Bible 
Teachings in Nature," etc. London: Macmillan ft Oo. 1882. 12 mo, pp. 262. 

This is a gem of singular beauty. Its treatment of miracle re- 
minds us of Trench, yet displaying, with an equal erudition, a 
richer power of Analogy, a finer imagination, and a more poetio 
grace of diction. The work of the publishers is apparently a 
task of love, for they have made the book " a gem in a rich set- 
ting." The transparent fluidity of style is rendered all the more 

1883.] Quarterly Booh -Table. 381 

conspicuous from the delicate paper, the perfect type, and the 
liberal spacing. It is a fine book for a bridal memorial. 

" There is no such thing, therefore, as' unfermented wine." — 
P. 163. Then a good many folks are in a bad box. The Meth- 
odist Episcopal General Conference has decreed, " Let none but 
the pure unfermented juice of the grape be used in administering 
the Lord's Supper ; " it has, therefore, excluded wine from the 
communion. The Church of Abyssinia, founded, perhaps, by 
the premier of Queen Candace, most tenacious of ancient usages 
among all the Churches, has ever prohibited the fermented article. 
Dr. Kerr, of London, exhibits to his audiences a whole catalogue 
of the unfermented article. Mr. Speer, of New Jersey, advertises 
far and wide an unfermented grape juice for sacramental and 
medicinal purposes, for the genuineness of which he challenges 
the severest scrutiny of science. Are not our alcoholic- wine breth- 
ren just a little fanatical ? 

— i » 

The Celestial Symbol Interpreted; or, The Natural Wonders and Spiritual Teachings 
of the Sun, as Revealed by the Triumphs of Modern Science. By Herbert W. 
Morris, D.D., Formerly Professor of Mathematics in Newington Collegiate Insti- 
tute, London ; Author of " Science and The Bible," " Present Conflict of Scieuce 
with the Christian Religion," and " Testimony of the Ages to the Truth of 
Scripture." Illustrated. 8 vo, pp. 704. Philadelphia : J. C. M'Curdy & Co. 1883. 


The central thought of this elaborate and unique volume is the 
resemblance between Christ and the sun. It is, therefore, a book 
by eminence of Analogies. Of these Analogies the main solar 
bases are Six ; namely, The Sun as Primary Globe — as Source of 
Light — as Fountain of Heat — as Source of Actinism — as Magnetio 
Center — as Center of Gravitation. These six generic bases of 
Analogy are founded, as copiously shown, in the truths of Sci- 
ence, which are adduced with much fullness and interest. The 
specific analogies under these six heads are traced with much 
ingenuity, there being under the third head no less than eighteen 
analogies fully unfolded. The engraved illustrations are so many 
that the book can be properly called a Pictorial. It is written in 
a full and forcible style, and furnishes both a good body of sci- 
ence and of excellent Theology. 

TKe Revival and after the Revival By J. H. Vincent. Square 18mo, pp. T4. 
New York : Phillips & Hunt. Price, 40 cents. 

This daintily gotten up little monograph from Dr. Vincent's 
busy and graceful pen is replete with timely hints and valuable 
suggestions on revival methods and on the treatment of con- 
Fourtii Series, Vol. XXXV.— 25 

382 Metkodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

verts saved during revival services. Dr. Vincent is thoroughly 
Methodistic in his sympathy with revivals, whether viewed as 
" times of refreshing" to the Church, or as seasons of extraordinary 
quickening among the unregenerate by the Holy Ghost ; but he 
would have our pastors prevent, as much as possible, the admix- 
ture of wild-fire with the pure flame kindled by the "power from 
on high." His thoughts on the training of converts after the re- 
vival are eminently judicious. His style is clean cut, terse, vig- 
orous, and suited to his topic. The book is well calculated to 
strengthen the faith of the Church in those spiritual revivals 
which are God's answers to the rationalistic spirit of the times. 

• ♦• 


Philosophy, Metaphysics, and General Science. 

The African in the United States. By Professor E. W. Gilliam. Popular Science 
Monthly for February, 1883. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

If arithmetic, as handled by Professor Gilliam, is to be trusted, 
the Southern States of our Union are destined to become, within 
a century, the Negro Belt of the American continent. They are 
literally to. become an Africa in America. The certainty of 
this dark streak of destiny arises from the superior prolificacy of 
the Negro race. Before the war our Southern brethren main- 
tained, against the abolitionists, that the Negroes, if emancipated, 
"could not take care of themselves." They would go to the 
wall, or rather to the ditch, and utterly perish. And after the 
war the extinction of the race was predicted. Dr. Keener, (now 
Bishop,) as editor of the New Orleans "Advocate," said, with brill- 
iant antithesis, " For others the alternative is ' liberty or death, 9 
for the Negro it is slavery or death" His only chance for his 
life was to come under the control of an overseer. But eyents 
have gradually shown that the Negro is a persistent entity, and 
none denies that he is a permanent and effective factor. And 
now Professor Gilliam, himself a Southerner, we believe, comes 
forth, census in hand, and shows us that the natural and perma- 
nent increase of the Negro is five per cent, greater than that of 
the Caucasian; that this superiority is based in physiological 
causes, and must result at no distant period in an immense ma- 
jority, within that section, of the colored race, with all the conse- 
quences of political supremacy which such a majority involves* 
His chronological horoscope is as follows: 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 383 

" Now mark the following: The white population, increasing at 
the rate of twenty per cent, in ten years, or two per cent, per 
annum, doubles itself every thirty-five years. The black, increas- 
ing at the rate of thirty-five per cent, in ten years, or three and a 
half per cent, per annum, doubles itself in twenty years. Hence 
we find: 

Whites in United States in 1880 (in round number*) 42,000,000 

44 u 1916 u ' u 84,000,000 

a " 1950 " a 168,000,000 

44 " 1985 " a 836,000,000 

Northern whites in 1880 :... 80,000,000 

44 " 1915 60,000,000 

44 M 1950 120,000,000 

44 M 1985 240,000,000 

Southern whites in 1880 12,000,000 

44 " 1915 24,000.000 

44 44 1950 48,000,000 

44 44 1985 96,000,000 

Blacks in Southern States in 1880 6,000,000 

44 " * 4 1900 12,000,000 

44 " M 1920 24,000,000 

44 a " 1940 48,000,000 

44 ** 44 1960 < 96,000,000 

u " M 1980 192,000,000 

"Our interest is in the progress of population in the Southern 
States, where the blacks almost altogether now are, and where 
they will continue to be massed more and more; and above stand 
the significant figures. These will be modified more or less by 
disturbing causes, the most prominent being immigration. But 
even should immigration ever take a pronounced Southern direc- 
tion, yet immigration must slacken, and before many years prac- 
tically cease, while the black growth must be perpetually aug- 
menting, perpetually advancing its volume ; and, every allowance 
being made, it is morally certain that in seventy or eighty years 
(as things now go) the blacks in every Southern State will over- 
whelmingly preponderate. — P. 437. 

He next demonstrates, as he assumes, that the Negroes are " an 
alien race " incapable of commixture with the native Caucasian ; 
though it seems that the Southern Caucasian finds it necessary 
to prohibit intermarriage between the two races, and appeal to 
the Supreme Court of the Union to ratify his enactments. And 
thence it follows that there must be a struggle between two hos- 
tile races. " The advancement of the blacks becomes a menace 
to the whites. No two free races, remaining distinctly apart, 
can advance side by side without a struggle for supremacy. The 
thing is impossible. The world has never witnessed it, and a 
priori grounds are all against it." — P. 440. 

384 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

If all this be true, the result is only a question of time. A 
probable war of races, a sure victory for the Negro, and an 
inevitable occupancy of the ground by the victor race. The 
Negro will draw the color line, and the white stratum will under- 
lie it. Such is the stupendous menace arising from the introduc- 
tion of the African slave into our system. Such the terrible 
retribution upon the maintainers of Southern slavery. Be it here 
remembered that South Carolina and Georgia refused to enter 
the American Union unless the slave trade should be continued 
until 1808. Wh&t an elephant did they take in hand! 

What remedy does the professor propose ? " Colonization w 1 
Draw off the surplus increase by a system of deportation. It 
does not occur to him to ask the Negro's consent. As the Negro 
was shipped hither without asking his leave, so ship him back 
again by the decisive arm. But as the Negro is an American 
citizen, it is not clear how he can be legally banished while 
guiltless of crime. Nor is it clear that the Negro will volun- 
tarily sail off to Africa to prevent his own coming ascendency in 
America. Professor Blyden, of Liberia, lately asked for only five 
hundred thousand American Negroes to build up his African 
republic, and the Negro editors of this country promptly told 
him they could not be spared, they were needed to fight the bat- 
tle of Negro equality here. How much more will they be im- 
movable after the professor has shown them that they may aim, 
not at equality merely, but ascendency. 

We do suppose, however, that with the Negro, as with other 
races, elevation means diminished prolificacy. This seems a gen- 
eral law both with different races of animals and different grades 
of men. (On this subject see our Quarterly for January, 1880, 
pp. 161-166.) The lowest races propagate by myriads, the higher 
by litters, and then by units. ^Esop's prolific rabbit taunted the 
lioness because she produced but one at a time. Her majesty 
replied, "One, but a lion I" Educate the Negro, and transfer 
his virility from his procreative to his intellective faculties. 
Round out his brain, and not only may his virility be less pro- 
ductive, but he may even grow wiser than Professor Gilliam now 
is, so that he may feel that a difference of facial complexion is no 
more a ground of hostility and war than a difference in the color 
of eyes. And, finally, the ultimate result might be that the 
Caucasian would gradually retreat northward, where climatic ob- 
structions stand in. the Negro's way, and leave a belt of nearly 
pure Afric-Americans., 

1883.] Quarterly Book-Table. 885 

Geometry and Faith. A Supplement to the Ninth Bridgewater Treatise. By 
Thomas Hill. Third Edition, greatly enlarged. 12mo, pp. 109. Boston: Lee 
& Shepard. New York: Charles T. Dillingham. 1882. 

Contributions to the theistic argument, of a most elevated and 
conclusive character, come upon. us unexpectedly from the ad- 
vances of scientific thought. A Harvard professor not long 
since furnished, under title of The Religion of Chemistry \ a vol- 
ume, lately noticed by us, in this department of thought, of emi- 
nent value. An ex-president of Harvard, in the present book, 
makes geometry tributary to faith in the divine existence. 
Arithmetic and the higher mathesU have heretofore been 
generally supposed to have no relation to theology. But Dr. 
Hill's volume, ranging through the higher walks of thought, dis- 
closes applications in nature of mathematical doctrine, which 
truly demonstrate the maxim of Plato, that " God geometrizes." 
The omnipotent Creator was an omniscient mathematician. The 
author has, in a book all too brief, furnished us a guide in read- 
ing these divine but occult truths in things all around us : a book 
quite worth, not only the perusal, but the study of our reflective 

So far as the logical sequences of mathematics are intrinsically 
necessary, they afford no theistic arguments ; but it is in bringing 
things under the control of mathematical law that will and design 
reveal themselves. Dr. Hill shows how wonderfully this imposi- 
tion of mathematical laws rules over the system of creation, and 
obliges us to recognize its obedience to the control of thought. 
Among the varied exhibitions of this designed subjection of 
nature to mathematical law (we have space for but one) are the 
phenomena of Phyllotaxis, or the position of leaves on a tree. 
The problem being, so to expose the leaves as to secure the best 
growth, science has found that they are ranged in a mathemat- 
ical order which secures the result ; the principle of which was 
not discovered by mortals until A. D. 1845. Now, three things 
are here to be noted : first, that a result was evidently aimed at, 
showing design ; second, deep mathematical principles were used, 
showing the profound intelligence from which the design issued ; 
third, the arbitrarily selecting and imposing upon the system of 
leaves this mathematical plan, evincing intelligent will. The ex- 
hibition of these three things through all nature evinces the unity 
of the designing Mind. But here comes a catch. The obedience 
of the phyllotaxis is not always exact. The law is often trans- 
gressed. Does not this refute the theistic argument? Quite the 
reverse. The mathesis is so uniform as to demonstrate that it 

386 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

was fully understood, yet so dispensed with as to show that it 
could have been rejected, and so was voluntarily adopted. And 
here opens a grand solution of the inexactnesses, the loosenesses, 
the evils in the world, all which, unquestionably, for some reason 
exist, but do not disprove that it is a Mind-governed world. 

• ♦ • 

History ^ Biography y amd Topography. 

l%e Beginnings of History according to (he Bible and (he Traditions of Oriental Peoples. 
From the Creation of Man to the Deluge. By Francois Lenormant, Professor 
of Archaeology at the National Library of France, etc., etc. Translated from the 
Second French Edition. With an Introduction by Francis Brown, Associate 
Professor In Biblical Philology, Union Theological Seminary. 12mo, pp. 658. 
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1882. Price, $2 50. 

By natural genius, and indeed by paternal inheritance, Lenormant 
is a great archaeologist. From his almost boyhood he has been 
nearly a prodigy in this sphere of research, and when the new 
A8syriology opened upon the world he gave himself to its studies 
with fervid enthusiasm and abundant results. This enthusiasm 
was intensified by the relations of Assyriology to Sacred Writ. 
For Lenormant is a devout Christian. Both in his " Manual of 
the Ancient History of the East " and in the present volume he 
professes his faith with a firm frankness which might well be 
emulated by Protestant scientists. He hesitates not to declare 
his earnest orthodox Christianity, but even his reverent obedience 
to the " center of unity," the Holy See. Throughout his volume 
he not only maintains the consistency of his explications with the 
most central Christian doctrine, but proposes his theory as a 
reconciliation and harmony of religion and archaeological science. 
His solution is to us new, and we believe original. How far 
satisfactory is another question. 

Our standard theologians, according to the light and knowledge 
they had, have heretofore proposed a very satisfactory solution 
of the relations between the biblical cosmogony and primeval 
history and the ethnic. So clear, consistent with nature and re- 
ligion, was the biblical narrative, and even in its supernatural- 
isms so natural, that, in comparison with the ethnic, it looked like 
veritable though miraculous history by the side of a perverted 
and caricaturing travesty, which by its resemblances confirmed 
the biblical truth, and by its variations exposed its own inauthen- 
ticity. This theory, we repeat was satisfactory in view of the 

18S3J Quarterly Book-TcMe. 387 

then existing archeology. But the question now comes up, How 
far is this view tenable in the light of the new revelations gradu- 
ally breaking upon us from the Orient ? And how far specially 
does Lenormant's view solve the problem ? 

The Assyrian and biblical narratives of the primeval ages are, 
according to Lenormant, alike legendary, spontaneous fictions, 
often springing up in the popular mind. And the great differ- 
ence between the two is that in the latter a divine inspiration has 
re-shaped the legend, breathed into it a divine monotheism, made 
it the vehicle of religious truth and, ultimately, of a holy theology 
and an infallible Christianity. The mass of legends in the hands 
of the inspired Hebrew becomes a sacred parable ; it is not, at 
least necessarily, historic truth ; but it is the costume in which 
spiritual truth enrobes itself. Thus, he tells us : 

That which we read in the first chapters of Genesis is not an account dictated 
by God himself, the possession of which was the exclusive privilege of the chosen 
people. It is a tradition whose origin is lost in the night of the remotest ages, 
and which all the great nations of western Asia possessed in common, with some 
variations. The very form given it in the Bible is so closely related to that which 
has been lately discovered in Babylonia and Chaldea, it follows so exactly the same 
course, that it m quite impossible for me to doubt any longer that it has the same 
origin. The family of Abraham carried this tradition with it in the migration 
which brought it from Ur of the Ohaldees into Palestine; and even then it was 
doubtless already fixed, either in a written or an oral form; for beneath the ex- 
pressions of the Hebrew text, in more than one place, there appear certain things 
which can be explained only as expressions peculiar to the Assyrian language, as, 
for instance, the play of words in Gen. xi, 4, which clearly has its source in the 
analogy of the words zikru, " remembrance, name," and zikurat, " tower, pyramid 
with stories," in the last-named idiom. The biblical writers, in recording this 
tradition in the beginning of their books, created a genuine archaeology in the 
sense attached to the word by the Greeks. — P. 15. 

His theory of inspiration is thus stated : 

But, if this is so, I shall perhaps be asked, Where then do you find the divine 
inspiration of the writers who made this archceoiogy — that supernatural help by 
which, as a Christian, you must believe them to have 'been guided? Where? In 
the absolutely new spirit which animates their narration, even though the form of 
it may have remained in almost every respect the same as among the neighboring 
nations. It is the same narrative, and in it the same episodes succeed one an- 
other in like manner ; and yet one would be blind not to perceive that the signifi- 
cation has become altogether different The exuberant polytheism which en- 
cumbers these stories among the Chaldeans has been carefully eliminated, to give 
place to the severest monotheism. What formerly expressed naturalistic concep- 
tions of a singular grossness here becomes the garb of moral truths of the most 
exalted and most purely spiritual order. The essential features of the form of the 
tradition have been preserved ; and yet, between the Bible and the sacred books 
of Chaldea there is all' the distance of one of the most tremendous revolutions 
which have ever been effected in human beliefs. Herein consists the miracle, and 
it is none the less amazing for being transposed. Others may seek to explain this 
by the simple natural progress of the conscience of humanity ; for myself, I do 
not hesitate to find in it the effect of a supernatural intervention of Divine Provi- 
dence, and I bow before the God who inspired the Law and the Prophets. — 
P. 16. 

388. Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

The following passage, however, seems to admit a historic 
starting-point of the so-called legends, (attesting also the ortho- ' 
doxy of the author,) and suggests the non-necessity of denying a 
factual origin and a genuine truth in any of the biblical narra- 
tions derived through Abraham from the primeval account, and 
compiled by Moses. 

The first chapters of Genesis are nothing more than a collection of the ancient 
Hebrew traditions of the beginnings of things; traditions which they held in com- 
mon with the nations by whom they were surrounded, and in a very special way 
with the Chaldeo-Babylonians. This compilation was made by inspired writers, 
who found means, while collating the old narratives, to make them the figurative 
garb of eternal truths, such as the creation of the world by a personal Gtod ; the 
descent of mankind from a single pair; their fall in consequence of the guilt of 
the first parents, which put them under the dominion of sin ; the free-will character 
of the first sin, and of those which followed in its train. — P. 337. 

But his most distinct acknowledgment of historical fact is 
made in regard to the deluge, as follows : 

The account of the deluge is an universal tradition in all branches of the human 
family, with the solo exception of the black race. And a tradition every-where so 
exact and so concordant cannot possibly be referred to an imaginary myth. No 
religious or cosmogonic myth possesses this character of universality. It must 
necessarily be the reminiscence of an actual and terrible event, which made so 
powerful an impression upon the imagination of the first parents of our species 
that their descendHuts could never forget it. This cataclysm took place near the 
primitive cradle of mankind, and previous to the separation of the families from 
whom the principal races were to descend. — P. 487. 

And again : 

Henceforth, however, we need not hesitate to state that the biblical deluge, far 
from beintf a myth, was an actual and historic fact, which overwhelmed, at the 
very least, the ancestors of the races of Aryans, or Indo- Europeans ; Semites, or 
Syro- Arabians; and Klnmites, or Knshites; in other words, the three great civil- 
ized races of the ancient world, who constitute the really superior type of mankind, 
before the ancestors of these three races were as yet separated, and which oc- 
curred in that Asiatic country which they inhabited cor jointly. — P. 488. 

The test, then, of original historicity is tlve universality of the 
tradition. Of these traditions Lenormant examines several in 
successive chapters ; as, the Creation of Man, the First Sin, the 
Genealogies of the Patriarchs, etc. To our own view he has not 
satisfactorily refuted the old view of Faber iri his "HoraMosaicae," 
and others ; namely, that the Bible presents the historic fact of 
which the ethnics give only semi-fabulous variations. And this 
seems specially true of the great facts with which the New Testa- 
ment is concerned. We note a specimen or two. 

Most important in this relation is the chapter on The First 
Sin. And this chapter opens with the acknowledgment : " The 
idea of the Edenic happiness of the first human beings consti- 
tutes one of the universal traditions." The primeval super- 

1883.] Quarterly Booh -Table. 389 

natural instauration of the humari race, then, is a literal reality. 
Evolutionism when it denies this is contradicted by the historic 
fact. There was a first man, and Lenormant says his original name 
was Adiuru, of which Adam may seem to be a modification, so 
constructed as to make it a genuine and significant Hebrew word. 
And archaeology plentifully presents before us the Edenic circum- 
stantials: the garden, the sacred tree, the serpent, and the loss of 
all. We have, then, historically true, fringed or not with sym- 
bol, an Adam, an Eden with its tree, its serpent, and its catastro- 
phe. ■ All this exists in history, geography, and genealogy ; and 
we submit that it amply sustains Paul's parallelisms between the 
equally real first and second Adam. Rom. v, and elsewhere. 
We hold that Faber is here fully sustained by the expatiations of 

A chapter on the Kerubim and revolving sword of Gen. iii, 24, 
covers the subject with rich erudition. He seems to identify the 
Kerubim materialistically with the winged bulls of Babylon. % 
Why not suppose they were the angelic forces of which the 
winged bulls were the Babylonic symbol — bull, as emblem of 
power ; winged, as emblem of divine swiftness. On the l?atri- 
archal Genealogies Lenormant gives strong reason, as intimated 
in our last Quarterly, for believing that they are abridgments, 
artificially adjusted to the number ten as those in Matthew are 
to the number fourteen. Nay, it seems undeniable that the de- 
tailed numbers, fixing the age of each patriarch at the birth of 
his son, is an artificial addition by some pre- Mosaic translator of 
the ante-Hebraic documents. Moses gave the genealogies as he 
found them ; just as Wesley says that Luke did. This does not 
invalidate the historicity of the pedigree itself, as indicating the 
Adamic-Messianic line. But further, Lenormant shows plausibly 
some remarkable correspondences between the Cainite and Seth- 
ite pedigrees of Genesis. As the Sethite pedigree gives ten 
names before the flood, branching into three sons after the 
flood, (Shem, Ham, and Japhet,) so the Cainite pedigree gives 
us seven names branching into three sons, equaling ten, all be- 
fore the flood. Names in the two lines curiously correspond. 
Several couples are nearly the same name, varied so as to give 
a bad meaning to the Cainite name, and a good meaning to its 
Sethite correlative. By these facts Lenormant is convinced that 
the historicity of at least the Cainite line is invalidated. But 
why so ? The original names, especially of the Cainite line, were 
not Hebrew, and the fact that the Hebrew copy of the pedigree 

390 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

somewhat manipulates the forms of the names does not invali- 
date the reality of the persons. The name of Babylon, JBab-il, 
Gate of God, was Hebraically manipulated into Babel, confusion ; 
and Adiuru, according to Lenormant, was manipulated into 
Adam, red earth ; as later Shechem became Syehar (John iv, 5 ;) 
but these modifications affected not the reality of the objects 
named. The stupendous length of antediluvian life, SB given by 
the ethnic writers, is shown by him very conclusively to have an 
astronomical significance ; but he fails in trying the same exploit 
with the biblical chronologies. His strenuous attempt to make a 
solar myth of Enoch is dismal. We venture, therefore, still to 
think, that though greatly modified, the earliest human pedigrees 
are really presented to us in Genesis and Luke. 

The Mendelssohn Family, (1729-1 847.) From Letters and Journals. By Sebastian 
Henseu With eight portraits from drawings by William HenseL Second re- 
vised edition. Translated by Karl Klingemakn and au American collaborator, 
with a notice by George Grove, Esq., D.C.L. In two volumes. New York: 
Harper & Brothers. 1882. 

The finest example of epistolary biography in existence is un- 
doubtedly this of the Mendelssohns, by Sebastian Hensel, a 
member of that celebrated family. The work before us is 
translated from the second German edition by Karl Klingemann, 
in conjunction with an American collaborator. A translation of 
the first German edition was made by Lady Wallace, and 
published in England, in 1862. The second edition is extensively 
revised by the author, and brought down till after the death of 
Felix, the most distinguished member of this remarkable family. 
By the epistolary plan of biography the reader receives an orig- 
inal impression of the qualities of the characters delineated. 
Letters intended for the eyes of only the members of the fam- 
ily are laid before the reader in all their freshness and un- 
restrained simplicity of style. We thus see the persons them- 
selves, not the portraiture of them as conceived and presented by 
a biographer. Indeed, the reader becomes the biographer. 
Naturally many matters of a purely personal or family nature 
are omitted, as being inappropriate for the public eye. 

The Mendelssohn family is one of the most remarkable in Ger- 
many. Its importance reaches back, however, only four genera- 
tions ; its influential progenitor being Moses Mendelssohn, who 
was born in 1729. He was a poor Jewish lad in Dessau. At the 
age of fourteen he entered Berlin by the Rosenthal gate, the only 

1883 J QuaHerly Book-TaMe. 391 


one through which at that time foreign Jews were permitted to 

pass that great capital Toung Mendelssohn was seized with an 
intense desire for knowledge. His poverty was not so great 
an obstacle as the intense hatred then existing between Chris- 
tians and Jews. The intolerance of the Jewish elders and rabbis 
was as intense ap the opposition of the Christians. He was com- 
pelled to keep his studies secret to avoid being expelled from 
Berlin by his own brethren. Long afterward, when he was at 
the height of his glory, they anathematized him. Now the 
Jews of Germany look back with the highest respect to his work 
of emancipating his people from the oppressions of the Chris- 
tians and the equally great oppression of their own rabbis, and 
call him their "second Moses." The first great stride which 
Moses Mendelssohn made was to learn the German language, 
then a perilous undertaking for a Jew. Without following the 
details of the life and work of this founder of the great Mendels- 
sohn family, suffice it to say that he rose to the very highest rank 
as a writer upon history, literature, and philosophy. He came 
into the most intimate personal relations with all leading writers 
of Germany of his age ; such as Nicolai, Herder, Kant, Jacobi, 
Campe, Michaelis, Lavater, and especially with Lessing. Les- 
sing's famous drama, " Nathan the Wise," owes its origin to 
Lavater's attempt to convert Moses Mendelssohn from Judaism 
to Christianity. Most of the characters were taken from 
Mendelssohn's household. The noble, judicious, mild, and tran- 
quil " Nathan " is none other than Moses Mendelssohn. Many 
of the philosophical ideas made famous in their development by 
Lessing were first expressed by Mendelssohn. In 1768 Mendels- 
sohn carried off the academical prize with his " Essay on Evi- 
dence," for which the great Kant also competed. Subsequently 
Kant passed him a long way in his " Criticism of Pure Reason." 
The two men continued in lasting friendly intercourse, and Kant 
was a thorough admirer of the delicacy of perception, fine style, 
and fearless zeal for religious freedom, of his former rival 
Mendelssohn was short, and badly deformed; he had a hump 
upon his back, and he stammered ; but his clever, intellectual 
head, of which Lavater has given so lively a description, made up 
for all, as is often the case with deformed persons. Mendels- 
sohn's house was frequented by nearly all distinguished stran- 
gers who visited Berlin in four consecutive generations, beginning 
with its founder. 
Moses Mendelssohn left three sons, Joseph, Abraham, and 

392 Methodist Quarterly Heview. [April, 

Nathan, and three daughters. The most distinguished of the 
daughters, Dorothea, married a banker named Veit One of 
their sons was the celebrated painter, Philipp Veit, Dorothea 
was, later, separated from her husband, and married the philoso- 
pher, Frederick Schlegel. She soon turned Christian, in name 
and in religious profession, thus beginning the series of conver- 
sions (or transferences) from Judaism to Protestant or Catholic 
Christianity which later became so frequent in the descendants 
of the Mendelssohn family. Madame de Stafil, Constant, Varnha- 
gen, Spontini, Humboldt, and other persons distinguished in art, 
science, and letters, frequented the Schlegel household in Paris. 

Abraham Mendelssohn, the second son of Moses, was eminent 
in his way, but eclipsed by his son, Felix. He himself ex- 
presses this by the modest humorous words : "Formerly I 
was the son of my father ; now I am the father of my son." 
Abraham was nevertheless a very marked character. He oc- 
cupied a middle ground between the firm adherence to Juda- 
ism of Moses and the sincere Christian faith of Felix and his 
accomplished sister, Fanny : between the philosophic type of his 
father and the esthetic culture of his children. He was an ac- 
complished art critic, and of broad and many-sided culture. He 
became a prosperous banker at Hamburg, and by his large for- 
tune was able to gratify his refined taste and educate his chil- 
dren in accordance with his views. He had his children brought 
up in the Christian faith, secretly at first, so as not to offend 
their grandmother. One day, when Fanny had played exquisitely 
before her grandmother, the good lady asked her what present 
she wished as a reward. The girl fell at her feet, and with tears 
begged her to forgive her brother, Felix, for having become a 
Christian. Thus a lasting reconciliation was effected. Abraham 
called the famous musician, Zeller, to his house as tutor to Felix 
and Fanny. He also called Heyse, the distinguished philol- 
ogist, to be their tutor in language. Abraham added the name 
of his wife's family, Bartholdy, to his own, and thus originated 
the double name of Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, by which the son 
Felix is known to the world. 

One sister, Fanny, married William Hensel, an artist of much 
merit, the founder of the Prussian Academy of Archaeology in 
Rome, and the father of the author of this epistolary biography 
of the Mendelssohn family. Her musical ability was remarkable, 
both in execution and in composition. She composed a wedding- 
march for the organ, which was played at her marriage. Her 

1883.] Quarterly Book -Table. 393 

husband, William Hensel, made portraits of a vast number of 
distinguished people who visited the Mendelssohn home. Among 
these we find the musicians, Carl yon Weber, Paganini, 
Gounod, Liszt, Schumann ; among painters, Cornelius, Ingres, 
Vemet, Magnus, Kaulbach ; among men of letters, Kdrner, 
Brentano, Goethe, Heyne, Tieck, Hegel, Bunsen, Lepsius, Grimm, 
Ranke, Boeckh ; the sculptors, Thorwaldsen, Rauch, Kiss ; and 
the architect, Schinkel. Probably no other private house con- 
tains an equal collection of portraits of so distinguished people 
made within its own walls. Hensel got a deep inspiration from 
the frescoes by Veit, Schadow, and Cornelius, which were the 
first monuments of the reviving art of this century, painted by 
the commission of Abraham Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, in the Bar- 
tholdy palace at Rome while he was Prussian consul-general at 
Rome? The second daughter of Abraham, Rebecca, married the 
famous mathematician, Dirichlet. 

But it is to Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, the eldest son of 
Abraham, that this family is indebted for the chief portion of its 
world-wide fame, and these volumes of epistolary biography for 
their greatest interest. In the many letters of this great musi- 
cian which abound in these two volumes, we get a clear insight 
into the life and character of this man of whom his family and 
Germany are so justly proud. He is the crowning glory of the 
Mendelssohns. It is doubtful if any of the descendants will 
eclipse the brilliancy of his genius. It is more doubtful still if 
any of them will surpass the genial nature, the brilliant wit, the 
loving affection, for which Felix was so distinguished, and which 
shine so transparently through his letters. Felix was an ac- 
complished draughtsman, and often yearned to devote his life to 
painting. But music gained a mastery over his spirit, and to 
this noble art he devoted the labor of his life with such consum- 
mate skill, zeal, love, and success. Though more than half of 
these two volumes is devoted to the letters of Felix and of his 
sister, Fanny, we will not here trace the career of Mendelssohn 
in itd unbroken line of honorable and honored successes. In the 
ninth year of his age he appeared with distinction in a public 
concert in Berlin ; in the following year in a similar concert in 
.Paris. From this period he commenced his long series of compo- 
sitions of every kind ; some of them of a very elaborate and 
difficult character, and all of them classic in the highest degree. 
His letters admit us to an insight into his mode of composition. 
He caught the spirit of nature, whether it be a simple flower or 

394 Methodist Qua/i % terly Review. [April, 

the Isles of Fingal, and thus found themes for many of his most 
beautiful pieces. At times be draws upon tbe margin of tbe 
music the flower or tbe scene which is the theme of the work. 

But after perusing these volumes the reader lays them down with 
an even greater admiration for Felix as a man than as a musician. 
As a book of travels they are full of fine descriptions, pleasant 
incidents, and of portrayal of contemporary history. With 
kindly family feeling, genial wit, and sparkling vivacity the let- 
ters abound on every page. 

A Gtstory of Latin Literature, from Enrdus to Boethius. By Geobgb Augustus 
Smoox M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. 2 vol&, 12mo. T pp. 468, 481. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 1883. 

In his preface Mr. Simcox very forcibly presents the difficulties 
of his subject, arising from the paucity of the remains of Latin 
literature and the great gaps between the different portions of 
these remains. Almost all the work of the great law writers, for 
instance, of the second and third centuries of Rome, is lost ; the 
laws of the republic have perished from the twelve tables down- 
ward. One cannot write the history of Roman schools and school- 
masters from the Decemvirs downward to Cassiodorus ; but per- 
haps this is not to be regretted. For this part of the history we are 
largely dependent upon curt notes on the grammarians made by 
lazy copyists. What was before Ennras ? Did Horace plagiarize 
Laberius ? What was Augustan oratory like ? Can we do justice 
to Cicero or Caesar while we are so dependent upon their own works 
for political knowledge ? How can we measure the unconscious 
hypocrisy of Livy while we can only guess at what he does not 
choose to tell us ? One ideal of the history of a literature is a his- 
tory of the people among whom it is produced; but it is doubtful, 
we suggest, whether literature ever attains to that representative 
character. It is necessarily more or less removed from the life 
of a people as soon as it attains self -consciousness, and vernacular 
literatures are both rare and fragmentary. The literary man of 
any age is apt to climb to the roof of his world to look off upon 
distant worlds; if he surveys his own world it is from some small 
orifice in the roof, and not through sympathetic relations with his. 
age and its people. Even the ballads are apt to be songs taught 
to a people rather than the offspring of their life. That the people 
like them is an indication of the people's character; but Macaulay's 
" Lays of Rome " may give us that amount of knowledge, though 

1883.1 Quarterly Booh - Table. 395 • 

they may represent no creative popular feeling either in London 
or Borne. If a cobbler living in the last forty years B. C. had 
written a diary of his life, conversations, and thoughts — going 
fully into the details of all, and using his vernacular Roman 
tongue — it would be worth more than all our classic Latin as 
a mirror of his times. A hundred pages of the common Roman 
speech might tell us where the Italian language came from. 
When, in Apuleius, we find de used almost in its French sense, and 
tile doing the work of an article in Quintilian, we remember that 
Cicero had to get rid of a habit of dropping the final « of some 
words, and we study the fragments of Floras and other writers 
who made excursions into grammar with a hope of leamiug the 
sources of Italian speech; but this hope is never rewarded. 
Roman literature never had a proper vernacular character. It 
began under a Greek inspiration, and was always drawing from 
Greek fountains; the rare exceptions to the rule do not give us 
a popular, but a class, literature. Father Ennius was not even 
a Latin, but Oscan and Greek. Hie Latin tragedy was at first 
little more than a translation of Greek ; Plautus was an Umbrian, 
a sort of Irishman in London, who came to Rome to work for 
hire in a mill ; but even he only worked over the " New Comedy'* 
of Athens into such shapes as might please the Roman populace. 

Much more might be said of the non-representative character 
of the Latin literature which Mr. Simcox reviews through the 
eight centuries of its history. His work reminds us that our col- 
lege study gives Us a very imperfect view of this long and mighty 

We are apt to forget the large spaces between different groups 
of Latin writers. This is partly because the best known classical 
writers belong to two periods, the one immediately successive to 
the other. But when we take up Plautus and Terence we cannot 
afford to forget that the first died B. C. 184, and the second B. C. 
159, and represented the best days of the republic. From the death 
of Terence to the composition of the earliest oration of Cicero 
which has come down to us nearly a century elapsed, and during 
that century the republic reached the height of its power, and 
matured the harvests of moral and political disorder which were 
soon to ruin it. That entire century produced no great literary 
fame, unless Lucretius is counted worthy of such honor. Tak- 
ing up the eight writers usually read in colleges — Cicero, Caesar, 
Sallust, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Livy, and Tacitus — we see that 
seven of them represent collectively but little more than a half 

396 Methodist Quarterly Review. [April, 

century. From Caesar's violent end to the death of Livy there 
are only sixty-two years, and this short space may be considered 
about as long as the literary activity (of all these classical authors) 
which is represented in their extant works. In Tacitus we dip 
into literature a century nearer to us than that of Livy, and here 
the student usually ends the Latin course of study. 

Mr. Simcox, following the usage which makes a literary epoch- 
mark of the death of Julius Caesar, treats Cicero, Caesar, and Sal- 
lust as literary men of the last age of the republic, and assigns 
Horace, Virgil, Ovid, and Livy to the Augustan Age. But it 
may be doubted whether this division has much literary value. 
At all events, there seems to be a serious defect in a system of 
Latin study which confines the student chiefly to sixty years of 
the eight centuries through which the literature of the